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TRANSACTIONS 



OF THE 



ROYAL SOCIETY OF EDINBURGH 



fi. *>. o. 37. 



TRANSACTIONS 



OF THK 



ROYAL SOCIETY 



OF 



EDINBURGH. 



VOL. XXXVI. 



EDINBURGH: 

PUBLISHED BY ROBERT GRANT & SON, 107 PEINCES STREET, 
AND WILLIAMS & NORGATE, 14 HENRIETTA STREET, COVENT GARDEN, LONDON. 



MDCCCXCII. 



,,., i March 9, 1891. 

Part I. published . • • Jxa ' 

TT Novemher 10, 1 

Part 11. » 

_ , T1 . . May 10, 1892. 

Part 111. » • 



CONTENTS. 



PART I. (1889-90.) 

XL'MBKU J'AGK 

I. Observations upon the Structure of a Genus of Oligochceta belonging to 
the Limicoline Section. By Frank E. Beddaed, M.A., F.R.S.E., 
Prosector, and Davis Lecturer to the Zoological Society of London. 
(With a Plate), ....... 1 

II. On the Transformation of Laplace s Coefficients. By Dr Gustave Plaer, 19 

III. Phases of the Lining Greek Language. By Emeritus Professor Blackie, 45 

IV. Adamant ios Koraes, and his Reformation of the Greet: Language. By 

Emeritus Professor Blackie, ...... 57 

V. On the Fossil Flora of the Staffordshire Coal Fields. By R Kidston, 

F.R.S.E., F.G.S. (With a Plate), . . . . .6:3 

VI. The Solar Spectrum at Medium and Low Altitudes. Observations of the 
Region between Wave-Lengths 0024 and 4861 A.U., made at Lord 
Crawford's Observatory, Dun Echt, during the Years 1887 to 1889. 
By Ludwig Becker, Ph.D., Temporary Second Assistant-Astro 
nomer, Royal Observatory, Edinburgh. (With Ten Plates), . 99 

VII. Electrolytic Synthesis of Dibasic Acids. By Professor Alexander Crum 

Brown and Dr James Walker, . . . . .211 

VIII. On Impact. By Professor Tait. (With a Plate), . 225 



vi CONTENTS. 



TAUT II. (1890-91.) 

KDHBBB PAGE 

TX. Alternate ± Knots of Order Eleven. By Professor C. N. Little. 

(With Two Plates), ...... 253 

X. On the Foundations of the Kinetic Theory of Gases. IV. By Prof. 

Tait, ........ 257 

XI. Anatomical Description of Two New Genera of Aquatic Oligochwta. 
By Frank E. Beddard, M.A. (Oxon.), F.Z.S., Prosector of the 
Zoological Society of London, and Lecturer on Biology at Guy's 
Hospital. (With Three Plates), . . . . 27 'i 

XII. Professor KellanoVs Problem on Superposition. By Robert Brodie. 

(With Two Plates), ....... 307 

XIII. On the Solid and Liquid Particles in Clouds. By John Aitken, Esq., 813 

XIV. On the Relation of Nerves to Odontoblasts, and on the Growth of Den- 

tine. By W. G. Aitchison Robertson, M.D., B.Sc. (With a 
Plate), . . . . . . . .321 

XV. The Development of the Carapace of the Chelonia. By John Berry 

Haycraft, M.D., D.Sc, F.R.S.E. (With a Plate), . . 335 

XVI. Strophantus hispidus : its Natural History, Chemistry, and Pharmaco- 
logy. By Thomas R. Fbaser, M.D., F.R.S., F.R.S.E., F.R.C.P.E., 
Professor of Materia Medica in the University of Edinburgh. 
Part II.— Pharmacology. (Plates VIII. -XXIII.), . . 343 

XVII. On the Composition of Oceanic and Littoral Manganese Nodules. By 

J. Y. Buchanan, Esq., F.R.S. (With Map and Plate), . . 459 

XVIII. On sum i' Relations between Magnetism and Twist in Iron and Nickel 
{and Cobalt). Parts II. and III. By Cargill G. Knott, D.Sc. 
(Edin.), F.R.S.E., Professor of Physics, Imperial University, Tokyo, 
Japan. (With Five Plates), . 485 

XIX. Thr Winds of lieu Nevis. By R. T. Omond and Angus Rankin, . 537 



CONTENTS. vii 

NUMBER JMGK 

XX. A Demonstration of Lagrange s Rule for the Solution of a Linear 
Partial Differential Equation, with some Historical Remarks on 
Defective Demonstrations hitherto Current. By G. Chrystal, Pro- 
fessor of Mathematics, University of Edinburgh, . . . 551 

XXI. On the Anatomy of Ocneroclrilus (Eisen). By Frank E. Beddard, 
M.A., Prosector of the Zoological Society of London, Lecturer on 
Biology at Guy's Hospital. (With a Plate), . . . 563 



PART III. (1890-91.) 

XXII. The Maltese Fossil Echinoidea, and their Evidence on the Correlation 
of the Maltese Rocks. By J. W. Gregory, B.Sc, F.G.S., F.Z.S., 
of the British Museum (Nat. Hist.). Communicated by John 
Murray, LL.D. (With Two Plates), .... 585 

XXIII. The Clyde Sea Area, By Hugh Robert Mill, D.Sc, F.R.S.E. 

(With Twelve Plates and Maps), . . . . .641 



Appendix— 

The Council of the Society, ...... 734 

Alphabetical List of the Ordinary Fellows, . . . 735 

List of Honorary Fellows, ...... 750 

List of Honorary Felloivs Elected during Session 1889-90, . . 752 

List of Fellows Deceased, Resigned, or Cancelled during Session 1889-90, 753 

List of Ordinary Fellows Elected daring Session 1890-91, . . 754 

List of Honorary Fellows Deceased, Resigned, or Cancelled during 

1890-91, ........ 755 

Laws of the Society, ....... 757 



viii CONTENTS. 

Appendix — continued. 

The Keith, Makdougall-Brisbane, Neil I, and Gunning Victoria Jubilee 

Prize*, ........ 7«4 

Award? of the Keith, Makdougall-Brisbane, Neill, and Gunning Victoria 

Jubilee Prize? from 1827 to 1890, .... 7«7 

Proceedings of the Statutory General Meetings, 25th November 1889 and 

-l\th November 1890, . ; . . . .771 

List of Public Institutions and Individuals entitled to receive Copies of the 

Transactions and Proceedings of the Royal Society, . . 777 

Index, ......... 783 



9 UN v: 






TRANSACTIONS 



OF THE 



EOYAL SOCIETY OF EDINBUEGH. 



VOL. XXXVI. PART I.— (Nos. 1 to 8)— FOR THE SESSION 1889-90. 




CONTENTS. 



Nd. I. Observations upon the Structure of a Genus of Oligochceta belonging to the Limicoline 
Section. By Frank E. Beddard, M.A., F.R.S.E., Prosector, and Davis Lecturer 
to the Zoological Society of London. (With a Plate), .... 1 

11. On the Transformation of Laplace's Coefficients. By Dr Uustave Plarr, . . 19 

III. Phases of the Living Greek Language. By Emeritus Professor Blackie, . . 45 

IV. Adamantios Koraes, and his Reformation of the Greek Language. By Emeritus 

Professor Blackie, . . . . . . . .57 

V. On the Fossil Flora of the Staffordshire Coal Field*. By B. Kidston, F.R.S.E., F.G.S. 

(With a Plate), ......... 63 

VI. The Solar Spectrum at Medium and, Low Altitudes. Observations of the Region between 

o 

Wave-Lengths 6024 and 4861 A.U., made at Lord Crawford's Observatory, Dun Edit, 
during the Years 1887 to 1889. By Ludwig Becker, Ph.D., Temporary Second 
Assistant- Astronomer, Boyal Observatory, Edinburgh, .... 99 

VII. Electrolytic Synthesis of Dibasic Acids. By Professor Alexander Crum Brown and 

Dr James Walker, . . . . . . .211 

VIII. On Impact. By Professor Tait. (With a Plate), ..... 225 



EDINBURGH : 

PUBLISHED BY ROBERT GRANT & SON, 107 PRINCES STREET, 
AND WILLIAMS & NORGATE, 14 HENRIETTA STREET, COVENT GARDEN, LONDON. 



MDCCCXCI. 



(Issued March 9, 1891.) 



TRANSACTIONS. 



I. — Observations upon the Structure of a Genus of Oligochceta belonging to the Limicoline 
Section. By Frank E. Beddard, M.A., F.R.S.E., Prosector, and Davis Lecturer 
to the Zoological Society of London. (With a Plate. ) 

(Read 16th December 1889.) 

Some time since I published in the Transactions of this Society a paper upon 
Phreoryctes ; the present paper is the second of what I hope will be a series of memoirs 
upon the structure of the Oligochseta Limicolse ; this will be a parallel series to that upon 
the Oligochseta Terricolae, which is being published by me in the Quarterly Journal of 
Microscopical Science* As I took pains in my paper upon Phreoryctes to point out, in 
accordance with views previously expressed by myself and by others, that it is impossible 
to draw a hard and fast line between those two groups of Claparede, it may seem rather 
illogical to retain this classification — if only in the title of a paper ; I do so simply as a 
matter of convenience, and without in the least desiring to revive these old divisions of 
the Oligochseta ; indeed the genus Moniligaster, which is treated of in the present com- 
munication, is by most naturalists regarded as an earthworm ; in many points it does 
undoubtedly agree with certain terricolous genera ; but as its affinities, into the discussion 
of which I shall enter later, seem to me to be more with the Lumbriculidse, I put it into 
the Limicoline series ; it is useful to have a name corresponding to " earthworm " for 
those Oligochseta which are not earthworms, and are for the most part aquatic, and I 
therefore use that term. 

The material upon which this paper is based I owe to the kindness of Mr H. E. 
Barwell, who collected the specimens in Luzon ; some were better, others not so well 
preserved. 

I. Historical. 

The genus was first recorded by Perrier [10] in a paper published in 1872 ; in 
this he gave a tolerably full description of the anatomy of Moniligaster Deshayesi ; he 

* See vols, xxviii., xxix., xxx. 
VOL. XXXVI. PART I. (NO. 1). A 



•2 MR FRANK E. BEDDARD ON THE 

regarded this worm with a certain amount of doubt as forming the type of a group 
( Aclitellians), equivalent to each of the other groups Postclitellians, Anteclitellians, &c. ; 
the distinguishing feature of this group was the complete absence of a clitellum. 

The next paper upon the subject is by myself [1] ; it contains some notes upon a 
species of Moniligaster, which I regarded, owing to the great discrepancies between my 
observations and those of Perrier, as belonging to a new species termed M. Barwelli; 
the facts put forward in this paper and illustrated by a few figures, mainly concerned 
the anatomy of the reproductive organs. Subsequently Dr Horst [8] described a third 
species, M. Houteni, adding facts of importance to the descriptions of both Perrier and 
myself, and supporting my interpretation of Perrier's account of the reproductive 
apparatus. Dr Horst's paper was wider in its scope than my own, and dealt with the 
anatomy of the viscera in general as well as of the reproductive system. A short note 
[2] by myself emphasised the differences in the reproductive system between Moniligaster 
and all other earthworms, and its resemblance in this respect to some of the lower 
Oligochseta. 

This was repeated with additions in a later paper [4], the genus being still retained 
among the earthworms, though regarded as forming a special group with strong affinities 
to some of the "Limicolse." 

Dr Rosa [14], in a paper upon the classification of the " Terricohe," came to the con- 
clusion that Moniligaster was distinctively an earthworm (Rosa regards the Terricolse as 
a group not corresponding to a group Limicolee, but to the various families — Tubificidge, 
Lumbriculidse, &c. — which were associated together to form the Limicolse), and criticised 
some of my own statements. 

I have already briefly [3] replied to this. 

Professor Bourne [6] in 1886, described, though very briefly, a large number of new 
species, of which one had a fully developed clitellum, thus showing the absence of that 
structure to be not distinctive of the genus. 

The present paper, of which an abstract appears in the Proceedings, contains a some- 
what extended recapitulation of the facts concerning the reproductive system, with a 
general account of the anatomy of the species Moniligaster Barwelli, which I have not 
yet attempted ; and finally a discussion of the systematic position of the genus and its 
relations to other Oligochseta. 

II. Anatomy of Moniligaster Barwelli. 

§ 1. External Characters. 

This is a very small species, not measuring much over one inch in length and ^ of 
an inch in diameter at the broadest part — the head end. The ventral surface posteriorly 
is rather flattened, while the dorsal surface is very convex. The colour of the spirit- 



STRUCTURE OF A GENUS OF OLIGOCHiETA. o 

preserved specimens is a greenish-brown, and the body- wall is so thin that the nerve cord 
can be plainly distinguished through it. 

None of the specimens showed any signs of a clitellum ; I suggest later in relation to 
the affinities of the worm, that this may be due to the fact that that organ, as for instance 
in the Naidomorpha, is only developed for a very short period. 

Among earthworms there is, as a general rule, a considerable inequality in length 
among the anterior segments of the body ; it is only after the clitellum that the segments 
become equal in size ; this is of course connected with the specialisation of the anterior 
segments in other respects. On the other hand, the rule among the Limicolse — and to 
this rule I can at present recall no exceptions — is that the anterior segments, with the 
exception of the first, are equally sized, though perhaps having some advantage in size- 
over the segments which follow the clitellum; I mention these facts — without desiring to 
give them undue importance — because Moniligaster is so far allied to the Limicolse and 
differs from earthworms. 

The prostomium is extremely small, and projects above the mouth as a short hemi- 
spherical process ; the first and second segments # are both very narrow ; they are of equal 
length to each other, and together are about equal to the third body segment. The setse 
upon the first setigerous segment are much smaller than those upon the following seg- 
ment ; this fact, combined with the very indistinct line which divides the first from the 
second segment, led me to confound the two together, and thus to make an error of one 
segment in my former enumeration. Indeed, any one examining the worm only by the 
help of a hand lens would be almost certain to make this error, as with this slight magni- 
fying power I found it impossible to distinguish the first and second segments. It is 
necessary to examine the worm with a tolerably high magnifying power to detect the 
setae upon the narrow first setigerous segment ; I have mounted two specimens in Canada 
balsam, and with a preparation of this kind it is possible to reckon the segments 
accurately. 

The prostomium is not at all evident, as it is capable of an unusual (?) amount of 
retraction. 

In one specimen, of which the anterior end was mounted in Canada balsam, I could 
not detect the prostomium at all; in another individual, mounted in a similar fashion, the 
prostomium looked like fig. 1; the connection between the prostomium and the first 
segment could not be detected, and it seemed to be surrounded by that segment. In 
longitudinal sections (fig. 7) the prostomium could be easily made out and distinguished 
from the first segment by its tall columnar epithelium; in that section it is seen to be 
greatly retracted; a very deep groove separates it from the peristomial segment. 

The only apertures visible upon the outside of the body are the atrial pores in 
segment X (see fig. 1, <j). 

* It is perhaps unnecessary to explain that the first segment throughout the following description is the peristomial 
segment, and that I reckon the first setigerous segment as the second. 



4 MR FRANK E. BEDDARD ON THE 

§ 2. Body- Wall. 

The chief fact to be noticed with regard to the body- wall is the much greater thickness 
of the anterior segments. Figs. 3 and 4 are drawn to scale, and show that in the front 
part of the body the total thickness of the body- wall is quite double that of the segments 
further back. 

Attention has been called to this fact by Perrier, who has suggested that this anterior 
region may function as a clitellum ; as the clitellum in Moniligaster has been discovered 
by Bourne [6], this is not perhaps very likely, and besides I do not find any difference in 
minute structure between the epidermic covering of the anterior and posterior segments ; 
the former may perhaps be a little thicker, but that is the only difference. Furthermore, 
at the hinder end of the body, the thickness of the integument was almost if not quite as 
great as that of the anterior segments. 

The characters of the epidermic cells do not differ from those of other Oligochseta. 
Large glandular cells with granular contents are separated from each other by fine 
"packing" cells. 

A point of importance is that the epidermis is vascular; capillary loops penetrate 
between the epidermic cells, as is now known to be the case in many Oligochseta, especially 
among earthworms; in fact, since the vascularity of the integument in the Oligochseta 
was first pointed out by myself [5] in Megascolex caruleus, many of the principal 
genera have been shown to share this peculiarity; even among the Limicolse the pene- 
tration of blood capillaries into the epidermis is not unknown, but the thinness of the 
integumental layers among these smaller Oligochasta is no doubt responsible for the very 
slight degree in which the body-walls are supplied with haemal vessels. 

§ 3. Alimentary Canal. 

The mouth leads into a buccal cavity, which is as usual defined posteriorly from the 
pharynx by the fact that the cerebral ganglia are placed in the interval between the two ; 
as the cerebral ganglia lie between the third and fourth segments, the buccal cavity may 
be said to occupy the first three segments; it will be remembered, however, that the two 
first segments together are hardly equal in antero-posterior diameter to the third ; hence 
the actual space occupied by the unimportant buccal cavity is not great. 

The pharynx appears to occupy all the remaining space before the first thick mes- 
entery, i.e., two segments, Nos. IV, V. But as there is a considerable length of oesophagus 
also packed away in this space the pharynx must, I think, be considered to occupy only 
one segment, the IVth. In papers dealing with the anatomy of Oligochseta, the pharynx 
is often spoken of as occupying four or five segments; and this appearance is frequently 
presented by a dissection of the fore end of the body. But in many of these instances 
at least the pharynx itself really occupies a more limited space ; its large size has caused 
the pushing back of that portion of the oesophagus which immediately follows it. There 
is nothing particular to say about the minute structure of the pharynx. 



STRUCTURE OF A GENUS OF OLIGOCH^TA. 5 

The cesophagus commences as a very narrow tube; this region is pressed up against 
the first thick mesentery, which separates segments V and VI. Its direction here is 
ventro dorsal; it must, however, in my opinion, be regarded as belonging to the Vth 
segment. In the Vlth segment the oesophagus broadens out considerably, acquiring a 
calibre about twice as great as that which it possessed in segment V. The cesophagus 
here is quite as wide as the gizzard; this wide region of the cesophagus occupies seven 
segments — VI-XII. (inclusive). I could not find any evidence of the existence of 
calciferous glands. But as these structures appear to fluctuate very considerably in 
their size at different seasons of the year, it is possible that I have overlooked rudiments 
which might at stated times become large and important glands. 

Gizzard. — Unless there is a very unusual degree of variation in the number and 
position of the gizzards, my earlier account [1, p. 94] is wrong. I then stated that M. 
Barwelli is distinguished from M. Deshayesi by the absence of a gizzard in the Vlth 
segment, but agrees with that species in the presence of " four oval nacreous-looking 
dilatations of the cesophagus close to its junction with the intestine." 

Longitudinal sections (of two individuals) show plainly that there are only three 
gizzards, placed in consecutive segments, and each occupying a segment near to the 
junction between the cesophagus and the intestine. In confirmation of this, a specimen 
(unfortunately the last which I possess), dissected in order to compare it with the longi- 
tudinal section, showed plainly three gizzards situated close together and in consecutive 
segments. I feel therefore pretty sure that I must in my earlier account have mistaken 
for an additional gizzard a swelling of the cesophagus. The probability of this is increased 
by Bourne's [6, p. 672] observation, that in M. ruber "in segments X, XI, and XII, 
there were soft- walled swellings of the intestine -looking like gizzard, only not muscular." 
The segments occupied by the gizzards appear to be XIV, XV, and XVI. This state- 
ment is made on the strength of the dissected individual, and one of the two that were 
cut into longitudinal sections ; the second specimen which I prepared in a series of sections 
did not show very plainly the exact position of the gizzards. 

To the naked eye the gizzards present a longitudinally striated appearance, as is 
commonly the case with this organ. The striation appears to be chiefly due to the longi- 
tudinal direction of the blood-vessels upon the surface of the gizzard ; each gizzard, on 
account of its peculiarly compressed shape and this longitudinal striation, has a most 
extraordinary resemblance to an onion. This is illustrated in fig. 5 of the Plate. 

Fig. 10 illustrates a diagrammatic longitudinal section through the fifteen anterior 
segments, to show the number of segments occupied by the successive regions of the gut. 
It is not meant to illustrate the proportionate lengths of these different regions ; for 
example, the pharynx appears much longer than in the figure, while the cesophagus is 
much shorter. This is brought about by the increased space available in segments IV 
and V, due to the course of the septum separating segments V and VI; this same 
structural peculiarity reduces the space occupied by the cesophagus. 



(3 MR FRANK E. BEDDARD ON THE 

§ 5. Nephridia. 

The nephridia do not commence until the Vth segment ; after this there are a pair 
to each segment of the body, not excepting those which contains the reproductive organs ; 
there is therefore in the position of the first pair of nephridia no striking resemblance to 
the LimicolaB, such as is shown by Photodrilus and Pontodrilus; on the other hand, it is 
perhaps usual among earthworms for the nephridia to commence before the Vth segment, 
so that Moniligaster is in a position somewhat different from that of most genera of 
eartlnrorms, and pointing towards the aquatic Oligochseta. 

The nephridia appear to resemble those of Moniligaster Houteni in being furnished 
with a sac-like diverticulum ; this again is a decidedly Terricolous character, so many 
genera of earthworms {e.g., Acanthodrilus, Microchceta) being provided with such a 
diverticulum ; there does not seem to be any Limicolous type in which the nephridia have 
a diverticulum. 

The external aperture is apparently in front of the more dorsal pair of setae, but I 
have not perfectly satisfied myself about this. The internal funnels are quite obvious in 
longitudinal sections ; they are placed on either side of the nerve cord, and lie in the 
segment anterior to that which contains the nephridium itself. 

There is no modification of the anterior nephridia, that I could observe, except that 
they are perhaps rather larger than those which follow ; the funnel occupies the usual 
position. 

§ 6. Reproductive Organs. 

Testes. — These organs have not as yet been described in the genus Moniligaster ; I 
have succeeded in finding them in M. Barwelli. Fig. 9 of the Plate illustrates the sperm 
sac and vas deferens; just below the vas deferens funnel on either side is a mass of 
tissue, which I have for some time believed to represent the testis, without being 
able to be certain upon the point. Longitudinal sections, through another individual 
somewhat better preserved, have shown that the body in question is unquestionably 
the testis. A portion of a section through the genital segments of this individual 
is represented in fig. 8. In that figure the testis (t) is seen to be attached by a some- 
what narrow base and to be frayed out at its free extremity into several processes ; its 
shape is quite that of the testes in many Oligochseta (e.g., Pachydrilus, Acanthodrilus), 
and the minute structure renders it impossible to doubt that this is really the male 
gonad. 

A comparison of the two figures cited will show an apparent difference in position of 
the testis and vas deferens, although the two structures themselves have a similar 
relation, being in actual contact. I may remark, in the first place, that this close con- 
nection between the testes and the funnels is very unusual ; it occurs in Acanthodrilus 
aunectens, where I have figured [4, pi. xii. fig. 13] the testes attached very close indeed 
to the funnel of the vas deferens which belongs to them ; but I am not acquainted with 
any other species among earthworms in which the same thing occurs. 



STRUCTURE OF A GENUS OF OLIGOCH^ETA. 7 

To return to the apparent difference in position of the testes and vasa deferentia : 
it looks almost as if in fig. 8 the testes and vasa deferentia funnels were attached to the 
posterior wall of segment IX ; on the other hand, in fig. 9, the position seems to be 
different ; the testes seem to be attached to the anterior wall of segment X, and the vas 
deferens funnel to be attached to the same septum, without perforating it so as to lie in 
segment IX. Fig. 8 is from a series of sections taken through Xth and neighbouring 
somites, and it seems to agree with another series taken from the whole of the anterior 
part of the body, which, however, were not in a very good state of preservation. 

I do not see how it is possible to reconcile these two sketches on the hypothesis that 
the vas deferens funnel and testes have an identical position ; it must, I think, be admitted 
that in two out of the three specimens the funnel lies in segment IX, and that the testes 
are attached to the posterior wall of this segment, while in the third specimen the 
funnel and testis are in segment X. 

This difference appears to coincide with a difference in the position of the gizzards, and 
possibly means that I am dealing with two distinct species. 

I do not see how any distortion produced by growth or even by action of reagents can 
alter the position of the testes to so great an extent as is indicated in the two figures 
(figs. 8, 9) ; in one case the base of the testis is directed posteriorly, in the other case 
anteriorly. 

Vas Deferens. — There are a single pair of these ducts which open into the atrium ; 
the funnel lies either in the same segment as that which carries the external aperture, or 
in the one in front (IXth) ; I have already remarked, in describing the testis, that this is 
probably a specific difference. 

The most important point to be noted about the funnel is the extreme simplicity of 
its structure ; instead of being folded and plaited, as in earthworms generally, it is, as in 
the Limicolse, a comparatively simple disc, hardly standing out from the surface of the 
intersegmental septum to which it is attached. 

Atrium. — As I have already fully described the atrium with a figure [4], I need do 
no more here than mention the fact that the atrium as described by me, was that of the 
individual in which the funnel appeared to be in the IXth segment ; it is so far additional 
evidence in favour of the differences in the position of the funnel being specific differences, 
that the specimen in which the funnel appeared to be in the Xth segment, had an atrium 
somewhat different in structure. The groups of glandular cells surrounding the atrium 
are no longer distinguishable; the lining epithelium is surrounded by a thick mass of 
tissue, which is partly formed of cells and partly of muscular fibres, but there is no differen- 
tiation into a distinct muscular layer surrounded by a glandular layer. On the whole, it 
appears to me to be more probable that the atrium is in an immature condition, and that 
the glandular and muscular layers are not yet differentiated out of the peritoneal invest- 
ment of the epidermic invagination (in which way I suppose that the atrium originates). 
The atrium in this instance is in fact rather to-be compared with the immature sper- 
matheca described and figured by Bekgh [7, p. 328, pi. xxi. figs. 23, 24]; and it seems 



8 MR FRANK E. BEDDARD ON THE 

evidence that the atrium, like the spermatheca, does not trace its muscular layer to an 
invagination of the body-wall muscle, but that these are formed by a differentiation of 
peritoneum. This view is not in accord with Vejdovsky's figures [4, pi. x. figs. 1, 2] of 
the developing atrium of Tubifex. The view that the atrium is immature, and not 
structurally different from that of the other specimen, is confirmed by the fact that the 
genital ducts are only represented by their funnel; the vasa deferentia and the distal 
portions of the oviducts were not visible in my sections. 

Absence of Penial Setce at Atrial Pore. — The atrial pore is situated at the junction 
of the Xth and Xlth segments; the atrium, however, distinctly belongs to segment X, 
and not to segment XL It will be seen from fig. 8 that the dissepiment which separates 
segments X-XI, arises on the posterior side of the atrium; this being the case, the atrium 
may be spoken of as opening behind the setae of segment X. and not in front of the seta? 
of segment XI; it is therefore the setae of the Xth segment that we should expect to find 
modified, if any ; but perhaps as the male pore is not definitely related to either pair of 
setae, and is situated so far away from them, we should not on a priori grounds expect to 
find either pair modified. At any rate the fact is that there appears to be no modifica- 
tion to form penial setce. The fact, however, is put forward with due reservation as to its 
being characteristic of the species, since the specimen is perhaps not fully mature. 

Sperm Sacs. — As I have already described, there are a pair of sperm sacs, which in 
some specimens would seem to lie in segment IX, in others in segment X ; in both cases 
they are attached to the intersegmental septum between IX and X. In many specimens 
which I dissected the sperm sacs appeared to be traversed by the intersegmental septum, 
i.e., to lie in both segments TX and X; in longitudinal section of one individual, this also 
appeared to be the case. This specimen happened to be the most poorly preserved, and as 
in two other cases the sperm sac was either with IXth or Xth segment, I am inclined to 
believe that the appearances seen in the dissection are simply due to the bulging of the 
septum. The cavity of the sperm sac is simple — i.e., it is not divided by trabeculae ; in 
this it resembles the sperm sacs of the lower Oligochaeta ; each sperm sac encloses the 
testis and vas deferens funnel of its own side. 

Oviduct. — I have nothing to say about the ovary, as I have been entirely unable to 
discover the least trace of this organ ; it lies, however, probably in segment XL In any 
case, the oviduct opens into this segment ; in two out of the three specimens, which I 
studied by means of longitudinal sections, I discovered an unmistakable oviduct. In 
one specimen I have already figured and described this organ [4], the figure being largely 
a " restoration," as I could not find the entire organ, but only a portion — in fact, only the 
coelomic funnel. It appeared to me as if the entire oviduct lay in the Xlth segment ; if 
this be so — but I cannot be certain about it — there is a curious resemblance to the very 
anomalous form Plutellus heteroporus [Perrier, 11]. In another specimen the oviducts 
had not this position ; they opened into the cavity of the Xlth segment, by a funnel 
which was closely attached to the dissepiment dividing this from the Xllth segment. I 
did not succeed in following the oviduct to its external pore ; indeed, I do not think that 



STRUCTURE OF A GENUS OF OLIGOCH^ETA. 9 

this portion of the oviduct was as yet developed in the specimen, which I have already 
shown some reasons for regarding as very immature. The relations of the oviducal funnel 
are illustrated in fig. 8. It is important to notice that the position of the funnel does 
not agree with that of the vas deferens funnel. 

III. Affinities and Systematic Position of Moniligastek. 

The first question which arises is, Are all the species which have been described under 
this name congeneric ? This question is raised in consequence of the suggestion of Dr 
Rosa [14], that M. Deshayesi of Perrier " is not only specifically but generically distinct 
from the other species." Dr Rosa does not state in this paper his reasons for this view, 
with which I am myself inclined to disagree ; of course, if Dr Horst and I are wrong in 
regarding the anterior pair of testes and vasa deferentia of Perrier's species as sperma- 
thecse, Moniligaster Deshayesi is not congeneric with M. Houteni and M. Barwelli, but 
this does not appear to me any more than to Dr Rosa to be likely ; accordingly, I consider 
that this group of worms consists of only one genus — Moniligaster. 

The next point is, Does the genus Moniligaster agree more closely with the "Terricolse " 
as defined by Rosa than with any other group of Oligochseta, and is this agreement 
sufficiently close to warrant its inclusion in the family Terricolse ? or should it rather 
be regarded as a family equivalent to Terricolse ? 

The Terricolse are defined by Rosa [14] as follows : — * 

1. Two pairs of testes in 10 and 11 (first sometimes wanting). 

2. One to four pairs of sperm sacs formed by outgrowths of dissepiments 9/10, 10/11, 

11/12. 

3. Vasa deferentia generally two on each side, only one if the testes are single, open- 

ing by funnels into segments containing testes. 

4. A pair of ovaries in 13. 

5. A pair of oviducts opening internally into 1 3. 

6. Generally [? always] a pair of receptacula ovorum produced by an outgrowth of 

dissepiment 13/14. 

7. A various number of spermathecse (except in Criodrilus)A 

With some apparent exceptions in various points, such as Microchosta (in position of 
vas deferens funnels), which Rosa is inclined to doubt will prove to be real exceptions 
when submitted to reinvestigation, all earthworms are stated to conform to this definition. 

I would remark, in the first place, that the above definition hardly excludes Phreoryctes. 
Add another pair of ovaries and oviducts opening into 12th segment (which sometimes 
are present in earthworms), and Phreoryctes, becomes at once one of Rosa's " Terricolse." 
But surely the organisation of the reproductive system in Phreoryctes does not point to 

* I only give a condensed epitome, to save apace. 

t And some few other species, as Rosa and I have lately shown. 

VOL. XXXVI. PART I. (NO. 1). B 



10 MR FRANK E. BEDDARD ON THE 

its being more nearly allied to the " Terricolse " of Rosa than to, for example, the Lum- 
briculidae ? 

Does Moniligaster find a place among the Terricolse as thus defined ? 

Rosa, points out that there is a serious discrepancy between the statements of Dr 
Horst and myself with regard to the position of the various organs of the reproductive 
system. " It is a remarkable fact that in the description by Beddard of M. Barwelli it is 
possible to reconcile the positions assigned by him to the various parts of the reproductive 
system with that given by Horst, by moving the first two segments further back. The 
spermathecse open, according to Beddard, in the intersegmental groove 6/7 ; according to 
Horst, in 8/9. The male pores are for Beddard in the intersegmental groove 9/10, and 
for Horst in that of segments 11/12. The sperm sacs, according to Beddard, depend 
from dissepiment 8/9, and according to Horst from dissepiment 10/11. Is it possible 
that in two related species there is such a difference ? Is there not rather in one of the 
two cases an error of enumeration ? In that case I shall regard as exact the data of 
Horst, as they do not demand the admission of any exceptional fact." Dr Rosa omits 
to mention that Perrier's data are exactly midway between those of Horst and myself; 
on a priori grounds, I should have considered it more probable that the mean would be 
correct ; in any case (with no prejudice to Dr Horst's statements of fact, which, however, 
it is very desirable that he should re-examine), Perrier, I have convinced myself, is 
right as to the segments upon which the spermathecse (his anterior vasa deferentia) and 
atria open ; Bourne also [6] mentions the same segments as bearing the generative pores 
in all of the seven species described by him. This point may therefore, I think, be re- 
garded as settled. But this correction of my own error, as well as of Rosa's, does not so 
far invalidate his conclusions — at least not seriously. The statement that " the first pair 
[of testes] is sometimes wanting " will have to be changed to " the second pair," &c. 
This point may be conceded. But the position of the ovaries and oviducts will not agree 
with his definition. Both Perrier [10] and Bourne [6] speak of a sac containing ova 
occupying segments XII-XV; this must surely be not ovary, but receptaculum ; hence 
in all probability the ovary does not lie further back than in segment XL No one has 
as yet found the ovaries of Moniligaster. The oviduct has been partly described by 
Horst and by myself [4]. I have referred briefly to an organ in segment XI, which 
is probably the oviducal funnel ; I have since traced this through septum XI/XII, but 
not as far as to its external orifice. This structure may conceivably be a second pair 
of vas deferens funnels, but it does not seem at all likely that this is so. It is therefore 
a fair assumption that the ovaries are in segment XI. ; but in any case it seems extremely 
probable that the oviducts have been so far correctly described, and that therefore in 
this particular Moniligaster does not conform to Rosa's definition of the Terricolse. 
While therefore, at any rate for the present, I abstain from examining into the natural- 
ness of this group Terricolse, I feel obliged to oppose the relegation of Moniligaster to 
this group. 

Dr Rosa defiues his group Terricolse entirely in terms of the modifications of the re- 



STRUCTURE OF A GENUS OF OLIGOCH^TA. 11 

productive system ; no one will probably find fault with this, as the reproductive system 
in the Oligochaeta generally is most useful for systematic purposes. 

From the point of view of its reproductive organs, Moniligaster does not agree with 
any family of Oligochaeta. The clitellum, which has at present only been described in 
M. sapphirinaoides [Bourne, 6], probably occurs also in other species, though it is very 
remarkable that none of the examples studied by Perrier, Horst, and myself showed 
any traces of it. It is possible that the explanation of this is that the worm only 
develops the clitellum during a very short breeding season, as in many of the 
Limicoline genera. In any case, the forward position of the clitellum (segments 
X-XIII, inclusive, in M. sapphirinaoides) is a remarkable point of resemblance to many 
aquatic genera — e.g., Phreoryctes ; it is quite unlike anything that has been recorded 
among earthworms. I have already dwelt sufficiently upon the resemblance of the 
atrium to that of the Lumbriculidae and I may add of Iliodrilus (Stolc, 9, Tab. iii. 
fig. l) ; the presence of a single vas deferens on either side only occupying a single 
segment is not met with elsewhere among the Oligochaeta, except in the Naidomorpha. 

The simplicity of the vas deferens funnel is also a point to be noted in this connection. 

The egg sacs are stated by Bourne [6] in M. minutus to " occupy segments 
XII -XV at least ;" Horst [8] found that in his species M. Houteni, the egg sacs extended 
through segments XIV-XVI. ( ? XIII-XV). The large size of the egg sacs is clearly an 
important point of difference from earthworms, where these bodies are so minute as to be 
often only with great difficulty recognisable. 

Briefly to recapitulate. 

Moniligaster differs from all other earthworms in the following points : — 

1. Clitellum occupies segments X-XIII. 

2. Male pores in intersegmental groove X/XI. 

3. Female pores in intersegmental groove XI/XII (?). 

4. Vas deferens only occupies one segment ; atrium with a glandular investment, 

formed by peritoneal cells. 

5. Ovary in segment XI (?). 

6. Egg sacs occupying a large number of segments, XII-XV (or XIII-XV ?). 

7. Spermatheca with an immensely long duct. 

The structure of the body- wall, septa, alimentary tract, and nephridia is on the whole 
like that of earthworms, except that there seem to be no calciferous glands. 

The characters of the reproductive organs are such that Moniligaster cannot be referred 
to any group of Oligochceta, though it agrees in particular points with several families. 
The clitellum is near that of Phreoryctes, and I believe the Lumbriculidae; with these 
groups the absence of genital or penial setae is another point of agreement ; the structure 
of the atrium affines the genus to the Lumbriculidae, but the characters of the vas deferens 
are more like those of the Naidomorpha. The egg sacs, from their large size, agree with 
those of many Limicoline families ; but in being paired and the sperm sacs also, the 



12 MR FRANK E. BEDDARD ON THE 

resemblances are rather with earthworms, though among the Enchytrseidse paired sperm 
sacs are met with (see Michaelsen, 15, plate, fig. 3), but not paired egg sacs. 

The genus in fact must be regarded as forming a distinct group related to the Lum- 
briculidse, Phreoryctidse (1), and Lumbricidse, but coming closer to the two former than to 
the latter. Its resemblances to earthworms, in fact, are almost entirely confined to those 
structural features which are in direct relationship to the mode of life of the worm; i.e., 
gizzard, vascular supply, thickened body- walls, septa, and setae. If I were compelled to 
adopt Claparede's divisions of Terricolse and Limicolse, I would refer Moniligaster to the 
latter. 

As it is, the following phylogenetic diagram seems in the present state of our know- 
ledge to express the relationships of this remarkable Annelid : — 

Tubificidue. 

Moniligaster. 
Naidomorpha. 



Phreoryctidse. 




Perichsetidse. 

The principal facts in the anatomy of Moniligaster Barwelli are the following : — # 

tl. The setae are strictly paired ; the distance between the two pairs of each side is 
considerably greater than that between the ventral pair and the ventral median line, and 
considerably less than that between the dorsalmost pair and the dorsal median line. The 
setce differ greatly in size, but are not peculiar in shape, being like those of most earth- 
worms. 

t2. Dorsal pores are present. 

t3. The prostomium is very small, and does not extend over the peristomial segment. 
4. The dissepiments separating segments V/VI, VI/VII, VII/VIII, VIII/IX, are 
very much thickened. 

* I do not attempt to discriminate between what are generic and what are specific characters ; there are not sufficient 
data to do this with much probability of success. 

t The dagger indicates that the statement to which it is prefixed is made for the first time in the present paper. 



STRUCTURE OF A GENUS OF OLIGOCH^ETA. 13 

t5. The hearts are in segments VI-XIV, and are of large size. 

t6. The alimentary tract begins with a buccal cavity, which occupies the first three 
segments ; the pharynx is apparently restricted to a single segment, the IVth ; the 
oesophagus lying in segment V is very narrow, afterwards it widens and extends through 
seven segments ; the gizzards (three in number) occupy segments XIV-XVI ; in an other 
specimen, probably not M. Barwelli, they are further back. There are no calciferous 
glands (?). 

t7. The n&phridia commences in segment V; each has a saccular diverticulum; the 
funnel opens in the segment in front close to nerve cord. 

t8. Th etestes are either (M. Barwelli) in segment IX, attached to the posterior wall 
of this segment, or else in segment X, attached to the front wall. 

9. The sperm sq,cs (one pair) are in segment IX or X, in correspondence with the 
position of the testes ; their cavity is undivided. 

tlO. The vas deferens funnels, in accordance with the varying position of the testis 
open into the IXth or Xth segment. 

11. The atrium open between segments X/XI ; it has precisely the structure of the 
atrium of Rhynchelmis. 

tl2. There are no genital or penial setae (?). 

tl3. The oviducts are in segment XI ; in the individual which probably belongs to a 
species distinct from M. Barwelli, the oviducal funnel is spread along the anterior face 
of the septum separating segments XI/XII. 

14. The spermathecce are a single pair situated in segment VIII ; each consists of a 
small oval pouch, with a very long contorted duct. 



LIST OF MEMOIRS CONSULTED. 

1. Beddard, F. E. Notes on some Earthworms from Ceylon and the Philippine Islands, Ann. and 

Mag. Nat. Hist, February 1886. 

2. Beddard, F. E. Note on the Reproductive Organs of Moniligaster, Zool. Anz., 1887. 

3. Beddard, F. E. Preliminary Notes on some Oligochaeta, Zool. Anz., 1889, No. 318. 

4. Beddard, F. E. On the Structure of three New Species of Earthworms, &c, Quart. Jour. Micr. 

Sci., vol. xxix. 

5. Beddard, F. E. On the Anatomy and Histology of Pleurochaita Moseleyi, Trans. Roy. Soc. 

Edin., vol. xxx. 

6. Bourne, A. G. On Indian Earthworms. Part I. — Preliminary Notice of Earthworms from the 

Nilgiris and Shevaroys, Proc. Zool. Soc, 1886. 

7. Bergh, R. S. Untersuchungen liber den Bau und die Entwicklung der Geschlechtsorgane der 

Regenwiirmer, Zeitschr. wiss. Zool., Bd. xliv. (1886), p. 303. 

8. Horst, R. Descriptions of Earthworms : I. Moniligaster Houtenii, n. sp., a gigantic Earth- 

worm from Sumatra, Notes Leyden Mus., vol. ix. p. 97. 
VOL. XXXVI. PART I. (NO. 1). C 



14 MR FRANK E. BEDDARD ON THE STRUCTURE OF OLIGOCH^ETA. 

9. Stolc, A. [On Bohemian Tubificidae], Abhandl. k. bohm Akad., 1888. 

10. Perrier, E. M£moires pour servir a L'histoire des Lombriciens terrestres, Nouv. Arch. Mus., 

t. viii. (1872). 

11. Perrier, E. fitudes sur un genre nouveau des Lombriciens (gen. Plutellus), Arch. Zool. Exp., 

t. ii. (1873). 

12. Vejdovsky, F. System und Morph. d. Oligochseten, Prag, 1884. 

13. Rosa, D. Nuova Classificazione dei Terricoli, Boll. Mus. Zool., Torino, 1888. 

14. Michaelsen, W. Synopsis der Enchytrseiden, Abhandl. naturw. Vereins in Hamburg, Bd. xi. 



EXPLANATION OF PLATE. 

Fig. 1. Ventral surface, showing distribution of setae, pr, prostomium ; £ , atrial pores. 

Fig. 2. Sette. a, of posterior, b, of anterior, segments. 

Figs. 3, 4. Section through posterior and anterior region of body-wall to show relative thickness; the blood 

capillaries in fig. 4 are shown penetrating the epidermis. 
Fig. 5. Dissection to illustrate gizzards, sp., septa ; g, gizzards. 
Fig. 6. Transverse section of gizzard, drawn to scale. 
Fig. 7. Longitudinal section through mouth and anterior segments, m, mouth; pr, prostomium ; I, II, III., 

1st, 2nd, 3rd segments; ce, supra-cesophageal ganglion ; s, setse. 
Fig. 8. Section through genital segments of an individual, in which the gizzards are situated further back 

than in M. Barwelli. IX, X, XI, segments numbered ; t, testis ; v.d, vas deferens funnel ; 88, sperm 

sac : od, oviduct ; at, atrium. 
Fig. 9. Section through male genitalia of M. Barwelli. t, testis; ss, sperm sac; sp, septum separating segments 

IX and X ; vd, vas deferens connected with funnel close to attachment of testis ; at, atrium. 
Fig. 10. Diagrammatic longitudinal section to illustrate positions of different parts of alimentary tract, to, 

mouth ; 6, buccal cavity ; nc, nerve cord ; ph, pharynx ; ce, narrow region of oesophagus ; oe', wider 

region ; g, gizzards. The segments are numbered. 



STRUCTURE OF A GENUS OF OLIGOCH^ETA . 15 



POSTSCRIPT ADDED JUNE 2, 1890. 

Since the foregoing was written, I have received an important paper from Dr Rosa* 
dealing partly with the anatomy of the Moniligastridse. 

As I have already pointed out, Dr Rosa was inclined to doubt in some particulars 
the accuracy of my description of the reproductive organs of Moniligaster. He now 
describes a species, which he has done me the honour to dedicate to myself, which agrees 
very closely in structure with M. Barwelli. 

It is gratifying to me to read this description ; the doubts which were thrown upon 
my work by so able an investigator of the group as Dr Rosa has proved himself to be, 
caused me some anxiety. 

In Moniligaster Beddardii the position as well as the structure of the genitalia appears 
to be precisely as in M. Barwelli. Dr Rosa describes the funnel of the vas deferens as 
being flattened out, and not projecting much into the interior of the sperm sac ; the 
testes also are attached to the funnel itself. The figures published in the present paper 
are quite in accord with those of Rosa. I have ventured (vide supra) to suggest that 
the ovary is in all probability contained in the Xlth segment ; I also identified a ciliated 
funnel-like structure attached to the hinder wall of this segment as the oviducal funnel 
These identifications are rendered practically certain by Rosa's very clear diagram of the 
genitalia of M. Beddardii. A second interesting species is referred to a distinct genus 
— Desmogaster. Desmogaster Dorics has two pairs of atria opening on to the interseg- 
mental grooves XII/XIII and XIII/XIV, all four apertures being distinct ; as in Monili- 
gaster, the vasa deferentia open into the atrium; the vasa deferentia, funnels, testes, and 
sperm sacs are as in Moniligaster, though, of course, four in number. The structure of 
the atria is rather different ; there is the same central epithelium and annular layer of 
muscles ; outside this are the groups of glandular cells that are met with in Moniligaster, 
but they are interspersed with muscular fibres ; there appears to be also a delicate peri- 
toneal investment. Dr Rosa considers that the resemblances of the atrium here are rather 
with other earthworms, though possibly the organ is to be regarded as intermediate in 
character, connecting such a form as Eudrilus with Moniligaster. 

The glandular cells are regarded as being referable to the lining epithelium, but a 
complete circular layer of muscular fibres is figured between them and the single layered 
epithelium. It seems to me to be still possible to refer all which lies outside of the 
lining epithelium to the peritoneum. Unfortunately, in this, as in so many other ques- 
tions concerning the morphology of the Oligochseta, there is no assistance to be got from 
embryology. The development of the spermathecse, however, offers an analogous case, 
which supports the view that all the structures lying outside of the lining epithelium are 

* Viaggio di Leonardo Fea in Birmania e regioni vicine xxv. Moniligastridi, &c, Ann. Mus. Civ. Geneva, vol. ix., 
1890, p. 368 et seq. 

VOL. XXXVI. PART I. (NO. 1). D 



16 MR FRANK E. BEDDARD ON THE 

peritoneal in nature ; at first, as Bergh has shown, the spermatheca consists only of an 
ingrowth of epidermis with a peritoneal layer, somewhat thickened, lying outside it ; out of 
this latter are formed the muscles as well as the peritoneal layer of the mature sper- 
matheca ; it does not, therefore, follow that a distinct peritoneal epithelium separates 
from the ccelom structures which have had an ectodermic origin. Reference may also be 
made to the description of the immature atrium of Moniligaster contained in this paper. 
I am therefore not yet convinced that the glandular cells packed among the muscles in 
the atrium of Desmogaster are to be looked upon as part of the lining epithelium. 

As to the position of the testes and ovaries, this point of difference must apparently 
be dropped, now that we have Rosa's genus Desmogaster added to the Moniligastridse ; 
the position of the gonads and of the other parts of the female apparatus is quite normal 
in Desmogaster. But we have still the remarkable fact that the vasa deferentia open on 
to the segment next to that which contains their internal aperture ; even when they are 
doubled this takes place. The double condition may perhaps be regarded as the older, 
as it occurs in most Oligochseta, though not to so complete an extent as in Desmogaster. 
Dr Rosa, however, is not correct in implying, as I understand him (p. 369), that two 
external pairs of apertures is a unique feature ; the same occurs in Phreoryctes, the atria 
having almost completely vanished ; and Phreoryctes is certainly not an "Earthworm," 
though it is, as I have pointed out, hardly excluded from that group by Rosa's definition. 

Dr Rosa admits the great peculiarity of the sperm sacs in the Moniligastridse, upon 
which I have omitted to lay sufficient stress in this paper. The remarkable way in which 
the sperm sac is, as it were, suspended in the middle of the dissepiment is unlike any- 
thing that occurs in any earthworm, though certainly not leading towards any condition 
observable in the " Limicolse." 

It is, moreover, impossible in sections of M. Bamvelli to state with any certainty 
which segment the sperm sacs belong to ; in Desmogaster Rosa's figure indicates the same 
difficulty. 

The remarkable partial obliteration of a segment (the XHIth) which Michaelsen 
has lately described in Nemertodrilus griseus, suggest that something of the same kind 
may have occurred in the Moniligastridse, the supposed sperm sacs may be all that is 
left of the calom belonging to the segment which contains the testes. This is of course 
no more than a suggestion ; but the varying position of essential organs in the Oligochseta 
requires, as I point out in a forthcoming number of the Quarterly Journal of Micro- 
scopical Science, some possibility of the intercalation or excalation of segments at the 
head end. 

This suggestion is supported by the absence of trabeculse in the sperm sacs of Monili- 
gaster and Desmogaster.* 

The correspondence between external and internal metamerism in Desmogaster is 
a little difficult to follow ; between the last thickened septum and the dissepiment which 

* " L'interno della vesicola seminale non presenta un intreccio di fibre, ma solo una rete lassa di sanguigni," &c. 
(Rosa, p. 376). 



STRUCTURE OF A GENUS OF OLIGOCH^BTA. 17 

►separates segments XIV/XV are five coelomic cavities ; but the same points are divided 
by six external furrows. Dr Kosa does not state whether the irregularity is righted 
further on ; in the meantime it looks as if one segment at any rate were dropped, or 
rather may be represented by the wall of one of the sperm sacs. 

Finally, I would point out that the egg sacs are unusually large in this group, though 
they do not nearly reach the size of those structures in the aquatic Oligochseta. I am, 
therefore, still inclined to retain the Moniligastres in a group apart, though I admit that 
Dr Eosa's fresh discoveries somewhat weaken my contention that they form a group 
equivalent to all other Earthworms. They seem to me, however, undoubtedly to lead in 
the direction of some of the aquatic Oligochseta. 



Trans. Roy. Soc. Edin 1 



F.E.BEDDARD ON MONILIGASTER 



Vol. XXXV. 




phi X. 



1' E Beadari del. 



F.Huth.LitW Earn 1 



( 19 ) 

II. — On the Transformation oj Laplace's Coefficients. By Dr Gustave Plarr. 

(Read 2nd December 1889.) 



INDEX TO CONTENTS. 



PAGE 

Introduction, 19 

Section I., 20 

,. n., 24 



PAGE 

Section III., 29 

„ IV-, 34 

V., 38 



The development of the inverse square root 

Z = (l-2«s + a 2 )-* 
into a series 

gives rise to the coefficients Z,„ which have been called "Laplace's Coefficients." 
If in Z n we substitute for z the expression 

z = xx' + yy' cosxjs , 
where 

x' 2 + y' 2 = l, 

then the function of i/>, which Z„ will represent, can most appropriately be expressed by 

Z„ = 2 cos (st/t) . N, . 

The object of this paper is to show, by actual calculation, that the coefficients N, 
(functions of x, x', y, y') can be worked out by elementary algebraical processes, the only 
auxiliary taken from higher analysis being the expression of the powers of cos \ff in 
function of the cosines of the multiples of i//. 

As to our notations, we shall observe throughout the following restrictions : — 

1. The function U(x) shall not be employed otherwise than for integer positive 
values of x, so that 

n(cc) = l .2.3 x=(x!) 

2. The factorial 



'/'■ 



a . =a(a + r) .... (a + t — lr) 

will be made use of for integer values only of r (as, for example, r= + 1, or r= — 1. or 
r= +2, &c), the exponent t being integer positive. 

VOL. XXXVI. PART I. (NO. 2). E 



-0 DR GUSTAVE PLARR ON THE 

3. The symbol 

[2>]/(0, 

when the limits a and b are integers, is to represent the sum of the terms (extremes 

included), 

f(a) +f(a + 1) + &c/(a + t) + &c. +f(b), 

f being the representative of a function given in each case. 

When the limits a, b are both fractionary, or one of them only so, then, supposing a 
the integer value next above a, and b the integer value next below b, the symbol 

K*] /(*) 

will be used for representing the sum or aggregate of the terms 

/(a )+/(a +l) + &c.+/(& ). 

The development of the above inverse square root gives Z n under the form 

Z = r v *V| (-l)m(2n-2g).z n -^ 
■ L A> J J 2»nflrII(Ti - g)U(n - 2g) ' 

Substituting for z the expression 

xx' + yy' cos i^ , 

n - 2g |- v « - 2^-[ II(7i — 2g).(xx') n - ig ~ h (yy' COS l/r)* 
We have also 

by the known formula, in which, for the combination of values of h, k satisfying to 

h-2k = 0, 

the term under the sign 2 has to be halved. 
We have now for Z„ the treble sum 2, 

z n =[^;gT- 2 %^ o h k]Wg,h,k), 

in which, after reduction, we get 

w . , ( - l)m(2n - 2g)(xx')."-*«-\yy'y 2 co s (h - 2k )^ 

u. . p; 2«+ A n((/)n('M-^)n(u-2(/-/on(A;)n(/6-A;) ' 

In any multiple sum 2 the summations are to be effected from right to left — that is 
to say, in this present case of a treble 2, we must give to k successively the values 



we get 

r n-2g -i T" 

= L 2 ° h * ~ U(h)U(n-2g-h) 



TRANSFORMATION OF LAPLACE'S COEFFICIENTS. 



21 



0, 1, 2, &c, ^h (or ^—1 in the case of h uneven), and this for any system of values 
of g and h. The sum of these results, indicated by 

will then be treated as a function of g and h alone. 

Then, for any value of g we must give to h successively the values 0, 1, &c. n — 2g, 
and add the results ; we may indicate the sum by 



Finally, we have to sum up 



[K' h ]Wi(9.*) = W&)- 



[2;Vlw<fo) = Z». 



In any multiple sum 2 we may replace an index by another related to it by a given 
equation. Of course, such an equation must not be dependent on those indices about 
which the summation 2 have already been effected. 

As our task is to gather together all the terms for which the combination h — 2k takes 

the same value, say s, we can introduce s as a new index ; but as it will be related to 

kby 

h-2k = s, 

we can introduce it only in the place of k and not in that of h at once. 

If we wish to preserve k as an index (a working index) and replace h by s, then we 
must previously effect an operation which, generally, we will call the " inter-version " of 
the sums 22. 

This interversion of the order in which two summations are to follow each other 
requires a corresponding change in the limits of the indices. 

The easiest way to discover what these changes must be consists in giving a geo- 
metrical meaning to the values of the indices. 

In the present case 



(k) 
































































Sk ,, 


















(h) 



















L 


T 



22 DR GUSTAVE PLARR ON THE 

let 2 h 2* k , where h x = n — 2g, 

represent the complexus of points of which the rectangular coordinates are h and k, h 
being the abscissa and k the ordinate. It is evident that these points will be com- 
prised within a rectangular triangle OHK, of which the side OH is equal in length to h x ; 
the side HK will be equal to \\ ; and the hypothenuse OK will be directed along the 

straight line whose equation is 

h-2k = 0. 

We may now conceive two ways in which the enumeration of these points can be 
made. Either we enumerate them along lines parallel to 0(k) (in columns), or we 
enumerate them along lines parallel to 0(h) (in bands). 

In the first case each column is given by the operator 



and the sum of the columns will be 



T h k 





(l)=2 \2ffc, 



In the second case each band will begin on the hypothenuse where 

h = 2k, 



2k 



and extend to h = h x , so that 

will represent one band. The sum of these bands, extending from k — to the extreme 
value of k, namely, i = HK = |^ (or ^^ — 1 if h x be uneven), will be given by 

(2) = T hl k -2 hl h. 

v ' 2* 

Thus the two operators (1) and (2) when applied to W(#, h, k) will give the same 
results, but (2) is the " interversion " of (1). 
We have now (replacing h 1 = n— 2g) 

Z n =[t;g ^~ 9) k ?^h]W(g,K,k), 

and we are prepared to introduce the index s in place of h, putting 

h = s + 2k. 
The limits of s will be 

,s = for h = 2k, 

8 = n — 2g—2k for h = n — 2g. 
Moreover, we put 

W(g, h, k) = {yy') s 2 cos sty.W(g, k, s) , 



TRANSFORMATION OF LAPLACE'S COEFFICIENTS. 



23 



where 



Thus we have 



\y> ^ *) 2 n + s +™llgll(n—g)tt(n -s-2g- 2k)IlkU(s + k) ' 



Z, = [^g t^k T - 29 -™s](yyy.2co S s1rW(g,k,s). 

We will now intervert the treble 2 so as to bring the summation relative to s to the 
first place on the left. 




(n-2g) 




(in~9) 

Intervening first ~2Jc2s, we have 



•sr.in-9 , ^n-2g-2k v n-2g> v K n - s -2?)i 

Z k z s=z s z * 

oo oo 



Then by a similar figure than the above, 

o# 2 o s = 2 o S2 o 9- 
We may now write Z„ under the form 

Z n =[T o s](yyJ2co S (s+).z:', 
where, in putting for abbreviation 



(•') 



we have 



\(n-s) = r, if integer, 

or IO — 1 — s) = r', if integer, 



24 DR GUSTAVE PLARR ON THE 

Our next step will be to eliminate {yy') u from W. We take 

_ [v i ( -i)* +y n& u 2p 

This gives 

zi"=[2>2;-'i2>2: ? ]W", 

where, by reductions easily seen we have 

( - 1 )'J+r+m(2n - 2g)Jlk.^- s -^- 2 P(x') n -*-*-»« 



W" = , 



2»+'+»n0lI(w - g)IL(n -s-2g- 2/c)II(s + Jc)TlpU(k -p)UqU(k - q) ' 
In the place of p, q we introduce the indices u, v, respectively by the relations 

g-\-p = U, g + q = v. 

The limits of u will be 

u=g and io=g + k 

v=g and v=g + k. 

As & does not depend on p, q we replace it by the index I by the relation 

g+k = l. 

The limits of I will be I = g for k = 0, and Z = r for & = r—g . The limits of u and v will 
then be u = g and u — I, and the same for v. 
We have now 



~ g 2 £ z,u 2 

IT <7 ? 3 

where 



W'" = 



g g g -> 

(-l)o+"+"U(2n-2g)Il(l-g)2- 2 <' 



2 n+ '+ 2l UgIl(n - g)Tl(n - s - 2l)U(s +l-g) U(u - g)U(l - u)U(v - g)U(l - v) 



§11. 

The quadruple sums 2 must now be submitted to interversions so as to bring the. 
sums relative to u and v to the left of those relative to g, I. 



TRANSFORMATION OF LAPLACE'S COEFFICIENTS. 

Intervening I and u, we have to consider the following figures : 



25 




These figures show that we have 



=r 



9 9 g « 



Summing the second member in respect to g and interverting g and u. we get 




2>2%=2>2>. 



We have now the intermediate result, 



zf = [^u 2^ 2J ^' g v]W"x n -'-^x n - s - 2 ". 



26 



DR GUSTAVE PLARR ON THE 



Intervening I and v, we have to remark that by its limits g is never greater than 
u, as 

We decompose therefore the limits of v into two parts, the one from g to u, the other 
from u + 1 to the limit I. We have then 




2 I 2 f = 2"v 2£ + 2' «I'l 

U g g V. U+l J) 



We have to sum this by 2"(/ and intervert g and f ; thus we have 





=r 



TRANSFORMATION OF LAPLACE'S COEFFICIENTS. 27 

First, T g J, u v = 2 u v 2 V ; 

Secondly, 2> Jf^v = t^v 2> 

Thus we get 

z (4) =r 2> Tv ?q ?i -f n ~°~ v ~°~ 28w '" 



r v^ 2^ 2.1 n 

L +2^2> 2» 23 J 



We may write this under the form 

2 ^ 2,, +1 v ]» « S(v,u), 
where 

S(u,i;)=[2>2''nW'" ) 

L "« J i 

and S(v, u) is derived from S(w, v) by the permutation of u, v. 

These double sums represented by S(w, v), S(v, u) depend on the indices alone 
being freed from the variables x, x' . They are therefore simply numerical, depending of 
course on n, s, u, v ; r being the abbreviation of \{n - s) when integer, and being 
changed into r' when \{n — 1 — s) is integer. 

We introduce two new indices in the place of g, I, by 

g = v-i 

l = w+j. 
As we have 

we do not change the sum in taking the elements relative to i in inverse order. Thus 
we have now 

where by the expression of W //r at the end of § I. we have 

w ,„ _ (-iy+ i U(2n-2v + 2i)n(u-v + i+j)2 2v '- 2i 
~2 n + s + 2u +VIl{v-i)Il(n-v + i)Il(n-s-2u-2j) X 

1 



IT(s + u - v + i +j)Il(u -v + i)Il(j)IL(i)TI(u —v+j)' 

We will now make use of factorials in order to extract from W /f a factor A inde- 
pendent of i, j. 

VOL. XXXVI. PART I. (NO. 2). F 



28 DR GUSTAVE PLARR ON THE 

By the general type we have 

IL(a+x) = Ilax(a + iyi+ 1 

Applying these, we get 

W" = AT, 
where 

( - l) v U(2 n - 2v)Jl(u - v)2 2v 1 

~ 2" + s+2u IL;IIO - v)VL{n - s - 2u) X II(s+u-- v)ll(u- v) X 'IL(u- v) ' 

( -l)«(2n+l-2v) 8ff+1 .(u-v+l) w/+1 .2- 2< 

2V{n-v + iyi+ 1 

v 1 i- 1 .(n-s-2w)W- 1 



(s+u-v+iy+*+\u-v+iyi+ i .v<+ 1 .v'+\u-v+iyi+ i ' 

Reducing A, we have 

(-l) u U(2n-2v)2- n - s - 2 "+ 2v 



Uvll(n - v)IL(n -s- 2u)II(s + u— v)H.(u - v) ' 
As to T we extract from it a factor Q depending onj> only, taking 

(s + U-V + l) i+J l +1 = (8 + U-V + iyi+ 1 X(s + U-V+j + l) i l+ l , 

and having by this relation if we make s = — 

(u-v+iy+jt+ i , . ,..._ 

(u — t> + iy /+1 v > J i / 

and putting 

T = Q(j)xP(i,j), 
we have 

Q0V <»-.-»"-« 



'2*'(s + w—y + l>« +1 .y/+ 1 ' 



( - iy . (2m. + 1 - 2v) 2i '+\u -v+j + iyi +1 .2- 2i 
"^'3)— ^_«±iw+i x .'c 



D*7-i 



(» - v + 1)' 7+1 (a + u - v +j + iy+\it - v + 1 )*/+il«'/+i 

We may further transform P(?', j) by applying the general formulas 

a»i- 1 = (-lf.(-ayi+ l 
2a? b '+ 1 = 2a b '+ 2 x (2a + l) s */+ 2 
= 2 26 .a 6 /+ 1 (a+D 6/+1 



Thus 

These give 
Also, applying 



(-l)V/- 1 =(-v)"+ 1 

(2w + I - 2w)*'+ I = 2 2 ' . («, + 1 - vy+\7t + 1 - vy+ l 

( - yyz+i^ + \ - v yi+i( u . -v+j + i y/+ * 

a 26/-l = 2 W. a i/-I( a _l)fc/-l 

-2 (-ay/+ , (-tt+|)* /+1 , 



TRANSFORMATION OF LAPLACE'S COEFFICIENTS. 20 

we may write Q(j) under the form, 

/ n— s , V' /+ V n^-l—s , V v+1 

(-T-+*). (--!-+») . 

With these expressions of A, QO), P(^i), we have now 

S(u )V ) = A[2^ 2' ""i]Q(i)P(ii); 
or, as the limits of i, j are independent from one another, we may intervert so that 

where r is to be replaced by r' as the case may demand. 



§ HI 

We are now arrived at a stage where we have to consider generally the transforma- 
tions of sums of the form 






l'/+y/-e" 

which we shall designate by 

We shall assume that the number of the terms be limited in consequence of the 

hypothesis 

a = integer negative. 

By this the upper limit t x of t will be 

t x = —a. 

Of course we must also assume that the factors in the denominator do not pass through 
zero for any value of t between its limits. This involves the hypothesis that y, or e, or 
both, should they be integer negative, must be in absolute value greater than — a. 

For the transformation of F our auxiliary will be a particular case of Gauss's 
function,""' 

f(a, ft y, x) = |2" ijp+i^r+l*'- 
Our particular case is of course 

05=1, 

a = integer negative. 

* Commentatio7ies Societatis Goettingensis recentiores, to. ii., anno 1812. 



30 DR GUSTAVE PLARR ON THE 

Let us apply Gauss's method to this particular case only. We have then 

( a +iy/+i = a '/+i°^. 

Hence 

(a + iyi+ l -a t f +1 t g'/+ 1 
1*1+1 a l'/+i- 

This relation takes place for any value of t. For i = as well as for 0>t x (where 
t x = — a) both members vanish. We may put the second member under the form 

and make use of it only from t = 1 to t = t x ; or, if we put 

t-l=t', 

make t' to vary from t' = to t' = t l ' = t l —\ (where a+ 1+^— 1 = (a+ 1 +*/) vanishes). 
Thus we may write 

(g+l) t/+1 -a t/+1 _ (a + l) t 7+1 

Likewise we have 

/3'/+ x =/ 8 (/3 + 1//+ 1 

7 V+1_ 7 ' (7+iy 7+1 ' 

Multiplying this member to member with the preceding equality, and summing in the 
first member from t = to t = t u in the second member from t' = to t' = - a - 1, we get 

( a ) f( c L±h£)-f(?iM)=P ffSi+ldttl) 
Secondly, in treating ft as we have treated a, we get 

/(^)-/(fH/( aJ ^)' 

We write this result for a+ 1 throughout, in the place of a. This gives 
W // a + 1 -'./3± lN ) f/a+l,p\_a + l f(<* + 2Jl±l\ 

In the third place, we have 

1 _ y-l+t 1 1 P+l 1 



( 7 _iy/+i 7 _i "yH-i-yH-i ' y-i^y+iyv+i- 
Hence 

j_r_JL__j_i = _i i . 

r /+1 L(7-i)' /+1 y /+1 J (7-i)7-' r /+1 .(7+i)' /+1 

We have also 



TRANSFORMATION OF LAPLACE'S COEFFICIENTS. 31 

Multiplying member to member and summing, we get 

J \y-V J \ 7 / (7-1)7 7 ^ 7+1 ' 
We write this for a+1, /3+1, y+1, in the places of a, /3, y, and get 

( c > f a + 1 >/ 3 ± 1 /? a+l,/8+l = (q + lX<Q+l) ,/q + 2,/3+2\ 
7 7 ~ 7+1 7(7+1) •'V 7+2 / 

By the combination (c). - (a) - (6) we get, after reduction of the terms in the first 
member, 



q,/3 ,q + l,/8 + l = (q + l)(/3+l) ,f«+^+2 
7 7 ' 7+1 7(7 + 1) A v + 2 



7(7+1) ■> \ y+! 
7 7 \ 7+1 



y \ y + 

The two first terms in the second member are 



q + ir/3+1 f fa±%^±^\_ f (a±2 JL § + l^ 
7 L7 + 1 7 V 7 + 2 / 7 V 7 + I J]' 



But if in equation (a) we transpose the first term on the left to the second member, and 
write the whole equation by augmenting every letter by unity (a+1 into a+2,/3, &c), 

then we see that the factor of in the preceding expression will be 



J \ 7+1 / 



7+: 

Collecting now all the terms containing this last function, and passing them into the 
second member of the preceding equation, we get 



7-ft-q-l f(a±}Jl±}\ 

7 7 V jTT~~J- 



7 \ 7- 

Writing this equation successively for a+1, /3+1, y+1, for a+2, /3 + 2, y+2, &c, up to 
a +ti, fi+ti, y+ti ; multiplying all the results, member to member, and dividing out the 
factors which both products will have in common, we get 

f fa,0\_ (y-/3-a-l)^- 1 { ((^±t})Jj3±ti}) 

J \ 7 J' yi/+l " J\ (y + tj J' 

The ratio in the upper factorial is = — 1, because 

(7+l)-(/3 + l)-(a + l)-l = (7-/3-a-l)-l 



32 DR GUSTAVE PLARR ON THE 

is decreasing, and so on. But as we assume 

and have generally 

and a&J"(a-k-t lt &c.)=f(0, &c.) = +1, because it reduces itself to its first term, which is 
unity, we have finally 

a-) /£$-«*=§£=*• 

This formula (I.), which has been founded on the hypothesis of a = a negative integer, 
is contained in Gauss's result, 

n(7-j8-q-l)II(7-l ) 
1%-a- 1)11(7-/3-1)' 

in which the function Yl(x) is a transcendent of the same kind as the function T(l +x), 
and in which the variable x represents any number, not necessarily integer. In fact the 
case treated by Gauss relates to an infinite series in which neither a nor /3 are supposed 
integers. 

We apply (I.) for the transformation of 



Writing 



V 7, e / ' 

J \ c J ~ L^<) J l«*/+l c te/+l gt/+l 

w T e assimilate the third member with 

811+1 in V( a '&*\ 

This gives 

8 = c — b, e = c; 

hence 

b = e—S, c = e. 

Thus we get the double sum 2 : 

V 7, e / L o ^o J i</+y/+ii»/+i e i»/+i 
The interversion of the indices Z, w gives 

2 *£ 2'w = 2 "w2 "i. 

o u> 

We put 

t = w+t' , 



TRANSFORMATION OF LAPLACE'S COEFFICIENTS. 33 

then the limits of t' will be and ( — a — w), and we have 

where, considering that 

(_<)»/+! _ (-i)»ir _ Or l) w 

V+ 1 ~mn.(t-w)~ i e/+1 ' 

we have 

By (I. ) the second member will be 

"»=(-!)" ■ g+g^+i . where A- -a. 
But we have 

and as the second factor on the right is 

(-ir.(- 7 +/3-^+ir +i , 

(- 1)-( + / 8- 7 + !)«/+!, 



namely, 

we have first 



Then 
hence 



^ 7 W (a + /3- 7 + l) w/+1 

( 7 + w yi/+i = ( 7+w )'.-«»/+ix( y +w+^-wf/+ , 
1 = (y+t 1 ) w ' +1 _y w i +1 

(7+w)'i-»/+i - ( 7 + w ,yi/+i yi/+i' 



the third member being deduced from 

y 1 +« I /+i_y 1 /+i^^.^« > /+i_ 7W /+i^_l_ w y I / + i 

As 

(-irx(-i) w =+i, 

we have now 

Replacing t x = - a, and introducing U M in the last expression of 

\ rye ' 

we get 

m^ F /a^^V._ (y-/g)- a/+1 F f a,/3,(e-a) ) 

U; 'Vy.ei y- a / +1 I! l(a + /3-y+l), e i ' 

From this we might draw several other combinations. We will only notice the one 
which we shall make use of further on. 



34 DR GUSTAVE PLAHR ON THE 

If in the second member we put under the sign F, 

a + /3-y+l = e, 
e = y', 



and expressing 
we get 
Now 



F (20) by (ii.), 

*\ y',e' J y'/-"/ +1 \a + B-y' + l,e'J 

e'-S'=--a + l3 + S-y-e + l = £; 



We have thus (III.) 

mi\ v( a >P> B ) (y-p-*'+\e-/3)-"<+* / «,/U x 

(111) *Vy,eA 7 -a/+i e -a/+i " r ^ a + | g_ y + 1)a + / 8_ e + 1 j 

with the above signification of £. 

In our application of this we shall find £=0, in consequence of which the F of the 
second member will reduce itself to its first term, which is unity. 

§ iv. 

We apply (II.) to the transformation of 

Ki]p(»,i) of §n. 



We have to put 
This gives 



Then 
where 



«= —v, {3 = n+^ — v, S = u—v+j + l 
y = u — v + 1, € = s+8. 

— a= +v 
y-ft=u+$-n 
e — S = S. 
a+fi—y+l=n+^—u—v 

(u-v+iy +l 

. ; ( - v yi+\ (n + b- v) il+l . s t7+1 

ry t >3)-lii+\( n + l_ u _ v yi+i( s + u _ v+ j + : iyi+i 



TRANSFORMATION OF LAPLACE'S COEFFICIENTS. 35 

We have now 

S(^)=A.B. [2 r ; u J 2 ^]QO')P'(ii). 

We may intervert again the sums 2, because the limits of the indices are independent 
from one another. 

In the denominator of QP' we remark that the product 

(s+u - v + iyi+i x(s+u - v+j + 1)' 7+1 
can be written under the form 

+ u - v + iyi +i x (s + u - v + i + iy/+ x . 

By these changes we get 

S(u,v) = A.B. [%a r ; u j] F'(i)Q'(i,j), 
where 

P , Y .v _ (-vyi+K(n+^-vyi+ i .(syi+ 1 

r W iif + i ^ n + i_ u _ v yi+i ,( s+u _ v + iy/+ 1 

/ n—s V' /+1 / n-l-s , V /+1 

V'+\s + u-v + i + iyi +1 
To the summation of 

we can now apply (I.), but we must treat separately the two cases 

(1) n-s=2r, (2) n - 1 — s = 2r' , 

r and r' being integers. 

In the first case we have to put 

a=-r + n, /3= -r + ^ + u 
/3 = a + | y=s+u- v + i + 1 , 

and we get 

o ry-vi cm i) - (r+B+i-v+jy-"+ i 

In the second case we have to put 

, / n - 1 - s . \ 
a=y g h u J = -r' + u, 



then /3' = a' - \, namely, 

VOL. XXXVI. PART I. (NO. 2> O 



/3' = l-^+W=-r'-l+ W 



36 DR GUSTAVE PLARR ON THE 

y —y the same as in the first case. Thus we have the slightly different expression 

We transform Q (,) and Q (r) by the help of 

a i+v>i+i - a */+i( a + iyi+i = a »/+i( a _|_ w y/+i ; 
from which 

(a + iy»l+* = a'"/+i x fa+ 2?i y+1 • 

v ' a tl+1 

In the case of Q (r) , we put 

w = r — u , 
and in the numerator, 

a=r+s+\— v . 
Hence 

a+w = 2r+s+% — u — v 

—n+^—u—v, 
because of n - s = 2r . 

Thus the numerator in Q (,,) will be 

[T + 8 + i V) X {r + s+ ^_ v y l+1 ■ 

The denominator in Q ( ' v will be 

( s+u _ v+ i)r-«/+i x yz. ; (. . 

v ' (s+u— v +iy i+i 

Dividing the first of these expressions by the second, and putting 

r _ (r+s + i-vy- u '+ 1 

(s+u-v+iy- v i+ 1 ' 

(n + i-u-vy+\s+u-v+iy + 1 
V ~^ x ( r+g+ j_ v y/+i( r+s+ i_ t ,y/+i • 



we get 



In the case of Q (,) we put 

w = r — u 

a = r'+s+f — v. 
Then 

a+w = 2r'+s+% — u— v=n+\— u— v , 

because of 2r' = n — 1 — s. We have then in putting 

w r . (n + l-u-vy+\*+u-v+i y^ 
V - ^ x (y + 8 + 1 _ v )*/+i( r ' +8 + 1- v)*/ +1 ' 



TRANSFORMATION OF LAPLACE'S COEFFICIENTS. 37 

We have now in the case 2r = n — s, 

Q 0) becoming Q (,/) in the case 2/ + 1 =n — s. 

On forming the product Q (r) P"(t) we see that Q (,) has in its numerator two factors 

which V"(i) has in its denominator. We have thus in the case of Q 0) , accounting for the 

factor C, 

S(u,v) = ABCT>, 
where 

" L z 'o l h i i+ 1 (r+s+k-vyi+ 1 (r+8+l-v) i i+ 1 

in the case of Q (,) , containing C, 

S(u,v)=ABC'D', 
where 

r ,-, (-vyi+nn+i-vy+Hayi+i 

l~ M l'7+i( r ' + s + § - vy+^r' + s + 1 - vy+ l ' 
If now, for the sake of applying (III.), we put in the case of D, 



a= —v 

S=s 
we get 



y—r+s+^—v 
e—r+s+1 —v 



y + e=2r + 2s + %-2v, 
hence 

£=n — 2r — s , 

which is equal to zero by the definition 

n — s _ 

r= _ , 2r=n — s. 
2 

We have then 

y — /3 = r + s — n = r + s — 2r— s= —r, 

e- ft = r+.$ + h — n=r+s+%— 2r — s, 
e-/3=-r + i. 

Thus putting F= 1 in the second member of (III.), we get 

(_ r )»/+i(_ r+ iy»/+i 
~(r+s + %- v) v ' +1 (r + s + 1 - v)"l +1 ' 

For D' we have the same values for a, /3, 8, but 

"/=r'+s+%—v 

e' = r' + s + l— V 
y' + e' = 2r' + 2s + %-2v 
g = 7l + S + § — 2v 

-2r'-2s-% + 2v 
— n — 2r — s — 1 , 



38 DR GUSTAVE PLARR ON THE 

which is also equal to zero by 

r = §(n — 1 — s) , 
which gives 

n = 2r'+s + l . 
Then 

Y — {3 = r' +s+| — v — n— h + v 

= r'+s + l—n 

= — r' 

e' — (3 = r'+s+l — v — n—}i + v 

= r' + s + $ — n 

= r'+s + ^ — 2r' — s — l 

= —r'-\. 

Putting F = 1 in the second member of (HI.), we get 

(-/)*/+!( _ r '_ | )»/+1 



We have thus expressed the sum S(w, v) by a product under a monomial form. We 
will now make use again of the function Il(x) = (x!) for the sake of simplification of the 
factorials and their products. 

We have first (as above § II.) 

(-l) u 2 2v Il(2n-2v) 

- 2 n + s +^llvll(n - vjRln - s - 2u)IL(s +u- v)Ii(u - v) ' 
Then 

( u+£-^)° /+1 

(«-< v +iyi +1 ' 

and, as the limits of v are and u, 

We introduce again the transformation 

(2a) 26 /- 1 = 2 26 a 6 /- 1 (a-J)"/- 1 . 
Hence 

(d) (a -F'- n2a x n ( a - 6 ) 
W ta *J ~2 26 n(2 a -26) X Ila ' 

This gives, identifying a with w — w, 

t> (- l)"II(2w- 2u)Tl(n-u-v) U(u-v) 
2*»II(2n-2u-2v)n(n-u) X TLu - 

Hence the product 

. R ( --_l)«+»II(2w - 2v)II(2w- 2u) B, 

a k - 2«+«n??ii(w - ioriwii(?i - u) x no - s - 2%) • 



where we put 

Then 

As 

we have 



TRANSFORMATION OF LAPLACE'S COEFFICIENTS. 39 

R IL(n—u — v) 

i - 2*.n(2w - 2u - 2v)II(* + u - v) " 

p_ (r+s+%— vy- u l +1 _ (r+s+%— v+r-v,— l) r - u !- 1 

~(s+u-v + l) r - 1 'i +l ~(s+u-v + l + r-u-iy- u i- 1 ' 



2r + s = n; +i-l=-i 



2 > 



_ (w-t'-u-i) r -"/- 1 
~ (r+s-vy-"'-^ ' 
Applying (d) for 

a — n — v — u, 



we get 

From 
we draw 



b = r— u , 

p_ TX(Zn — 2v — 2u)IL(n — v— u— r + u)H(r + s — v — r + u) 
2 2r - 2u U(2n-2v-2u-2r+2u)U.(n-v-u)JI(r+s-v)' 

2n—2r = n+s 

r+s = n—r, 



hence the second factor in the numerator, namely, H(n — r—v), when divided by 
U(r + s — v) gives unity. The third factor above will be U(s + u — v). The first IT in 
the denominator will be U(n + s — 2u). Thus we get 

r _ U(2n -2v- 2u)U(s +u—v) 
~2 n -*-* a IL(n+s—2v)IL(n—v—u,y 

This, by the definition of B x , becomes 

n 1 1 



B 1 2 n ~ sl il(n+s-2v) 
Hence 

(-l) u +m(2n-2v)Ii(2n-2u) 



ABC = 



2 2 »IMI(w - v)HuTL(n - u)Il(n -s-2u) Jl(n + s-2v)' 
In the case 2r' = n— 1— s we have 



_ (r' + s+f-t'X""^ 1 _ (2r' + s-u-v + ^y-^- 1 
~ (s + u-v + iy- u l +1 ~ (r' + s- v)'"'-"/- 1 
But 

2r' + s + ± = n-l + i = n--l 

p, _ Q— m-v-I/— '^Tlfe + u — v) 
II(r'+s — -y) 



Apply (d) by putting 



a — n—u — v, 
b=r —u . 



Then after a reduction similar to the preceding, 



„,_ II (2-n, - 2u - 2t> )U(n -r' — v)Il(s + u-v) 
2F^ 2u U(2n-2r - 2v)IL(n -u- v)TL(? + s - v) 



40 DR GUST AVE PLARR ON THE 

We have 



Hence 
Also from 



2r' = n — 1 — s 
r' + l+s — n-r'. 

tt) , , ~ = (r' + l+s-v). 

Ii(r +s— v) K ' 

2n-2r' = n + l+s 
1 111 



U(n+l+a-2v) (v+l+s-2v) U(n+s-2v) 2r'+2 + 2s-2v IL(n+s-2v)' 

and 

1 2 2 " _ 2x2 2 " 

C)2/-2u 9«— 1— s 2" —s ' 

We have by these 

r , TL (2n-2'u-2v)I[(8+u-v) 2 2 " 

where 

( r , + l+8-v)x2 

0l -(2r'+2 + 2s-2t;) = UDlt ^ 

Again C can therefore be put under the form 

C =TT x 



B 1 A 2»- i n(%+s-2t))' 

hence we have inform the equality, 

ABC = ABC, 

although, of course, n — s is even in the second member, and n—l—s is so in the 
first. 

As to D and D', we put them at once under the form 

D= ( r y/-i.( r _ £)»/-i 






D= (7+s + i)"/- 1 (r' + «) t ' / ~ I ' 

Applying (<i) for D, and for D', 

(2a + l) 2 »/- 1 = 2 2 ''(a+£y/- 1 « ft /- , , 
hence 

(<*+.,)' (a;/ -2 26 II(2a + l-26) 
we get 

II(2r)II(2r+2s-2v) 



D = 



II(2r-2v)II(2r + 2s) 



1 , _ n(2 / + l)n(2r' + l + 2.s-2^) 
~ 1 1 ( 2V + 1 - 2v)ri(2r' + 1 + 2s) ' 



TRANSFORMATION OF LAPLACE'S COEFFICIENTS. 41 

Now, 

2r=n—s = 2r' + l 

2r+2s = n+s=2r' + l + 2s. 

Hence D and D' are identical, 

D _ D ,__ n(ft— s).Il(n+s-2v) 
~ ~ IL{n+s)Il(n-s-2v) ' 

This gives identity in form between ABC'D' and ABCD which represent S(w, v). 
Thus we have 



where 



S(u ' v)= n(^) R(u)xR(v) ' 

B/ Tf N_ (-l) u n{2n-2u) 

K } ~ 2»II(tt)II(« - u)U(n -s-2u)' 



R(v) = the expression R(u), in which u is changed into v. 

As S(w, t>) is composed in the same manner in u and in v, it follows that 

S(v, u) = S(u, v) , 

and the partition of the values of v in respect to the values of u becomes unnecessary, 
and we have 

2 u+2 v = Zv. 

M + l 

Returning now to the expression of Z n of § II. , we see that for every value of u the 
values of v are to be extended from zero to r (or r' , as the case may be), and vice versa. 
We may then represent Z„ as the product of the three factors 

Bjn-8) , 

(2) [2 r o '\](xr- s - 2u R(u) 

(3) [2 r ( ; r v](x') n - s ^R(v). 



This product, multiplied by 



(yy'Y .2 cos (s^r) 



and summed from s = to s = w, will then give Z„, expressed in function of x, xf, y, y', 
and v/a 



42 DR GUSTAVE PLARR ON THE 

If we consider the second of these factors, we see that R u contains 

■■(27i-2u).' 



m2n-2u) x 



U(n-s-2u) 
Hence 

x n - 1 - 2«tt( 2 n - 2u) _ d n+ V" " 2 " 
H(n — 8 — 2u) dx n+s ' 

and we may write 

(-1)" 1 (-l) u n v i-i 



2 n llull(n-u) 2 n Un 1"/ +1 

Hence with the signification of r, r f , 

Now the sum in the second member, considered in itself, and in which the upper 
limit of u may be extended to u = n, represents 

(x 2 -l) n , 

but the differentiation in respect to x causes the terms to disappear, in which u out- 
passes r or /. We have then 

We put, as it is usual, 

= d n (x 2 -l) n 
n ~ 2*Ilndx n 

and then 

[r ''u]R(uy— - =<g^ 

The same expression holds for 

where x is replaced by x / . We have then 

whereas Z„, expressed in 2 as at the beginning of § I., is 

7 _ <w- l) w 

"~ 2 u Ilndz n 
1 10th being the known expressions for Z m . 



TRANSFORMATION OF LAPLACE'S COEFFICIENTS. 43 

NOTE BY PROFESSOR CAYLEY. 

The object of the paper is the direct verification of the well-known equation 

^n ~ "n¥n 

2 

+ n+l.n SxPn '** Pn '' yy ' C0S ^ 

2 

+ ~ rs n =. <5 2 P .5*.P '• ('V2/') 2 cos 2\lr 

n+2.n + l.n.n-l * n x » v ^ ' r 

where Z„ is the Legendrian function, order n, oixx' + yy' cos t/f, (x 2 + y 2 =l, x' 2 -\-y' 2 =l), 
and P„, P w ' are the Legendrian functions of the same order of x, x' respectively. By 
expanding the powers of xx' + yy' cos \p, and in the result the powers of cos xjj in multiple 
cosines of \fj, the left-hand side is at once thrown into the form 

A + 2A 1 yy' cos \Jr + 2A.^yy'f cos 2i/r + &c. 

where A , A lf A 2 . . . are given rational and integral functions of x, x', y 2 , y' 2 ; and the 
problem is that of verifying the equations 

A = PJV, A 1 =—± r -8 s P n .S x P n ', ...A,= — ] n /P,(P»' 

n + L.n n + s.n+s—1 . . . n — s + 1 x n * » 

The author starts with the general term A„ writes therein y 2 =l—x 2 , y' 2 =l — x' 2 , and by 
means of a process (which is of necessity a difficult and complicated one) of the summa- 
tion of factorial expressions, succeeds in reducing this to the required form, numerical 
multiple of SX.8^. 

It would probably be somewhat easier (although far from easy) to verify directly the 
deduced relations 

Ai= — —= — S x &3f Ao, A 2 = — — „ -SxSx'A.i, . . A. s = — —SxSx' A._i , 

n+l.n n+2.n — l n + s.n — s + I 

(in which, of course, y 2 , y' 2 must be regarded as denoting l—x 2 , 1 — x' 2 respectively), thus 
reducing the problem to the verification of the first equation 

Ao ^r n r n ; 

and as regards this equation it would be perhaps easier (instead of writing 
y 2 =l — x 2 , y f2 =l — x' 2 ) to homogenise the equation by introducing in the several terms 
thereof the proper powers of x 2 + y 2 , x' 2 + y' 2 . The left-hand side would thus be a given 
function homogeneous of the order n in x, y, and homogeneous of the same order in 
x', y' (y, y' entering in the squares y 2 , y' 2 respectively), and this should be identically 
equal to the right-hand side PJP/ expressed in the known form 

/ _ n.n—1 „ „ „ , n.n — I. n— 2.n— 3 n , , „ V .,„ n.n — 1 ,, 



■ x" 



„ „ n.n— l.n — 2.n— 3 „ . d D V »« n.n — 1 , „ „ , . \ 
■¥+ 214^ »"-V- &c.j(aj'» ¥ -x' n - 2 y 2 + &c.j 



V 2 2 

VOL. XXXVI. PART I. (NO. 2). H 



( 45 ) 



III. — Phases of the Living Greek Language. By Emeritus Professor Blackie. 

(Read 3rd March 1890.) 



GENERAL SCHEME OF CONTENTS. 



Historical Glance at the Conditions of Change 
in the Greek Language. Specimen of the 
Current Greek of the Newspapers, 

How the Current Notion of Greek being in a 
state of Barbarous Corruption arose, and Con- 
fusion of two Strata of Greek — the Literary 
and the Popular. Specimen of the Vulgar 
Greek of the Peasantry, .... 

Philological Classification of the Differentiating 
Features of the Vulgar or Popular Greek, 

Restoration of the Greek of Literary Currency 



PAGE 



45 



46-47 



48-51 



PAGE 



to its legitimate Position as dominating the 
corrupted types of Local Idioms by Koraes. 
Regeneration of the Current Greek since 1 822, 51-52 

Principle of wise Compromise between the Lite- 
rary and the Vulgar Greek in the Formation 
of the present universally accepted type of 
the Neo-Hellenic Standard, as distinguished 
from the Romaic Dialect, .... 52-53 

Scheme of Reform for the Teaching of Greek as 
a Living Language, with an indication of the 
advantages to flow from such a Reform, . 53-55 



I will commence by stating that three reasons have moved me to bring this subject 
before the Society — (1) Because I found everywhere loose and even altogether false 
ideas possessing the public mind on the subject ; (2) because I much fear that we, the 
academical teachers of the Greek language, are chiefly to blame for the currency of 
these false ideas ; and (3) because, if Greek is a living and uncorrupted language, 
and dominating large districts of Europe and the Mediterranean, as influentially as 
French on the banks of the Seine and German on the Khine, it follows that a radical 
reform must take place in our received methods of teaching this noble and most useful 
language. Now that the current language of the Greeks in Athens and elsewhere is not, 
in any sense, a new or a corrupt language, as Italian is a melodious and French a glitter- 
ing corruption of Latin, may be gathered even a priori ; for languages are slow to die, 
and the time that elapsed from the taking of Constantinople by the Turks in 1453 and 
the establishment of the Venetian power in the Morea in 1204, to the resurrection of Greek 
political life in 1822, was not long enough to cause such a fusion of contrary elements as 
produced the English language from the permanent occupation of the British Isles by 
the Normans. Nay rather, so far from being a fusion, there was a strong repulsion 
between the Mahommedan conquerors and their Christian subjects ; while the jealousy 
between the Greek and the Latin Churches acted as a strong force to prevent any trans- 
forming power that might have been exercised on Greek by a sporadic contagion from 
the Italian ; and the results in the present state of the language are just what were to 
be expected from such historical antecedents. Local varieties of careless or corrupt 
Greek of course may be found among the peasantry, just as we have one type of English 
in Yorkshire, another in Dorsetshire, another in Lancashire, and a fourth in Scotland ; 
for Scotch is in no sense of the word a separate language from English, as Gaelic is from 

VOL. XXXVI. PART I. (NO. 3). I 



46 EMERITUS PROFESSOR BLACKIE ON THE 

Welsh, but only the lyrical and musical dialect of the English tongue, as Doric was of 
the Attic Greek. The few blots and blotches that the popular Greek had contracted 
through long centuries were prevented from impressing any permanent stamp on the 
current language, partly from the uninterrupted action of the Greek Church and partly 
from the continuous literary traditions of Byzantium among the educated Greeks in 
Venice, Cephalonia, Mount Athos, and elsewhere ; and the consequence was that so soon 
as the oppressive yoke of the Turks had been fairly thrown off by the happy conclusion 
of the revolt of 1822, any Turkish and Italian corrupting elements that had partially 
defaced the popular dialect were thrown off as the scales of a skin disease, and left not a 
mark on the fair body of the tongue. As a proof of this, I lay before you a short 
paragraph, the first that comes to my hand, from a recent Greek newspaper, the ''Efa/xepU, 
published at Athens, October 15, 1889, in which an account is given of the marriage of 
the Prince Royal of Greece to a daughter of a royal European house. 

MoA<? Traprfkdov e'tKoai ^povoi enro Ttj? i]p.epa$ icaO' rjv eyevvono to ttowtov eXXtjviKOV j3a<riX6- 
ttovXov, a5? ovpavoireiATTTOv ■yapicrfxa, wg poS6^pv<709 avyt] TraveXXr^vluiv eXirlowv, CTKeSdTovara tu. 
ctkott] t»7? wktos. Ei? to fiaGriXoirovXov e^aplcyQij to ovo/ua tov TeXevTaiov ' tjXXrjvog avTOKpa- 
tooo?, et'? tov ottolov Trjv eKfbwvrjcriv crvyicXoveiTai kou Xayrapei /ecu twv 'rjXXi']vcov 6 etr^aTog. Kcu 
o veo$ KwvGTavTtvog rfi^ave kcu e/xeyaXvveTO els appevanrov veaviav, /ecu avvwoevov avTov ev tG> filw 
airo tovtov els enelvov tov <TTa0/j.6v at ev^ai, oi irodoi, r\ ayairt] iravToov y/ucov. Kcu /ulvutik*] aiyXrj 
tov TrepiefiaXXe kcu avooOev avTov e-rrXavctTO kcu tov ecr/a'afe Siu -^pvaroov irTepvyoiv to (pwrofioXov 
irvevaa tov /xeXXovTO?. 

Anybody that can read Polybius or Diodorus, Plutarch or Chrysostom, without a 
dictionary, will understand this at a glance ; for the deviations that occur in it from the 
strict classical form are so few and so slight as not to throw any hindrance in the way 
of a scholar of common intelligence.* The so-called corruption of the Greek language 
is therefore, if understood of the current language of the day in newspapers, an imagina- 
tion, consisting, as it does, in only a few superficial changes, such as any language in the 
process of centuries naturally undergoes. How this imagination arose can be easily 
explained ; first from the systematic divorce between the academical teaching of Greek 
and the speech of the Greek people, caused by the hybrid and arbitrary pronunciation of 
the language that followed upon the sceptical solution of sceptical doubts raised early in 
the sixteenth century by a notable work of Erasmus, the effect of which was to make the 
university man look upon the speech of the living Greeks as barbarous, while the grand 
barbarism lay with himself; and again, from the superficial notice of the current Greek 
taken by the academical men, leading them to confound the lowest specimens of vulgar 
Greek in the popular ballad with the current language of the Church and of educated 
men from the taking of Constantinople downwards. From this point of view, no doubt, 

* These are— (1) xgoiioi for ?t», but used also sometimes in later Greek. (2) fiuofroKovho; for prince, where ttoiAo? 
is a common termination of Greek proper names, corresponding to son in English and Mac in Gaelic. The etymology 
from iru/.o:, Lat. pullus, Eng. foal, is obvious. (3) 6 otoio; for eg, probably introduced from the Italian il quale. (4) 
A«#rafi'<. a new formation from "ha-KT^u, signifying the kicking or beating of the heart against the ribs in cases of 
vehement desire. (5) tig with the accusative, used for lv with the dative (see below). 



PHASES OF THE LIVING GREEK LANGUAGE. 47 

modern Greek might be called a corruption, or at least a deviation from the recognised 
type of correct expression, just as the Milanese dialect of the Italian is a deviation from 
the Florentine standard, and the low German of the common people, in the lower region 
of the Rhine and the Weser, may be called a corruption of or a vulgar deviation from the 
high German type made classical by Martin Luther ; but even in the lowest of these low 
forms of the vulgar speech of the people, the inherent vitality of the continuous literary 
tradition manifests itself so strongly, that of corruption in the strict sense, that is, 
impurity from the infusion of foreign blood, the traces are remarkably few, and the 
changes on the face of the type, though sufficiently marked, are very far from consti- 
tuting what can with any philological propriety be called a new language. As a specimen 
of what this uncultivated form of the vulgar street ballad mostly was, we cannot do better 
than insert here one of the oldest of the historical ballads found in Passow* and other 
collections, viz., a few lines on the taking of Constantinople by the Turks, a ballad con- 
temporaneous, no doubt, with the achievement of that bloody inroad of oriental barbarism 
into the intellectual civilisation of the west: — 

TLypav Tijv iroXiv, Trypav ty\v \ irypav t>jv SaXow'/c^v ! 

Hypav Kai rr\v kyiav Hotfyiav*, to p.eya povauT^pi, 

TV ei^e rpiaKOcria crr)p.avTpa k e^rjvra Sv6 Kapirdvais' 

KaOe Kap.ira.va Kai 7ra7T7ra?, KaOe 7ra7T7ra? /ecu SiaKog. 

Si/xa va 'fiyovv ra dyia, k 6 fiacriXeag rov Kocrpov, 

<&u)vr) tov$ t]pO' e£ ovpavov, dyyeXoov air' to crTopa' 

'A.<prjr avTrjv TY\v \Jsa\pwSiav ! va x a P- r i^ < ^ cr ovv t dyia ! 

Kai aTel\T€ \oyov '9 t*\v <&payKiav, va epOovv, va Ta -wiacrovv, 

Na -irapovv t6v xpverov crTavpov Kai t dyiov euayyeXiov, 

Kai Trjv aylav Tpaire^av, va prj Trjv apoXvvovv. 

" 2dj/ t a.KOVcrev i] Aecnroiva, SaKpv^ovv y eiKOves' 

2w7ra, Kvpla Aecnroiva ! prj K\aiy$, prj SaKpu^tlS ! 

LTaXe pe xpovovs, p:e icaipovs 7raXe Sued crov eivai." 

They have taken the city, they have taken, it, they have taken Thessalonica, 

They have taken the holy Sophia, the big cathedral, 

Which had three hundred hand bells, and sixty-two great bells, 

With a priest for every great bell, and for every priest a deacon. 

As soon as the holy host went out, and the king of the world, 

A voice came from Heaven, from the mouth of angels, 

Leave off your psalmody, and set down the host, 

And send word to the land of the Franks to come and take it, 

And to take the golden cross, and the holy gospel, 

And also the holy table that it may not be polluted. 

This, when our Lady heard, her images begin to weep ; 

Be still, revered lady, wail not, weep not, 

For again, with the years and the seasons, St Sophia will be thine. 

* TQxyovhct Pi>ftxix.x, edidit Arnoldus Passow, Leipzig, 1860, 



48 



EMERITUS PROFESSOR BLACKIE ON THE 









Now in this passage 






fa 


f irypav 


write 


e7r#/oct»v. 




For 


XapfjXuxrovv 


write \afaai\wrt 


» 


Tt]V 


» 


ayTJjv. 




)> 


oretAe 


>3 


oTeiXaTe. 


)> 


(xovacm'ipt 


>» 


^tOiva(TT///OtOl'. 




„ 


epOovp 


33 


e\6w(ri. 


>> 


Kapiravai? 


j» 


KwSwiXXS- 




33 


7Tia<T0W 


33 


7rie'£cocri. 


» 


ircnnras 


j> 


lepevg. 




33 


t 
irapovv 


33 


eirapUKTi. 


» 


Kade 


?? 


eKCKTTO?- 




„ 


apvkvvovv 


33 


apvXvvcoart- 


33 


Sluko<s 


3) 


StaKovog. 




;> 


<rav 


33 


w? av. 


1) 


cri/ma. 


33 


a)?. 




33 


atcovirev 


33 


tjKovirev. 


33 


va 


33 


iva. 




33 


Saicpv^ovv 


33 


SaKpvovcri. 


33 


fiyovv 


3' 


eicfiaivovo-i. 




33 


n 


33 


at. 


M 


/3acri\eas 


33 


{3(X(Tl\€VS. 




>3 


o-unra 


„ 


aiunra. 


n 


TOVS 


33 


avTOis- 




33 


7raXe 


33 


iraXiv. 


» 


foe 


33 


%\0e. 




33 


fie 


33 


p.era. 


>> 


to arofia 


33 


TOV (TTOfXaTOS. 




33 


SlKU 


33 


IStKa. 


33 


GKprJT 


33 


acptere. 




33 


eivai 


33 


€(TTl. 



Now here we have thirty corruptions for only fourteen lines ; but some of them are 
mere repetitions, and others are so slight as to be easily guessed ; not, certainly, amount- 
ing to a new language in the sense that Spanish or Portuguese are new languages from 
Latin, and Dutch a distinct species from German. Let us now classify, under distinct 
heads, the deviations from the literary type which this and similar productions of the 
unlettered Muse sporadically present. 

1. The loss of the infinitive mood, for which va for <Va with the subjunctive is the 
regular substitute, as if we should say in English " I beg that you accept," for " I beg you 
to accept." 

2. The loss of the optative mood — logically to be lamented, but practically of no 
consequence — " I said so that you may not misunderstand me," being as intelligible as 
" that you might not." In Greek this loss was facilitated partly by the multiform luxu- 
riance of the verb, partly by the identity in pronunciation of oi and n, both being the 
English ee, which appears regularly in the New Testament (see John iii. 25). 

3. The disappearance of the dative case is much more serious ; no doubt the accusative 
is the case in most frequent use, and which strikes the ear more forcibly ; our language, 
which is a history of losses, has done the same, " him " standing for the German ihm and 
ihn ; but the Greeks have done worse ; along with the dative case they have lost the 
preposition ev, with which it is naturally joined, and so for " in these circumstances," they 
say, e<? ret? irepi<TTa<Tei<; Taurus, as in Scotch we say, " this man has muckle room in his 
head, but there's na muckle intil't." 

4. Another equally, perhaps more serious loss, as more foreign from the genius of the 
classic idiom, is the resolution of the tenses expressed in English by " have " and " had," 
"will" and "should," into auxiliary verbs exactly as in modern languages — ei^a being 
used for a pluperfect, and 6a for " will " and " would." 



PHASES OF THE LIVING GREEK LANGUAGE. 49 

5. The sparing of trouble in the memorising of various forms leads to the abolition 
of irregular forms, and massing them all under a common type ; so in verbs, SlSv for SlSwfxi, 
OeTco for Tidttfu. The irregular present ta-rtifit was discarded and a new regular verb, 
common in the New Testament, was formed from the perfect eW^/ca, viz., vt£kw or cttvkco^ 
In the same way -warepas takes the place of -n-ar^p, from the ace. irarepa, following the 
analogy of final a? in masculines of the first declension, and similarly fiaaiXedg for fia- 
o-iXevs, perhaps not innovations but remnants of the old Doric, in which a was the 
favourite vowel. 

6. Pronouns and particles, as not being very self-assertive in their nature, and 
liable to be flung in as adjuncts or enclitics to more prominent words, in Greek, as in all 
languages, are particularly liable to curtailment or careless treatment of some kind : so 

M«? for qfxd$ } °" e '~? for v/xas, tou and tov for avrov and avrov, va for 'Ivd, 7rov and ttw for 07rov } 

and for "who," ttw?, for " that," conjunction, Sev for ovSev; a? with subjunctive for a^>e?, 
like English "let," a(peg 'IScofxev, "let us see" (Matthew xxvii. 49). In this instance, as in 
the use of Iva with the subjunctive, we see the modern Greek is simply a natural develops 
ment of the Greek of the New Testament. See for %a, Matthew v. 29 ; vii. 4, 12. 

7. In nouns and verbs, and compound words, dcpalpeo-is, or the cutting off the initial 
syllable, is very common: thus, -n-wpiKa for o-Kwpaca, for 6-wwpa, "fruits in their season;" 
tt/o-w for d7no-w, ypa/ufxevo? for yey pd/u/uevos, as in English " given," for the Teutonic gegeben ; 

in a great number of compounds of e£ — £evpw for e^evpw, £<xkov<tto$ for egaKovaros , £eo-/re7ra£«, 
for efceo-KeiraCw — vo/xdrog — ovo/xdros — 6vofxaaro<;, " a person." 

Nor is apocope less common not only of syllables but of single letters, as waicSl for 
7raiSlov, SXlyo for SXlyov, ypa(povfie for ypdcpofxev, as the 1st person plural of verbs. 

8. Not unfrequently both aphseresis and apocope take place, until the word is scarce 
recognisable. This is specially observable in diminutives, of which Greek, like Italian, 
is very fond, thus — 



oixfxa 


OfXfxariou 


ofx/xari 


IxaTL 


o(pi? 


6(plSiov 


6 (pi Si 


(plSi 




6£y$iov 


oPvoi 


g$i 


(pvKog 


CpVKlSlOV 


(pvaaKiSiov 


(pvKaalSi 



9. Notwithstanding the gracilitas, or graceful tenuity of Greek, as Quintilian calls 
it, the modern Greeks show a peculiar favour for the broad soft sound of ov = do in boom. 
Thus they have not only ypa<pow (Lat. scribunt) for ypcupovo-t, a remnant of the Doric, but 

eirarovara for eirdrricra as past tense of irarkw. A marked Dorism also we have in eXafiav 

for eXafiov, el-^a for el^ov, and other such aorists regularly. So also indXw and -mdvco, 
unquestionably Doric, Acts iii. 7 and elsewhere for mety. Contrasted with this Dorism the 
py\v for pav as the accusative of adjectives in pds, frequent in modern Greek, is distinctly 
Ionic, and a venerable relic of the phraseology of the Iliad (xxiii. 48). 

10. Of course syncope also comes into play, alone or along with aphseresis, as Kopcprj 
for Kopvty', from inrdyere (John iv. 16), Tray ere, -ware. Sometimes the lost consonant is 



50 



EMERITUS PROFESSOR BLACKIE ON THE 



supplied by assimilation to the preserved one, as for kv-ktoCw — kvttoCw, acpevrt]? for 
avdei>Tr)$, our Effendi. 

1 1 . The insertion of a consonant between two vowels, a sort of euphony, as ayovpos 
for awpos, avyov for wov, likely a remnant of the old form, as egg is doubtless older than 
the Saxon ei or ey ; K\alyw for /cXa/w. 

12. Simple carelessness, as aypouceco for aKpodfiai, e\|/c? for e^Oes ; or interchange 
of cognate letters, dSepcpos for dSe\(p6$, %p6e for %\6e, /3<^« from v-vfy, yXlywpa for 

ypt'jyopa, 

13. Traces of the contagious action of foreign tongues, especially on a people drag- 
ging out its existence through centuries in a subordinate and servile position, no doubt 
exist, Italian, of course, mainly, and Turkish, but remarkably few even in the most 
vulgar type of the Kleptic or Brigand ballads. The following are examples : — 



Mirapovn, gunpowder. 
TovcprjKi, gun. 



Turkish. 

prefix™, empire, government. 
fjLovpTaTt]9, a recreant infidel. 



Tafx7rovpi, agger. 



KairiTav, captain. 
a-eXXa, saddle. 
a(3ovicdT09, avocato. 



Italian. 

Tanfiovpos, tabor. 
Xefievra, volentieri. 
fiepya, verga. 



fiiyXlfy, vigilare. 
o-Taixirap'ia, printing-office. 



crovfiXa, subula. 

P^-ya?, Rex, Regis. 



Latin. 

<nrrjTi, hospitium. 
iravapiov = apTO(p6piov. 



KeXXiov, cella. 
clkovixIBw, accumbere, 



with a family of merely official names occurring in the Byzantine writers, and collected 
in the well-known work of Codinus de officiis. 

Albanian, a slight sprinkling in Passow's glossary ; but the influence of such an 
unlettered people on the Greeks must necessarily have been small. 

All these characteristic deviations from the recognised classical type of Attic Greek 
may justly fall under the categories either of losses, as when a branch or two are lopped 
off from an old tree, or of taint, as when neglect of the forester or inclemency of the 
weather has allowed some unseemly scurf to spread itself in patches over the whiteness 
of the bark; but there is a large class of changes which can in no sense be called 
corruptions, being, in fact, neither more or less than that natural expansion and enrich- 
ment which belongs essentially to every living growth, and to which the Greek language 
in these latter ages is as much entitled as it was in the days of Pericles and Demos- 
thenes. Enrichments of this description, sometimes pure luxuries, sometimes necessary 
formations for the expression of new ideas, are found passim in all varieties of living 



PHASES OF THE LIVING GKEEK LANGUAGE. 51 

Greek, the literary as well as the popular ; and among these is specially to be observed 
a partiality for the terminations l £o> and 6vw in verbs, as <£d\ifys from £a\>/, 7rA^-yoVo) from 
ifKriyri, Tradalvco from TrdOog, (TrjKovco from a-^Kog, and many more. Under the category of 
expansion falls also the application of old words to new circumstances, or attaching to 
them new meanings, as a mere sport of the fancy, or simply from the delight in change, 
as to fipaSv, " the evening," for ecnrepos, Spo/u.09 for 6S6?, Kd/mva) for -wpaTTw, and such like. 

All this looks a very formidable array of losses and disfigurements, which 
may seem to justify the academical treatment of Greek as practically a dead lan- 
guage, and recall to the mind of the scholar the glossarium grceco-barbarum of the 
learned Dutchman Meursius, in which 1040 foreign words are paraded with due pomp of 
quotation in a stout octavo of 650 pages. But we have only to recall the statement made 
above in our introductory paragraph to show the utter falsehood of such a hasty impres- 
sion. The corrupt dialect, whose peculiarities we have been enumerating, as a medium 
of communication amongst educated Greeks, exists no longer ; it is universally condemned 
as a false coin, and has no currency. The first step to this condemnation was made a 
century ago, by the famous Adamantios Koraes, at that time resident in Paris, from 
whom the prolusive blast of patriotic inspiration proceeded, that through the noble 
martyrdom of Rhigas Pher^eas, and the patriarch Gregory V., culminated in the political 
liberation of Greece by the revolt of 1822. But even before that period there were 
degrees of corruption, separate platforms, so to speak, of vulgar Greek, which no intel- 
ligent man could mistake for the current Greek of educated men. Of these platforms 
the Cretan dialect was the lowest, the dialect used by a Cretan Greek resident in Venice, 
Cornaro by name, who, in the year 1756, gave to the world a love romance or novel in 
verse called Erotocritus, which achieved an immense popularity, and has run through 
many editions. As a specimen of the current style of colloquial Greek, on a platform 
considerably above this, we may take the Greek translation of the Arabian Nights, pub- 
lished at Venice in the year 1792 ; but all this since the resurrection of Greece to poli- 
tical independence in 1822 is past; and no man would dream now of translating any 
modern work into the Greek of the Arabian Nights. As a proof of this, any one who 
pleases may consult the work named below, a translation from the travels of a lady well 
known in Cambridge for her expert use of Greek and other living languages.* How was 
this ? Plainly enough from the superficial nature of the disease with which the noble lan- 
guage of the Christian religion and literature had been tainted, and from the instinctive 
ease with which the strong impulse of regenerate nationality was enabled to throw it off. 
The instantaneous effect of the successful rising of 1822 was to give a pulsing reality 
and a pervading force to the linguistic reformation preached by Koraes. The corrup- 
tions that had hitherto defaced the classical tongue were felt as stamps of a hateful 
tyranny, and badges of an unworthy slavery ; and so with one consent the educated 
mind of liberated Greece arose to the grand conception of restoring their language of 
literary and political intercommunion to a type not unworthy of shaking hands with 

* Ay*wt Ifttd : BhififtxTct ml row EKKyivixov jS/ou x.ctl Trig ' T&KKriviKV)? ronoy^oifpla;, kx. rou AyyKiKov, Leipzig, 1885. 



52 EMERITUS PROFESSOR BLACKIE ON THE 

the best models of classical antiquity. Nor was this by any means difficult to do ; for, 
as we have already stated, alongside of the vulgar there had always been practised, from 
the last of the Byzantine historians, a literary Greek, only in the very slightest degree, or 
scarcely at all, infected with the vulgarities of the unlettered speech.* The success of 
this movement was certain ; but, as in all changes of great social forces, there were 
adverse elements at work which required to be considered. Influential as the traditions 
of the literary platform were, it could not be denied that the inspiration which had nerved 
the national arm for victory, had come from the mass of the common people as much 
as from the exertions of the cultivated few ; the praises of the popular heroes of the war 
had been sung in the language of the popular ballads, commonly known as Eomaic, and 
had a most righteous claim not to be ignored in the linguistic presentation of the restored 
nationality. Besides, it could not be the object of patriotic men of culture to separate 
themselves, by a rigidly drawn line, from the language of the common people, whom it 
was their mission to elevate and to improve ; so the advocates of the contending types 
came to a philological compromise, pretty much in the same fashion that political com- 
promises are managed between the reforming and the conservative forces in our parlia- 
mentary debates. The result of this compromise is what we see daily in the Greek organs 
of public opinion, and in other works which issue from the press, of a people who at no 
period proved themselves destitute of that intellectual acuteness and that literary dex- 
terity which was the boast of their forefathers ; and the principles on which this successful 
compromise was made, say as much for the good sense and practical judgment of the 
leaders of literary opinion as its original conception did for their patriotism. These 
principles are four — (1) the absolute exclusion of all foreign words as unnecessary and 
unseemly in a language which has, through so many centuries, retained the luxuriant 
vitality of its native growth ; (2) a free exercise of the formative power of the language 
when new words have to be introduced for new facts and new ideas ; (3) such a moderate 
restoration of classical forms as slides easily and without any felt exertion into the popular 
ear ; (4) such a sparing adoption of the peculiarities of the vulgar Greek as leaves the style 
of modern literary prose much more near to the style of ancient classical prose than the 
style of JEschylus is to that of Homer, or the style of Lord Byron to that of Geoffrey 
Chaucer. And, in fact, the current style now used by the Greeks in their literary pro- 
ductions, their mercantile correspondence, and their political debates, is differentiated 
from the Greek of Polybius and Diodorus by a few characteristic turns, which any intel- 
ligent school-boy may master in ten minutes. This, however, does not imply that the 
language of the peasants is to be allowed to fall into total disuse ; on the contrary, we 
agree with the principles and the practice of an accomplished Corcyrean gentleman, who has 
translated not only Shakespeare's plays but the Odyssey of his own Homer into a style 
of expression more or less approximating to the vulgar dialect,t viz., that the language 

* See as a striking proof of this the Neo-JAXwxij <bfoohoylx from 1453 to 1821, by Satha, Athens, 1868 ; or let any 
one take up Phuanzes, the historian of the last age of Byzantine Hellenism, and judge for himself. 

t 'O/ayjoov Ooiiautix, by Jacobus Polylas, Athens, 1875. 'H t^kv^io. tov 1tix.o%Y\t(>, Corcyra, 1855. k/thtr, Athens, 



PHASES OF THE LIVING GREEK LANGUAGE. 53 

of popular song should go hand in hand with the language of literary culture, just as 
Doric dialect in ancient times did with the Attic norm, and as Scotch does at the 
present moment, in the lyrical domain, with the English of literary prose ; while, at the 
same time, there can be no greater mistake in the mouth of a philologer than to denounce 
the one as a hateful barbarism and to disown the other as a pedantic affectation. They 
are both living forms of a living language, the noblest of all living languages, and a 
language which has preserved its vital continuity through a period of more than three 
thousand years, and as such ought to be dealt with by all intelligent persons in such a 
living fashion, as the principles of linguistic science and the utilities of international inter- 
course enjoin. 

Remains only now to indicate the process of practical reform which our teaching of 
Greek in this country must go through in order to grow from this lusty root into living 
fruit ; and here the well-known aphorism of the wisest British thinker sets before us, 
with his usual pregnant conciseness, at once our starting point and our goal. " Speak- 
ing," says he, " makes a ready man. reading makes a full man, writing an exact 
man" — all the three necessary to make an accomplished scholar, but each in its own 
place. The acquisition of any language is always, like dancing or fencing, a living 
dexterity of art in the first place, and only in a secondary way an application of bookish 
rules. People must have their nails before they pare them. In honestly endeavouring 
to realise this teaching of languages according to nature, we must set a machinery agoing, 
somewhat in the following style : — 

1. Let the universities declare that they will tolerate no longer the figmentary and 
hybrid pronunciation of Greek generally practised in this country, and that after five years 
they will expect all entrants to the Greek classes to come to college with their ears well 
exercised to understand any sequence of intelligible sentences on common matters, 
whether in the style of Xenophon or of Tricoupi, according to the laws of Hellenic 
orthoepy handed down to the present day from the Alexandrian grammarians and through 
the continuous living traditions of the Greek people. 

2. That to every professorship of Greek in a Scottish university, and tutorship in 
an English college, there shall be attached a practical class or classes, containing not 
more than twenty-five students, to be superintended by a native Greek, and exercised 
by him in the conversational use of the Greek language, and to be instructed in the 
literary, political, and ecclesiastical history of Greece from the taking of Constantinople 
to the present time. 

3. That all university libraries, reading-rooms, and students' unions shall be supplied 
regularly with some Greek newspaper and literary periodical, to give them a living sense 
of the continuity of Greek as a medium of expression for the political events and the social 
interests of the hour. 

4. That all patriotic patrons of learning, specially the pious donors of bursaries and 
exhibitions for students in the university, shall be invited to present £100 or £150 a 
year to such hopeful young scholars as may be desirous to gain a living knowledge of the 

VOL. XXXVI. PART I. (NO. 3). K 



54 EMERITUS PROFESSOR BLACKIE ON THE 

Greek tongue by residence in the country, and attendance on historical and philological 
classes in the University of Athens, on condition that after six months they shall return 
home and report progress to the Neo-Hellenic coadjutor of the Greek class in the 
university to which they belong. 

The objections that may be made to such a reform in our method of teaching Greek, 
so far as they are not founded on mere stolid conservatism, I have answered elsewhere, 
and need not repeat here.* Suffice it to say that, while it is obvious to object to certain 
points in the orthoepy of the living Greeks, on the ground that they have departed from 
the ascertained classical norm, it is, on the other hand, impossible to restore for practical 
purposes a consistent orthoepic scheme that shall apply to all literary Greek from 
Pherecydes to Chrysostom. All living languages, by the very fact of their being alive, 
undergo changes, proceeding gradually but surely to the development of certain favourite 
tendencies in pronunciation ; and these changes must be accepted by those who study 
the Greek language, just as the antepenultimate accent of a host of words in English is 
now accepted in place of the oxytone accent which regulated these words in Chaucer's 
verse ; and there can be no harm in scholars reading individual authors, say Sophocles or 
Homer, in such orthoepic fashion as can be proved to have ruled the language in the days 
of these authors ; but for general purposes the catholic tradition of the language must be 
accepted wholesale, as indeed it was by the great scholars of the fifteenth century, before 
Erasmus, in his haste to point out a few faults in a fair structure, left a chaos for a few 
blind masons to heap up into a motley architecture at their will. No doubt there is 
always a difficulty in getting people to change their bad habits in language, as in every- 
thing else ; but this difficulty, rooted principally in ignorance or prejudice, in laziness or 
in conceit, is not one which should appear so formidable to academical, as it so often does 
to political rulers. Besides the advantages which will flow from a radical reform in this 
matter, are such as will amply compensate for any trouble that a change of scholastic 
habits may occasion ; for not only will a living familiarity with the length and breadth of 
the Greek tongue be in this fashion acquired by the few who aspire to professional 
scholarship in a fourth part of the time now spent in the acquisition of the same language 
treated as a dead language, but hundreds of individuals desirous of the best culture, for 
one that now can achieve such a result, will be able to shake hands with Plato, and to 
hold parley with Aristotle, as intimately as they can do now with Cudworth, or Hegel, 
or Immanuel Kant. The teaching of Greek will cease to be to scholastic, and become 
popular at a bound. Nor are we to keep out of view the immense social advantage to 
British tourists in this age of cheap and speedy intercourse, of being able to strengthen 
the bonds of social communion with such an intelligent people as the Greeks. As little 
should we make small account of the mighty lever which a friendly familiarity with 
living Greek will put into the hands of our statesmen to cultivate political relations with 
a people who command the coasts of the Archipelago and the Levant, and whose 

* On Greek Pronunciation: Accent and Quantity, Edinburgh, 1852; and Essays on Subjects of Moral and Social 
Interest, Edinburgh, 1890, Appendix. 



PHASES OF THE LIVING GREEK LANGUAGE. 55 

geographical position points them out as the most effective barriers in South -Eastern 
Europe and Western Asia against Russian ambition on the one hand and Turkish 
barbarism on the other. We islanders have sometimes, not altogether unworthily, been 
accused of a certain insular ignorance in foreign matters, and a certain want of easy and 
kindly sympathy with foreign peoples. The sooner we get rid of this offence the better. 
A familiar acquaintance with the accents of strange tongues is the surest key to the 
affections of strange hearts ; and to an imperial power like Great Britain this must always 
be no secondary consideration. The ruler who would be lightly obeyed must know 
to be largely loved. 



( 57 ) 



IV. — Adamantios Koraes, and his Reformation of the Greek Language. 
By Emeritus Professor Blackie. 

(Read 5th May 1890. ) 

The appearance of a learned and exhaustive work on the life and labours of Koraes, 
by a native Greek of great ability, naturally invites the scholars of Western Europe to a 
grateful acknowledgment of the obligation of the Greek language to this most distinguished 
of its modern exponents.* The fact, indeed, that Greek in this country is popularly 
talked of as a dead language, and as such taught from books through the eye and the 
understanding, rather than by living converse with those who speak it, may serve as an 
apology for the general ignorance that prevails, even in professional circles, with regard 
to the scholarly achievements of this remarkable man ; but the appearance of works of 
such mark in the living literature of Greece as those of Thereianos, Paspates, Bikellas, 
Polylas, and others, warns us that it is high time to take note of living Greece as living 
Greece again, and give to the learned Grecians of the present day their proper share 
in that homage which we pay so liberally to the great masters of Greek wisdom in 
the past. 

Adamantios Koraes was born at Smyrna in 1748, the son of a Chiote merchant who 
had removed from the island to the great centre of commerce on the Continent. As a 
boy young Koraes was remarkable for his love of learning and his hatred of the Turks 
as the enslavers and debasers of his people ; and having inherited a valuable library 
from one of his maternal relatives, he found it necessary to acquire the Latin language, 
in which all the famous commentaries on the great Greek classics had been composed. 
This acquisition he made from the resident Dutch chaplain, Bernard Keun, with whom he 
continued through life on terms of the most familiar intimacy. In the year 1772 he 
went to Amsterdam to conduct his father's business in that city ; but neither then nor 
ever afterwards did he show any inclination for a mercantile life ; on the contrary, the 
main fruit of his residence there, which lasted for some years, was to introduce him to 
the great scholars of the Dutch school, and send him back to the East as great a master 
of German as he had formerly been of Latin. In 1782, in his thirty-fourth year, turning 
his back finally on the mercantile life, he went to Montpellier in France, then the seat of 
a famous medical school, and took his degree of Doctor of Medicine there with marked 
honour. In 1788, in his fortieth year, he removed to Paris, where he remained through 
life, occupied with a scholarly work, for which the rich stores of the libraries in that centre 
of wit and culture offered him abundant opportunity. Like many great scholars, he was 

* ~AhxjLixi/rio; Koaa'/is vnzo A. Qt^axvov • in Te^yiam roftot t^us, 1889. The book may be obtained gratis by appli- 
cation to the 'Ett/tjox^ tou 0'tx.ovofiiiov x.'hyi^oioT'/ifiixTog, Trieste. 

VOL. XXXVI. PART I. (NO. 4). L 



58 EMERITUS PROFESSOR BLACKIE ON 

extremely poor, but not less remarkable for his independence of character than for the 
slenderness of his purse. Though professionally a scholar, and a refurbisher of ancient 
MSS., his grand object in life was, through the dissemination of the best pieces of their 
ancient literature, to revive in the minds of his countrymen those aspirations for their 
political liberty which at no distant period were destined to receive a glorious consumma- 
tion. Accordingly, though his earliest works in the last decade of the century bear a 
decidedly medical type, in the shape of translations from English and German medical 
works, as also an edition of Hippocrates' treatise Tiepl 'Aepcuv koi YSutow Kal Tottwv, he 
came before the French savans in 1802 as a translator of Beccaria's famous work on Crimes 
and Punishments; and in 1803, before a French society of which Fourcroy was the 
chairman, he read a memoir on the Etat actuel de la Civilisation dans la Grece, which may 
be looked on as a sort of dim prophetic intimation of the Greece that now lies before us, 
notably in the system of European States. But times, of course, were not yet ready for any 
decided action in the political field ; neither had Koraes, from his previous acquaintance 
with the Smyrniote Greeks, any reason to suspect the existence of the slumbering fire of 
patriotism which in twenty years afterwards broke out with such substantial results in 
the Peloponnesus. Accordingly, he continued to act in an exclusively literary field, 
and had the good fortune, in this sphere of scholarly activity, to become the right-hand 
man, so to speak, of the brothers Sosimades, patriotic Greeks, who with princely generosity 
acted out what Andrew Carnegie calls the Gospel of Wealth, by endowing patriotic 
institutions and furthering all sorts of Greek learning, with no regard to vulgar pecuniary 
profit. Under the patronage of this distinguished brotherhood, the series of Greek works 
that compose the 'EXX^w/c^ B//3\io0>/K>7, that takes a prominent place in all classical libraries, 
was put forth from the press of Firmest Didot. The first volume of this series in 1805, 
besides Aelian, Heraclides Ponticus, and Nicolaos Damascenus, with learned notes and 
commentaries, contains a discourse entitled ^To^ao-pol avroxeSioi Trep\ rrjs 'EXX^w/ci?? 7raiSeias 
kui TXwo-o-r)?, which, in the history of the Greek mind in this nineteenth century, may be 
looked on as holding somewhat the same place that the theses of Martin Luther, in 1517, 
did in the history of the Christian Church. The subsequent volumes of the BifiXioOnicri, em- 
bracing Isocrates, Strabo, Plutarch, Polyaenus, Antoninus, Hierocles, and some others, 
belong more to the special scholarship of those authors than to the general literary public ; 
but the labours of this large-minded and patriotic Greek with regard to the regulation, 
reformation, purification, or however it may be called, of the language which has been 
the common organ of knowledge, both sacred and secular, for nearly three thousand years, 
form a philological achievement in which the intellectual aristocracy of all countries 
must feel a deep interest. To understand clearly the nature of this linguistic StopOwa-ig, 
we must bear in mind that the Greek which Koraes found in his native Chios had flowed 
down from B) T zantium in the fourth century, like two strata in geology, in a double 
stream : an upper stream confined to the dignified churchmen, statesmen, and gentlemen 
of high position and comparative leisure ; and a lower stream, being the language of the 
less educated classes, of the peasantry, and of the popular ballad. As a scholar, the root 



ADAMANTIOS KORAES, AND HIS REFORMATION OF THE GREEK LANGUAGE. 59 

of whose love of books lay in his love of country, Koraes could not but look on this 
double form of two mutually repellent streams of culture as a national misfortune of a 
grave description ; if the nation was destined to start again before the world as a 
political unity, and as the bearer of a proud intellectual inheritance, it could do so only 
through the medium of a form of speech which united all classes in common sympathies 
and common tendencies. The highest class must be taught to condescend to the lowest, 
and the lowest to mount up to the highest, and make a harmony together, as musical 
notes do when cunningly handled in the scale. Of course this could only be done in the 
way of compromise ; a compromise in which, while the aristocratic element should forego 
all affectation of obsolete classical forms, the democratic element should willingly submit 
to the discipline of throwing off the more rank corruptions which had attached to it 
through the long neglect of centuries. Such a compromise was a matter that required a 
delicate touch, a refined taste, and a nice discrimination which only a man of accurate 
learning and large popular sympathies could command ; and no individual man, however 
great, could have achieved it, had he not been supported by the natural instincts and the 
patriotic impulses of the people of whom he stood forth as the spokesman. Opposition, 
of course, from extreme men of both parties, the representatives of the aristocratic few and 
the apostles of the democratic many, could not but ensue ; and, in the hands of Doucas 
Kodridas and others, the yXwaa-acov (rjrtjfxa, the battle of the tongues, was carried on for 
some years with a violence scarcely intelligible now. The great argument from accom- 
plished fact has prevailed ; and the reformed Greek style, in the main that of Koraes, has 
asserted for itself a currency in literature, in the periodical press, in the national parlia- 
ment, and in the national colleges and schools, more wide and more complete than the 
poor Chiote scholar in his most hopeful moments could have dreamed. 

In order to give the purely classical scholar an exact idea of the nature of the 
philological compromise thus so happily brought about, I will take the autobiography of 
Koraes, written at Paris in December 1829, and published in the volume of which the 
title is given below ;* and in the first ten pages — with about 33 lines in a page — I find 
only twenty-two peculiarities of style that distinctly differentiate the modern Greek, under 
the manipulation of Koraes, from the Greek of the classical age ; and these differences are, 
in the great majority of cases, so slightly varied from the ancient style, that any intelligent 
reader of Attic could master them in ten minutes. How slight this departure is from 
the classical norm will be best understood from a specimen or two of the vulgar unreformed 
dialect, as our great scholar found it current in his youthful days. Let us take first the 
Erotocritus, a love novel in the Cretan dialect, by a Venetian Greek called Cornaro, 
published at Venice in the year 1756, a work which at one time enjoyed an immense 
popularity. Now, in the first eight lines of this " Homer of the vulgar philology," as 
Koraes calls it, I find as many departures from the classical type as in the whole ten 
pages of Koraes. Again, to take a type of the vulgar Greek less extreme than the Cretan 
confessedly is, in a translation of the Arabian Nights, published at Venice in 1792, 1 find 

* ' ATra.i/fa<7ftx oeuTiQon iirta-cokuv A3 u.p. ctvriov Ko^otsj " ly ABvivxt;, 1841. 



GO EMERITUS PROFESSOR BLACKIE ON 

in the first eight lines only fourteen differential variations, and they are such as any clever 
boy, trained at a classical school, would without difficulty understand. How far this 
ratio is from that degree of corruption which turned Latin into Italian may be understood 
at a glance by an analysis of any eight lines of a similar length from these languages ; 
and here I find in the first eight lines of the first book of Tasso's Gerusalemme no less 
than twenty-six variations from the classical Latin ; while in eight lines of Spanish I find 
twenty-eight. It is plain, therefore, from this comparison, that, whereas the barbarous 
Cretan Greek of the Erotocritus stood exactly at the point where favourable circumstances 
might have enabled modern Greek to start into a new language, bearing the same relation 
to ancient Greek that Italian and Spanish do to Latin, the less corrupted Greek which 
Koraes had to manipulate was in a state which only required his skilful touch and a few 
years of wise usage to make it shake hands with the classical Greek half-way, and present 
to the world the great philological triumph which the flourishing literature of modern 
Greece, since the grand social result of 1827, so imposingly exhibits. It must not be 
supposed, however, that in this great triumph of the upper stream over the lower stream 
of traditional Greek — for to this it substantially amounts — there has been any act 
of violent injustice done to the popular Greek, the bearer of so much stout national 
life, and the recorder of so many acts of peasant heroism ; on the contrary, for purely 
popular purposes, the vulgar dialect still asserts itself pleasantly, just as the Dorsetshire 
dialect, and the dialect of Ayrshire made classical by Burns, are heard purling sweetly 
alongside the great rolling stream of the English language, not only without offence, but 
with great enjoyment to all who know how near the language of the peasantry always 
is to the heart of Nature, and how free the popular song knows to keep itself from the 
false refinements and the pretty affectations so apt to be the concomitants of a high 
state of culture in a literary class. 

What remains of the life of Koraes from this period till the great national up-rising 
of 1822 brought his long-cherished patriotic dreams to an unexpected realisation is lightly 
told. At his advanced age, being then past seventy, and not in very fair health, he was 
not in a condition to gird himself, with young kilted Albanians, for the actual tug of 
warfare in the field ; but, while denied his part in the strokes of the sword, the service of 
his pen was ever ready to make his countrymen intellectually and morally worthy of what 
political results their armed struggle might procure ; and accordingly, in the works edited 
by him in the last decade of his life, we observe a choice of classical books with a distinct 
moral and political colouring. Among these were Aristotle's Politics and Ethics, 
Xenophon's Memorabilia, Plato's Gorgias, Lycurgus' Oration against Leocrates, 
Onosander's Strategicus, the first elegy of Tyrt^eus, Plutarch's HoXirela, Epictetus' 
'Eyxup idtov, Arrian's Ettiktiitov AiaTpifi-q, Cebet's Tabula, and the hymn of Cleanthes. 
Besides these strictly scholarly labours, in his XweicSqtJLos lepariKog he came into collision 
with that sacerdotal party which, in modern Greece as in modern England, has its delight 
in magnifying the functions and giving a sort of sacrosanct inviolability to the persons of the 
sacerdotal order. He also gave offence to certain of the Greek clergy by countenancing 



ADAMANTIOS KORAE8, AND HIS REFORMATION OF THE GREEK LANGUAGE. 61 

a translation of the Greek New Testament into the vulgar tongue. In fact, though a 
man of decided piety and of a pure Christian life, he found, like many other thinkers, 
that large thinking, when practised all round, cannot fail to bring an honest man, with 
certain classes, into the reputation of heresy ; for there always will be, both inside and 
outside the clerical order, not a few persons with whom ignorance and narrow-mindedness 
are the two prime postulates of orthodoxy. 

Adamantios Koraes died at Paris on the 25th April 1833, aged 85 years. The 
last articulate word which with his dying breath he uttered was irarpU — my country ! 
and coupled with this was the exclamation which he made when fixing his last look on a 
portrait of Demosthenes that hung by his bedside on the wall — eiceii>o<s vto avdpw7ros: he 
was a man ! 



VOL. XXXVI. PART I. (NO. 4). M 



( 63 ) 



V. — On the Fossil Flora of the Staffordshire Coal Fields. By E. Kidston, 
F.R.S.E., F.G.8. (With a Plate.) 

(Read July 7, 1890.) 

PART II. 
The Fossil Flora of the Coal Field of the Potteries. 

The present paper is the second of the series dealing with the Fossil Flora of the 
Staffordshire Coal Fields."" As in previous memoirs, I give a short sketch of the Geology 
of the coal field, merely for the purpose of indicating the relationship of the beds to 
each other, from which the fossils have been derived.! 

Various memoirs dealing with the geological structure and resources of the Potteries 
Coal Field have already appeared, but in these the names applied to the different groups 
of strata which compose the Potteries Coal Field have generally special application to the 
local geological features, and do not treat of the Coal Field in its wider relationship, when 
considered as only forming a part of the Coal Measures as developed in Britain. A similar 
course has usually been taken in the published memoirs of other British Coal Fields, which 
makes a comparison of their relative ages, from the data given, very difficult. 

Although the Mollusca have usually been collected and examined, from their great 
vertical distribution — in some cases extending throughout the whole range of car- 
boniferous rocks — they as a whole afford little data for the determination of the divisions 
of the Coal Measures, and unfortunately the fossil plants appear to have received little 
attention when the memoirs of the various coal fields were being prepared. This is 
much to be regretted, as many opportunities for acquiring specimens have been lost, and 
it is now generally admitted, by those who have studied this branch of Palaeontology, that 
for the determination of the divisions of the Coal Measures there is no class of organisms 
which afford such certain data as fossil plants. 

Before mentioning the divisions occurring in the Coal Measures of the Potteries 
Coal Field which are adopted in this paper, it is desirable to mention those adopted by 
previous writers. 

In the "Iron Ores of Great Britain," \ Part IV., the following divisions are recog- 
nised : — 

* Part I., " On the Fossil Plants collected during the Sinking of the Shaft of the Hamstead Colliery, Great Barr, 
near Birmingham," Trans. Roy. Soc. Edin.,vo\. xxxv., part 6, p. 317, 1888. 

t In North Staffordshire there are four coal fields or basins, known respectively as — (1) The Potteries Coal Field ; 
(2) The Wetley and Shafferlong Coal Field ; (3) The Goldsitch Moss Coal Field ; (4) The Cheadle Coal Field and the 
Lower Coal Measures of the Churnet Valley. Of these, the largest and the most important coal field is that known as 
the Pottery Coal Field, which contains the principal seams of coal and ironstone found in North Staffordshire. It is 
also rich in organic remains. 

X Memoirs of the Geological Survey of the United Kingdom, " The Iron Ores of Great Britain," part iv. ; The Iron 
Ores of the Shropshire and North Staffordshire Coal Fields, 1862. 

VOL. XXXVI. PART I. (NO. 5). N 



64 MR ROBERT KIDSTON ON THE 

1. Upper Measures, consisting chiefly of red " marls" or clays, with a few thin bands 

of coal, and some grey binds and sandstones in the upper part, containing an 
ironstone called the Top red mine, 18 inches thick at Silverdale. 
Thickness very uncertain ; probably about 1000 feet. 

2. Pottery Coals and Ironstone Measures, containing eight to thirteen seams of 

coal of above 2 feet thick, mostly inferior, and suitable only to pottery purposes, 
and ten or twelve workable measures of ironstone. 

Thickness 1000 to 1420 feet down to Ash or Rowhurst coal. 

3. Lower Thick Measures, containing the chief furnace coals, from the Ash to the 

Winpenny inclusive, seventeen or eighteen seams above 2 feet thick. Ironstone 
scarce, or almost absent. 

Thickness 1400 to 2400 feet. 

4. Lowest Measures, including thin seams generally known as the Wetley Moor, 

Biddulph, or " Wild " coals, from two to four in number. 
Thickness about 800 feet. 
This would give a total, down to the upper bed of Millstone Grit, variable in different 
parts of the field, of from 4200 to 5620 feet. # 

Professor Hull t gives the following divisions : — 

Permian Rocks. — Red and purple sandstones, marls, and cornstones (with plants); 
strata slightly unconformable to the Coal Measures. 
Greatest thickness 600 feet. 
Coal Measures. — I. Upper. — Brown sandstones, greenish conglomerate (like the vol- 
canicashes of South Staffordshire), with thick beds of red and purple mottled clays ; 
thin coals and a bed of Spirorbis limestone at Fenton, Longton, Shelton, &c. 
Greatest thickness 1000 feet. 
II. Middle. — Sandstone, shales, with ironstone, and about forty coal seams. 

Greatest thickness 4000 feet. 
III. Lower. — Black shales and flags, with Wetley Moor thin coals, and red iron- 
stone of the Churnet Valley (Goniatites, Aviculopecten). 
Greatest thickness 1000 feet. 
Millstone Grit. — Coarse grits, shales, and flags. 

Greatest thickness 1000 feet. 
Yoredale Rocks. — Black shales, &c, with marine fossils. 

Greatest thickness 3100 feet. 
Carboniferous Limestone. — 4000 to 5000 feet. 

In the excellent memoir published by Mr John Ward, j F.G.S. ("The Geological 

*Loc. cit., ].. 258. 

t Tlie Coal Fields of Great Britain, 4th ed. (1881), p. 183. 

% "The Geological Features of the North Staffordshire Coal Fields; their Organic Remains, their Range and 
Distribution ; with a Catalogue of the Fossils of the Carboniferous System of North Staffordshire," Trans. North 
Staffordshire Institute of Mining and Mechanical Engineers, vol. x. pp. 1-189, with 9 plates, 1890. 



FOSSIL FLORA OF THE STAFFORDSHIRE COAL FIELDS. 



65 



Features of the North Staffordshire Coal Fields," &c), the following divisions are 
adopted * : — 



Formation. 
New Red Sandstone or Trias. 

Permian Rocks. 



Carboniferous Rocks. 



i 



Division. 
Bunter. 



Upper. 



Lower. 



J 



Subdivision. 
Pebble Beds. 
Red Marls. 
Red Sandstone. 

1. Upper Coal Measures. 

2. Middle Coal Measures. 

3. Lower Coal Measures. 

4. Millstone Grit. 

5. Yoredale Rocks. 

6. Carboniferous Limestone. 



These are the divisions of the Coal Measures adopted in this communication, — the 
Potteries Coal Field being one of those in which the three divisions of the Coal Measures 
occur, as developed in Britain, t 

The Upper Coal Measures of the Potteries contain little coal, but yield some valuable 
beds of Black Band Ironstone. 

The following section shows the position of the various Coal Seams and Ironstones : — 



General Vertical Section of the North Staffordshire Coal Field, adopted, vrith slight 
modifications, from that issued by Mr Homer, 



X 



o 

OS 
<M 

o 

C3 



a 



' Red and Purple Marls of uncertain depth 
Strata, 

Half Yards Ironstone and Coal, 

Strata, 

Red Sliagg Ironstone and Coal, 



H 4 



J 
■4 
o 
O 

« 
Oj 



Ironstone, 1' 6" to 5' 6", 
Coal, 



Gutter Stone, 

Gutter or Fen ton Low Coal, 

Strata, 



Ironstone, 
Coal, . 



I Oil Shale, 
Top Red Mine Ironstone and Coal, -| Ironstone, 

( Coal, 
Strata, 

Shale, Metal and Fire Clay, 
Strata, 

Coal, 

Dirt, 

Hoo Cannel, ■{ Bass, 

Ironstone, . 
Bass, 

Strata, ....... 

^Spirorbis Limestone, 12 yards above Bassey Mine Ironstone, 

* Log. tit, p. 4. 

t In regard to the Lower Coal Measures in the above Table, Mr Ward divides this series into two subdivisions — 
an Upper and a Lower group. The "Upper" group contains the principal seams of coal used for domestic and manu- 
facturing purposes, and includes the whole of the measures occurring between the Ash or Rowhurst and the Winpenny 
coals. The " Lower " series consists of dark shales, sandstones, and purple-coloured rocks, with occasional grits and 
conglomerates. It includes four or five thin coals of little commercial value. Each group is distinguished by a distinct 
series of coal beds, and equally well characterised by its organic remains. 

t " The North Staffordshire Coal Field, with the Ironstones contained therein," Trans. North Staffordshire Inst, of 
Mining and Mechanical Engineers, vol. i. p. 102, 1879. 











Yards. 


Feet. 


Inches 

























199 


2 









saj 


r 





18 

1 




17 



6 
3 

25 


3 
' 1 

2 
1 
1 

2 
2 
2 
1 
1 
2 
2 

2 



6 
8 

8 


3 
3 

6 
6 
2 

2 



ards. 


Feet. 


Inches. 














8 














3 











1 


1 














9 











1 


9 














1 
10 


1 




6 




















2 


6 



66 



MR ROBERT KIDSTON ON THE 























Yards. 


Feet. 


Inches 




Strata, . . . 








12 










Bassy Mine Ironstone, 












1 


1 







Strata, 












9 


1 







Little Row Coal, 














1 










Strata, 














8 


2 







Foot Coal, 

















1 







Strata, 














9 


2 







Peacock Coal, 














2 










Strata, 














5 


2 







Spencroft Coal, 














1 





3 




Strata, 














23 












Yards. . 


Feet. 


Inches. 










Gubbin Ironstone in bands, < -r, p '. 


. 

. 1 


2 
1 


2 
11 


2 


1 


1 




Strata, ...... 


Yards. 


Feet. 


Iuches. 


4 





6 




( Roof Coal, 


1 
















Great Row Coal, < Bass and Cannel, 


. 


2 













(Coal, .... 


. 2 








3 


2 


o 




Strata, ...... 








9 


1 


9 


© 




Yards. 


Feet. 


Inches. 










Coal, .... 


. 


1 


7 








00 




Ironstone Peel, 


. 


2 


6 








o 

•S 


Cannel Rmv, < 


Coal, 
Black Bass, 


. 1 

. 


1 

2 














Bottom Coal, 


. 


2 











CO 

to 

CD 




Warrant, .... 


. 


1 











C 












4 


1 


1 


,M 








o 


Strata,. ...... 








26 








.J3 


Wood Mine Coal, ..... 











1 


6 


1/ 


Strata, ...... 








4 


2 









Yards. 


Feet. 


Inches. 








PS 

p 

CO 

-a 


( Ironstone, 


. 





9 








Chalky Mine Ironstone, < Bass, 


. 





5 










( Ironstone, 


. 





9 








r=S 











3 


1 
1 


11 



k3 
■"I 


Strata, ...... 








o 


Chalky Mine Coal, .... 










1 





2 




Strata, ...... 










39 








P 

Q 


Deep Mine Ironstone, .... 
















10 


i3 


Strata, ...... 










3 


1 





<< 


New Chalky Mine Ironstone, 

Strata, ...... 

Bunrjilow Coal, . ... 

Bay Coal and Strata, .... 

Winghay or Knowles Ironstone and Coal, . 
Strata, ...... 











13 

1 
73 

1 
24 


2 
1 


1 
2 




6 
6 

6 







Yards. 


Feet. 


Inches. 










T Ironstone, 


. 


1 


10 










Rusty Mine Ironstone, < Grey Clod, 


. 1 





4 










(^ Ironstone, 


. 





4 


1 
22 


2 



6 





Strata, ...... 










Ilrotni Mine Ironstone, .... 



















Strata, ...... 


Yards. 


Feet. 


Indies. 


58 


1 









r Coal, 


. 1 


1 















Bass, &c., . 


. 


1 


7 










Ash or Rowhurst Ironstone and Coal, ■ 


Coal, 
Bass, 


. 
. 






9 
9 


















_ Coal. 


. 1 





( 


) 


3 


i 


l 



FOSSIL FLORA OF THE STAFFORDSHIRE COAL FIELDS. 



67 



Strata, 



Neiv Mine, Little Mine, or Burn wood Ironstone, 



Strata, 

Gin Mine or Golden Twist Coal, f 

Strata, 

Birehenwood Coal, 

Strata, 

Moss or Easting Coal, 

Strata, 

Yard Coal, . 

Strata, 

Little Row Coal, 

Strata, 

Ragman Coal, 

Strata, 
" Old Whitfield or Birches Coal 

Strata, 

Bellringers' Coal, 

Strata, 

Ten Feet Coal, 

Strata, 

Bowling Alley Coal, . 

Strata, 

Holly Lane Coal, 

Strata, 

Hard Mine or Sparrow Butts Coal, 

Strata, 

Bambury Coal, 

Strata, 

Cockshead Coal, 

Strata, 

Whitehurst Coal, 

Strata, 

Bullhurst Coal, 

Strata, 

Winpenny Coal, 

Strata, 

Four-Foot Coal, 
<£ \ Strata, 
| Two-Foot Coal, 
j [ Strata, 

The whole area occupied by the Potteries Coal Field is of small extent, though of 

great mineral resources. It is of triangular form, the northern apex lying near Congleton, 

the eastern at Lohgton, and the western angle a little west of Keel. Its greatest length 

is about 12 miles, and its width about 8 miles. 

* In Mr Ward's Geology of the Coal Field this division is called the Lower Thick Coal Measures, but as the rocks 
included in this group are evidently the equivalents of the Lower Coal Measures of other Coal Fields, I have omitted the 
word " Thick," as tending to create confusion. 

t In regard to some fossils found in " a bed of grey shaley marl, or ' clutch,' lying a few feet above the Gin Mine, 
or Golden Twist Coal," Mr Ward states (loc. cit., p. 42) that Mr John Yodng, F.G.S., Glasgow, informed him "that 
the specimens in the list agree closely with those found in the Upper Coal Measures of Scotland." It must be distinctly 
stated here that the term Upper Coal Measures of Scotland, as used by Mr Young, is only of local application, and does 
not at all correspond to tlie Upper Coal Measures of Britain. The rocks called Upper Coal Measures of Scotland are only 
the Upper Series of the Lower Coal Measures of Britain. 



d 
© 

o 

n 



13 

o 

la 

H 



< 
o 
O 

O 

t-1 











Yards. 


Feet. 


Inches 


! ! 


2 







Yards. Feet. Inches. 






Ironstone, . 


14 






Bass, 


2 






Ironstone, . 


1 3 






Coal, 


1 1 9 






Bass, 


1 2 








3 


1 


6 




8 



















2 


4 










148 
















1 


2 













19 


2 













1 





10 










75 
















1 





6 










6 
















1 
















4 


1 
















2 


6 










13 


2 













1 





9 










36 


1 


9 










1 





6 










46 
















2 


1 


4 










32 


1 













1 





4 










24 





6 










1 





6 










30 


1 













1 





5 










97 


2 













1 


2 


8 










41 
















2 


1 


6 










26 



















2 


3 










55 
















1 


2 













17 
















1 
















200 



















3 


6 










40 



















2 






68 MR ROBERT KIDSTON ON THE 

In regard to the Permian Eocks of North Staffordshire, Mr Ward * says : — " I may 
here remark that a considerable development of red, purple, and variegated marls, which 
have been coloured by the Geological Survey as Permian, are, I am inclined to think, in 
reality Upper Coal Measures. It remains a question yet to be decided whether a con- 
siderable area occupied by beds such as I have described, largely developed on the western 
and southern parts of the coal field, should with propriety be classed with the Permian 
or Upper Coal Measure Series. Whatever may be the issue of the inquiry, it is clear 
that, concerning the line of demarcation separating the Permian from the Upper Coal 
Measures in North Staffordshire, as yet we know nothing." 

In connection with the age of these supposed Permian rocks, it may be mentioned 
that certain rocks at Great Barr, near Birmingham, which were also thought to be 
Permian, were shown while sinking the shaft of the Hamstead Colliery to be Upper Coal 
Measures.t 

In collecting material for this paper I am indebted for much assistance to Dr Hind 
and Mr F. Barke, Stoke-upon-Trent ; but especially am I indebted to Mr John Ward, 
F.G.S., Longton, for the valuable help he has given me, and by whom I was brought 
into correspondence with these other workers, and through whose kind offices I had 
every facility given me for examining the specimens in the Stoke Museum. My thanks 
are also due to Mr R. Clive for specimens from Tunstall. 

Synopsis of Species. 

Calamiteae. 

Group. I. — Calami tin a, Weiss., Steinkohlen Calamarien, part ii. p.*96, 1884. 

Calamitina (Calamites) varians, Sternb., sp. 

Catamites varians, Sternb., Vers., ii. p. 50, pi. xii. 

Middle Coal Measures. 

Horizon and Locality. — Bassy Mine Ironstone. Stafford Iron and Coal Company, 

Fenton. 
,, „ 40 yards below Little Row Coal. Clan way Colliery, Tunstall. 

,, ,, Knowles Ironstone. Fenton. 

,, (?) ,, Adderley Green, near Longton. 

Lower Coal Measures ( Upper Series). 
Horizon and Locality. — Holly Lane Coal. Bucknall. 

* hoc. cit., p. 14. 

t See Rep. Brit. Assoc, 1886, p. 626; also Trans. Roy. Soc. Edin., vol. xxxv., part 6, p. 317, 1888. 



FOSSIL FLORA OF THE STAFFORDSHIRE COAL FIELDS. 69 



Calamitina (Calamites) approximates, (Schloth.), Brongt. 

Calamites approximates, Brongt. (in part), Hist. d. veget. foss., p. 134, pi. xxiv. figs. 2, 3, 4, 5. 
Calamites approximates, Geinitz (in part), Vers. d. Steinkf. in Sachsen, p. 7, pi. xii. fig. 3. 

Middle Coal Measures. 

Horizon and Locality. — About horizon of Bassy Mine Ironstone. Tunnel, New- 

castle-under-Lyme. 
Great Kow Coal Rock. Fenton. 



Group II. — E U calamites, Weiss., Steinkohlen Calamarien, part ii. p. 96, 1884. 

Eucalamites (Calamites) ramosus, Artis. 

Calamites ramosus, Artis, Antedil. Plvjt., pi. ii. 

Calamites ramosus, Brongt., Hist. d. veget. foss., p. 127, pi. xvii. figs. 5, 6. 

Calamites (Eucalamites) ramosus, Weiss., Steinkohlen Calamarien, part ii. p. 98, pi. ii. fig. 3 ; pi. v. figs. 
1, 2 ; pi. vi. ; pi. vii. figs. 1, 2; pi. viii. figs. 1, 2, 4; pi. ix. figs. 1, 2; pi. x. fig. 1 ; pi. xx. figs. 1, 2. 
Calamites nodosus, L. and H., Fossil Flora, vol. i. pi. xv. (in part, not pi. xvi.) 

Middle Coal Measures. 

Horizon and Locality. — Great Row Coal Rock. Stafford Iron and Coal Company, 

Fenton. 



Group III. — Sty lo calamites, Weiss, Steinkohlen Calamarien, part ii. p. 119, 

1884. 

Stylocalamites (Calamites) Suckowii, Brongt., sp. 

Catamites Suckoivii, Brongt., Hist. d. veget. foss., p. 124, pi. xiv. fig. 6; pi. xv. figs. 1-6; pi. xvi. 

figs. 2, 3, 4 (1 ?). 
Calamites Suckowii, Weiss., Steinkohlen Calamarien, part i. p. 123, pi. xix. fig. 1 (1876); part ii. p. 129, 

pi. ii. fig. 1; pi. iii. figs. 2, 3; pi. iv. fig. 1; pL xxvii. fig. 3 (1884). 
Calamites Suckowii, Zeiller, Flore foss. d. bassin houil. d. Valenciennes, pi. liv. figs. 2, 3 ; pi. Iv. fig. 1 

(1886). Text, p. 333 (1888). 

Upper Coal Measures. 
Horizon and Locality. — Shales above Gutter Coal. Hampton's Marl Pit, Hanley. 

Middle Coal Measures. 
Horizon and Locality. — About horizon of Bassy Mine Ironstone. Railway Tunnel, 

Newcastle-under-Lyme. 



'0 MR ROBERT KIDSTON ON THE 

Horizon and Locality. — Below Little Cannel Row Coal. Clan way Colliery, Timstall. 
,, „ Common throughout the series. Longton. 

Lower Coal Measures {Upper Series). 

Horizon and Locality. — 12 yards below New Mine Coal. Adderley Green Colliery, 

near Longton. 
,, ,, Bowling Alley Rock. Weston Coyney Colliery, Longton. 

,, ,, Roof of Holly Lane Coal. Bucknall. 

,, ,,2 yards below Hard Mine Coal. Weston Coyney Colliery, 

Longton. 



Stylocalamites (Calamites) Cistii, Brongt, sp. 

Calamites Cistii, Brongt., Hid. d. veget. foss., p. 129, pi. xx. 

Calamites Cistii, Geinitz, Vers. d. Steinkf.in Sachsen, p. 7, pi. xi. figs. 7, 8; pi. xii. figs. 4, 5; pi. xiii. 

fig. 7. 
Calamites Cistii, Zeiller, Flore foss. d. bassin houil. d. Valenciennes, pi. lvi. figs. 1, 2 (1886), p. 342 (1888). 

Lower Coal Measures ( Upper Series). 
Horizon and Locality. — Bowling Alley Rock. Weston Coyney Colliery, near 

Longton. 
,, „ 2 yards below Hard Mine Coal. Weston Coyney Colliery, 

near Longton. 



Pinnularia, L. and H. 
Pinnularia columnaris, Artis, sp. 

Pinnularia capillacea, L. and H., Fossil Flora, vol. ii. pi. cxi. 
Hydatica columnaris, Artis, Antedil. Phyt., p. 5, pi. v. 

Middle Coal Measures. 
Locality. — Fenton, and generally distributed throughout the Coal Measures. 

Remarks. — The plants placed in Pinnularia are evidently roots and rootlets, but it 
is quite impossible to determine to which plant they belong. Most probably they are 
the rootlets of many different plants. To the same group of fossils belong the Hydatica 
prostrata, Artis (loc. cit., pi. i.), and the Myriophyllites gracilis, Artis (loc. cit., pi. xii.), 
and several other described forms which it seems unnecessary to regard as of specific 
value, but which would be better regarded as merely roots and rootlets, without any 
attempt at a specific description. 



FOSSIL FLORA OF THE STAFFORDSHIRE COAL FIELDS. 71 

Calamocladus, Schimper. 
Calamocladus equisetiformis, Schlotheim, sp. 

Calamocladus equisetiformis, Schimper, Traite d. paleont. veget., vol. i. p. 324, pi. xxii. figs, 1, 3. 
Casuarinites equisetiformis, Schloth., Flora d. Vorwelt, p. 30, pi. i. figs. 1, 2; pi. ii. fig. 3. 
Hippurites longifolia, L. and H., Fossil Flora, vol. iii. pis. cxc. and cxci. 

Upper Coal Measures. 
Horizon and Locality. — About 300 yards above Bassy Mine Ironstone. Railway 

Cutting, Florence Colliery, Longton. 
,, ,,12 yards above Spirorbis Limestone. Fenton Low (Cones). 

Middle Coal Measures. 
Horizon and Locality. — About horizon of Bassy Mine Ironstone. Railway Turmel, 

Newcastle-under-Lyme. 
,, ,, Great Row Coal Rock. Fenton. 

,, ,, Below Little Cannel Row Coal. Clan way Colliery, Tud stall. 

„ ,, Bay Coal. Longton. 

, ; ,, Knowles Ironstone. Stafford Iron and Coal Company, 

Fenton. 

Lower Coal Measures ( Upper Series). 
Horizon and Locality. — Bowling Alley Rock. Weston Coyney Colliery, Longton. 

Calamitic Cone. 

Middle Coal Measures. 
Horizon and Locality. — Knowles Rock. Longton. 

,, „ Knowles Ironstone. Stafford Iron and Coal Company, 

Fenton. 
Remarks. — The cones placed here are not in a good state of preservation, but I 
believe they are similar to those described by Ck^pin as the fruit of Calamocladus 
equisetiformis. * 

Sphenophyllese. 

Sphenophyllum, Brongt. 

Sphenophyllum cuneifolium, Stemb., sp. 

Rotularia cuneifolia, Sternb., Vers. i. p. 33, pi. xxvi. fig, 4, a, b. 

Sphenophyllum cuneifolium, Zeiller, Flore Foss. d. bassin. houil. d. Valenciennes, pi. lxiii. figs. 1, 2, 3, 6, 7. 

Sphenophyllum erosum, L. and H., Fossil Flora, vol. i. pi. xiii. 

" Fragments Paleontologies," Bui. de I'Academie royale de Belgique, 2me ser., vol. xxxviii. pi. ii. figs. 1, 2, 3, 1874. 
VOL. XXXVI. PART I. (NO. 5). 



72 MR ROBERT KIDSTON ON THE 

Middle Coal Measures. 

Horizon and Locality. — Peacock Marl. Fenton. 

,, Great Row Coal Rock. Longton. 

,, ,, Bay Coal. Longton. 

,, ,, Knowles Rock. Stafford Iron and Coal Company, Fenton. 

var. saxifragsefolium, Sternb., sp. 

Rotularia saxifragwfolia, Sternb., Vers. i. fasc. iv. p. 32, pi. Iv. fig. 4. 

Sphenophyllum cuneifolium, var. saxifraguefolium, Zeiller, Flore Foss. d. bassin houil. d. Valenciennes, 
pis. xlii. fig. 1; xliii. figs. 4, 5, 8, 9, 10, 1886, p. 413, 1888. 

Middle Coal Measures. 

Horizon and Locality. — Great Row Coal Rock. Stafford Iron and Coal Company, 

Fenton. 

Lower Coal Measures ( Upper Series). 

Horizon and Locality. — 2 yards below Hard Mine Coal. Weston Coyney Colliery, 

Longton. 
,, (?) ,, Hollinswood, Kidsgrove. 

Pilicacese. 

Sphenopteris, Brongt. 

Sphenopteris obtusiloba, Brongt. 

Sphenopteris obtusiloba, Brongt., Hist. d. veget. foss., p. 204, pi. liii. fig. 2. 

Sphenopteris obtusiloba, Zeiller, Flore foss. d. bassin houil. d. Valenciennes, p. 65, pis. iii. figs. 1-4; iv. 

fig. 1; v. figs. 1, 2. 
Sphenopteris irregularis, Sternb., Vers., ii. p. 63, pi. xvii. fig. 4. 
Sphenopteris irregularis, Andrre, Vorwelt Pflanzen, p. 24, pis. viii. ix. fig. 1. 
Sphenopteris latifolia, L. and H. (not Brongt.), Foss. Flora, vol. ii. pi. clvi. ; vol. iii. pi. clxxviii. 

Lower Coal Measures ( Upper Series). 

Horizon and Locality. — Bowling Alley Rock. Weston Coyney Colliery, near 

Longton. 
., ,, 2 yards below Hard Mine Coal. Weston Coyney Colliery, 

near Longton. 

Sphenopteris grandifrons, Sauveur. 

Sphenopteris grandifrons, Sauveur, Veget., foss. des terr. houil. de la Belgique, pi. xiv. 

Middle Coed Measures. 
Horizon and Locality. — About horizon of Bassy Mine Ironstone. Railway Tunnel, 

Neweastle-under-Lyme. 






FOSSIL FLORA OF THE STAFFORDSHIRE COAL FIELDS. 73 

Horizon and Locality. — Great Row Coal Rock. Longton and Fen ton. 
,, „ Roof of Great Row Coal. Longton. 

„ „ Chalky Mine Ironstone. Fenton. 



Sphenopteris latifolia, Brongt. 

Sphenopteris latifolia, Brongt., Hist. d. veget. foss., p. 205, pi. lvii. figs. 1-5. 
Mariopteris latifolia, Zeiller, Bull. Soc. Oeol. de France, 3 e ser., vol. vii. p. 92, pi. 6. 

Middle Coal Measures. 

Horizon and Locality. — Bay Coal. Longton. 

,, ,, Knowles Rock. Longton. 

,, (?) ,, Shelton, near Hanley. 

Sphenopteris spinulosa, Stur., sp. (?). (Plate, fig. 2). 

Senftenbergia spinulosa, Stur., Carbon. Flora, Abth. i., p. 101, pi. xlviii. fig. 6. 

Remarks. — The specimen is too fragmentary for a satisfactory determination. 

Middle Coal Measures. 
Horizon (?) and Locality. — Hanley. 

Sphenopteris spinosa, Goppert. 

Sphenopteris spinosa, Gopp., Die Gatt. d. foss. Pflanzen, Lief. 3, 4, p. 70, pi. xiii. 

Sphenopteris spinosa, Schiniper, Traite d. paleont. veget., vol. i. p. 405. 

Sphenopteris spinosa, Zeiller, Flore foss. d. bassin houil. d. Valenciennes, p. 135, pi. xv. figs. 1-3. 

Lower Coal Measures (Upper Series). 
Horizon (?) and Locality. — Scot Hay, Silverdale, Newcastle-under-Lyme.* 

Eremopteris, Schimper. 
Eremopteris artemisisefolia, Sternb., sp. 

Eremopteris artemisicefolia, Schimper, Traite d. paleont. veget., vol. i. 416. 
Sphenopteris artemisioefolia, Sternb., Vers., i. fasc. iv. p. 15, pi. liv. fig. 1. 
Sphenopteris artemisiafolia, Brongt., Hist. d. veget. foss., p. 176, pis. xlvi. xlvii. figs. 1, 2. 

Middle Coal Measures. 
Horizon (?) and Locality. — Fenton. 

* This species has previously been only found in the Middle Coal Measures in Britain, and the bed from which the 
Staffordshire specimen was derived is high up in the Lower Coal Measures, and perhaps on a horizon with the lower 
part of the Middle Coal Measures of other areas. When the three divisions — the Upper, the Middle, and the Lower 
Coal Measures — are present in the same coal field, the exact position of the dividing line is often a matter of individual 
opinion, though the different fades of the fossils of the various divisions, when taken as a whole, is characteristic of each. 



MR ROBERT KIDSTON" ON THE 



Neuropteris, Brongt, 
Neuropteris heterophylla, Brongt. 

Neuropteris heterophijlla, Brongt., Hist. d. viget. foss., p. 243, pis. lxxi. lxxii. fig. 2. 
Neuropteris Loshii, Brongt., Hist. d. veget. foss., p. 242, pis. lxxii. fig. 1; lxxiii. 

Middle Coal Measures. 

Horizon and Locality. — Great Row Coal Rock. Fenton and Longton. 

,, „ Below Little Cannel Row Coal. Clanway Colliery, Tunstall. 

Lower Coal Measures ( Upper Series). 

Horizon and Locality. — Bowling Alley Rock. Weston Coyney Colliery, near Longton. 
,, ,, Bowling Alley Rock. Longton. 

,, ,, Roof of Holly Lane Coal. Bucknall. 

„ ,, 2 yards below Hard Mine Coal. Weston Coyney Colliery, 

near Longton. 
,, (?) ,, Raven's Lane, Audley, Newcastle-under-Lyme. 

,, (?) ,, Scot Hay, Silverdale, Newcastle-under-Lyme. 

,, (?) ,, Chesterton, Newcastle-under-Lyme. 

Neuropteris tenuifolia, Schloth., sp. (?) 

Filicites tenuifolius, Schloth., Petrefactenkunde, p. 405, pi. xxii. fig. 1. 

Neuropteris tenuifolia, Brongt., Hist. d. veget. foss., p. 240, pi. lxxii. fig. 3. 

Neuropteris tenuifolia, Zeiller, Note sur la flore houil. d. Asturies, p. 5 (Mem. Soc. Geol. du Nord, 1882). 

Neuropteris tenuifolia, Zeiller, Flore foss. d. bassin houil. d. Valenciennes, p. 273, pi. xlvi. fig. 1. 

Middle Coal Measures. 
Horizon (?) and Locality. — Fenton. 

Neuropteris rarinervis, Bunbury. 

Neuropteris rarinervis, Bunbury, Quart. Jour. Geol. Soc, vol. iii. p. 425, pi. xxii. 

Middle Coal Measures. 

Horizon and Locality. — About horizon of Bassy Mine Ironstone. Railway Tunnel, 

Newcastle-under-Lyme. 
,, „ Peacock Marl. Berry Hill, Stoke-upon-Trent. 

„ ,, Peacock Marl. Fenton. 

„ „ Great Row Coal Rock. Longton. 

,, ,, Below Little Cannel Row Coal. Clanway Colliery, Tunstall. 

,, „ Knowles Rock. Longton. 

Knowles Ironstone. Fenton. 



FOSSIL FLORA OF THE STAFFORDSHIRE COAL FIELDS. 75 

Neuropteris ovata, Hoffmann. 

Neuropteris ovata, Hoffmann, Keferstein's Teutchland geognostiscli-geologisch dargestellt, vol. iv. p. 158, 

pi. i. b, figs. 5, 6, 7 (Excl. fig. 8), 1826. 
Neuropteris ovata, Kidston, Trans. Roy. Soc. Edin., vol. xxxiii. p. 359, pi. xxii. fig. 1. 

Upper Coal Measures. 

Horizon and Locality. — About 300 yards above Bassy Mine Ironstone. From Rail- 
way Cutting, Florence Colliery, Longton. 

Neuropteris plicata, Sternb. 

Neuropteris plicata, Sternb., Vers., i. fasc. 4, p. xvi; Vers., ii. p. 74, pi. xix. figs. 1 and 3. 
Neuropteris plicata, Kidston, Trans. Roij. Soc. Edin., vol. xxxv. part v., p. 313, pi., figs. 1 and la. 

Middle Coal Measures. 
Horizon and Locality. — Great Row Coal Rock. Longton Hall Colliery, Longton. 

Neuropteris Scheuchzeri, Hoffm. 

Neuropteris Scheuchzeri, Hoffm., Keferstein's Teutchland geognos.-geol. dargestellt, vol. iv. p. 156, pi. i.b, 

figs. 1-4. 
Neuropteris Scheuchzeri, Zeiller, Flore foss. d. bassin houil. d. Valenciennes, p. 251, pi. xli. figs. 1-3. 
Neuropteris Scheuchzeri, Zeiller, Flore houil. d. Asturies, p. 10 (Mem. Soc. Qeol. du Nord., 1882). 
Neuropteris Scheuchzeri, Kidston, Trans. Roy. Soc. Edin., vol. xxxiii. p. 356, pi. xxiii. figs. 1, 2. 
Neuropteris cordata, L. and H. (not Brongt.), Foss. Flora, vol. i. pi. xli. 
Neuropteris hirsuta, Lesqx., in Roger's Geo. of Pennsyl., p. 857, pis. iii. fig. 6; iv. figs. 1-16, 1858. 

(Syn. in part.) 

Middle Coal Measures. 

Horizon and Loccdity. — Great Row Coal Rock. Longton. 

,, ,, Knowles Ironstone. Stafford Iron and Coal Company, 

Fenton. 

Neuropteris gigantea, Sternb. 

Neuropteris gigantea, Sternb., Vers., i. fasc. 4, p. xvi. 
Neuropteris gigantea, Brongt., Hist. d. veget. foss., p. 240, pi. 

Osmnnda ninrintpn. St.prnVi Vivrs i fnai-> 9 rm 33 nnrl 3fi n 



i\europzems gigantea, isrongt., nisi. a. vegei. joss., p. ztu, pi. 
Osmunda gigantea, Sternb., Vers., i. fasc. 2, pp. 33 and 36, pi 



lxix. 
xxii. 



Middle Coal Measures. 

Horizon and Locality. — About horizon of Bassy Mine Ironstone. Railway Tunnel, 

Newcastle-under-Lyme. 
,, „ Peacock Marl. Berry Hill, Stoke-upon-Trent. 



76 MR ROBERT KIDSTON ON THE 

Horizon and Locality. — Great Eow Coal Rock. Fenton and Longton. 

,, „ Shale below Little Cannel Row Coal. Clan way Colliery, 

Tunstall. 

Lower Coal Measures ( Upper Series). 

Horizon and Locality. — Bowling Alley Rock. Weston Coyney Colliery, Longton. 
,, ,, Holly Lane Coal. Bucknall. 

,, „ 2 yards below Hard Mine Coal. Weston Coyney Colliery, 

near Longton. 

Dictyopteris, Gutbier. 
Dictyopteris Miinsteri, Eichwald, sp. 

Dictyopteris Miinsteri, Zeiller, Flore foss. d. bassin liouil. d. Valenciennes, p. 294, pi. xlix. figs. 1-5. 
Dictyopteris Miinsteri, Kidston, Trans. Roy. Soc. Edin., vol. xxxiii. p. 361, pi. xxi. fig. 6. 
Odontopteris Miinsteri, Eiclnvald, Die Unvelt Russlands, heft i. p. 87, pi. iii. fig. 2, 1840. 
Dictyopteris Hoffmanni, Roemer, Palceontographica, vol. ix. p. 29, pi. vii. fig. 3, 1862. 

Middle Coal Measures. 

Horizon and Locality. — Peacock Marl. Marl Pit, Fenton Low. 

,, ,, Knowles Rock. Stafford Iron and Coal Company, Fenton. 



Dictyopteris obliqua, Bunbury. (Plate, fig. 3 and 3a.) 

Dictyopteris obliqua, Bunbury, Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc, vol. iii. p. 427, pi. xxi. fig. 2, 1847. 
Dictyopteris obliqua, Lesqx., Coal Flora, vol. i. p. 146, pi. xxiii. figs. 4-6. 
Dictyopteris sub-Brongniarti, Grand' Eury, Flore carb. d. Depart, de la Loire, p. 379, 1877. 
Dictyopteris sub-Brongniarti, Zeiller, Expl. carte geol. d. France, vol. iv. p. 55, pi. clxv. figs. 1-2, 
Dictyopteris sub-Brongniarti, Zeiller, Flore foss d. bassin liouil. d. Valenciennes, p. 290, pi. xlix. fig. 6 ; 

pi. 1. figs. 1-2. 
Dictyopteris sub-Brongniarti, Renault, Cours d. botan. foss. Troisieme Annee, 1883, p. 176, pi. xxx. 

figs. 3-4. 
Dictyopteris Brongniarti, Boulay {not Gutbier), Terr, liouil. du nord de la France, pp. 35 and 74, pi. iv. 

fig. 2. 
Dictyopteris Brongniarti, Achepohl (not Gutbier), Niederrh. Westfal. Steinlcohl, p. 71, pi. xxi. fig. 9. 
Dictyopteris Brongniarti, Kidston, Catal. Palaioz. Plants, p. 103 (Excl. ref. D. Brongniarti). 

Remarks. — Dictyopteris obliqua, Bunbury, occurs sparingly in the Potteries Coal 
Field, and the only specimens I have seen are isolated pinnules. The pinnules in this 
species are articulated to the rachis, and appear to have fallen off very easily, as in Neu- 
ropteris gigantea, with which, in the form of its pinnules, Dictyopteris obliqua is almost 
identical. It may therefore be more common than at present suspected, for unless the 
netted nervation be observed, by which Dictyopteris is distinguished at first sight from 
X> uropteris, it might be very easily passed over for Neuropteris gigantea. 



FOSSIL FLORA OF THE STAFFORDSHIRE COAL FIELDS. 77 

For some time I have suspected the specific identity of Dictyopteris obliqua, Bun- 
bury, and Dictyopteris sub-Brongniarti, Grand' Eury. M. Zeiller has kindly com- 
municated to me specimens of the latter species from Lens and Bully-Grenay, from 
which I identified the Staffordshire fern as Dictyopteris sub-Brongniarti, and under this 
name included it in the list given by Mr Ward in his " North Staffordshire Coal 
Fields." # 

More recently I have received from Mr Lacoe specimens of Dictyopteris obliqua, 
Bunbury, from near Pittston, Pa. It is true that this is not the original locality for 
Bunbury's species, but careful examination of Mr Lacoe's specimens with Bunbury's 
figures and description has convinced me that the Pittsburg fossils are identical with 
Bunbury's Dictyopteris obliqua. On the other hand, I have compared the French 
specimens of Dictyopteris sub-Brongniarti, Grand' Eury, with the American examples, 
and cannot discover any point by which they can be separated either in the form of the 
pinnule or their nervation. I am therefore led to the conclusion that Dictyopteris sub- 
Brongniarti, Grand' Eury, must be regarded as a synonym for Dictyopteris obliqua, 
Bunbury. 

At figure 3 I give a drawing of a small pinnule of a specimen from the Great Eow 
Rock, Longton. In form the pinnules of Dictyopteris obliqua are sub-falcate or straight, 
sometimes gradually narrowing, as in that figured, or oblong with more obtuse points, 
their form varying somewhat according to their position on the frond. A drawing pre- 
pared with the camera lucida, enlarged eight times, is given at fig. 3a, to show the 
nervation of the species. 

Dictyopteris obliqua is distinguished from Dictyopteris Brongniarti, Gutbier,t by its 
smaller size and somewhat coarser nervation, which also bends out more directly to the 
margin of the pinnule. 

Middle Coal Measures. 

Horizon and Loccdity. — Great Row Rock. Longton. 

,, ,, Chalky Mine Ironstone. Fenton. 

Odontopteris, Brongt. 
Odontopteris, sp. 

Upper Coal Measures. 

Horizon and Locality. — About 300 yards above Bassey Mine Ironstone. Railway 
Cutting, Florence Colliery, Longton. 

Middle Coal Measures. 
Horizon (?) and Locality. — Fenton. 

* "The Geological Features of the North Staffordshire Coal Fields, their Organic Remains," &c, Trans. North 
Stafford. Institute of Mining and Mechanical Engineers, vol. x. 1890. 

t Abdrucke u. Vers. d. Zwiclc. Schwarzk, p. 63, pi. xi. figs. 7, 9, 10, 1835. 



78 MR ROBERT KIDSTON ON THE 

Mariopteris, Zciller. 
Mariopteris muricata, Schloth, sp. 

Mariopteris muricata, Zeiller, Bull. Soc. Geol. d. France, 3 e s6r. vol. vii. p. 92. 

Mariopteris muricata, Zeiller, Flore foss. d. bassin. houil. d. Valenciennes, p. 173, pis. xx. figs. 2, 3; xxi. 

xxii. fig. 2. 
Pecopteris muricata, Brongt. Hist. d. veget. foss., p. 352, pis. xcv. figs. 3, 4 ; xcvii. 
rilicites muricattis, Schloth., Flora d. Yorwelt., pp. 54-, 55, pi. xii. figs. 21 and 23. 

Upper Coal Measures. 
Horizon and Locality. — Twelve yards above Spirorhis Limestone. Fenton Low. 

Middle Coal Measures. 
Horizon and Locality. — Longton. Generally distributed throughout the series. 

Lower Coal Measures (Upper Series). 
Horizon and Locality. — Roof of Holly Lane Coal. Bucknall. 

var. nervosa, Brongt. (sp.). 

Mariopteris nervosa, Zeiller, Bull. Soc. Geol. d. France, 3 e ser., vol. vii. p. 92, pi. v. 

Mariopteris muricata forma nervosa. Flore foss. d. bassin houil. d. Valenciennes, pis. xx. fig. 1 ; xxii. figs. 

1, 2 j xxiii. 
Pecopteris nervosa, Brongt,, Hist. d. veget. foss., p. 297, pis. xciv. ; xcv. figs. 1, 2. 

Middle Coal Measures. 

Horizon and Locality. — Great Row Coal (roof). Longton. 

„ „ Great Row Coal Rock. Stafford Iron and Coal Company, 

Fenton. 
,, ,, Bay Coal, Longton. 

,, ,, Knowles Ironstone. Stafford Iron and Coal Company, 

Fenton and Longton. 
,, ? „ Shelton Colliery, near Hanley. 

Lower Coal Measures (Upper Series). 

Horizon and Locality : — Bowling Alley Rock, Adderley Green, near Longton. 

,, „ Two yards below Hard Mine Coal. Weston Coyney Colliery, 

near Longton. 

Pecopteris, Brongt. 

Pecopteris arborescens, Schloth., sp. 

Pecopteris arborescens, Brongt., Hist. d. veget. foss., p. 310, pis. cii. ciii. figs. 2, 3. 
Fi I kites arborescens, Schloth., Flora d. Vorwelt., p. 41, pi. viii. figs. 13, 14. 
Pecopteris cyathea, Brongt., Hist. d. veget. foss., p. 307, pi. ci. figs. 1-3 (Excl., tig. 4). 
Filicites cgatheus, Schloth., Flora d. Vorwelt., p. 38, pi. vii. fig. 11. 



FOSSIL FLORA OF THE STAFFORDSHIRE COAL FIELDS. 79 

Upper Coal Measures. 

Horizon and Locality. — About 300 yards above horizon of Bassy Mine Ironstone. 

Railway Cutting, Florence Colliery, Longton. 

forma cyathea. 

Horizon and Locality. — About 300 yards above horizon of Bassy Mine Ironstone. 

Bradwell Wood, Longport. 

Pecopteris Miltoni, Artis, sp. 

Filicites Miltoni, Artis., Antedil. Phyt., pi. xiv. 

Pecopteris Miltoni, Germar., Vers. v. Wettin. v. Lobejun., p. 63; pi. xxvii. (Excl. syn. P. polymorplia, and 

P. Miltoni, Brongt. (not Artis). 
Pecopteris Miltoni, Kidston, Trans. Roy. Soc. Edin., vol. xxxiii. p. 374. 
Pecopteris abbreviata, Brongt., Hist. d. veget. foss., p. 337, pi. cxv. figs. 1-4. 

Pecopteris abbreviata, Zeiller, Notes sur laflorehouil. d. Asturies, p. 12 (Mem. Soc. Geol. du Nord., 1882). 
Pecopteris abbreviata, Zeiller, Flore foss. d. bassin. houil. d. Valenciennes, p. 186, pi. xxiv. fig. 1-4. 

Middle Coal Measures. 

Horizon and Locality. — About horizon of Bassy Mine Ironstone. Railway Tunnel, 

Newcastle-under-Lyme. 
,, „ Shales over Peacock Marl. Longton. 

Pecopteris caudata, L. and H., sp. 

Sphenopteris caudata, L. and H. Fossil Flora, vol. i. pi. xlviii. 

Remarks. — I have received from Mr Ward a specimen of this fern from below the 
New Mine Coal, Adderley Green, which agrees entirely with the Sphenopteris caudata, 
L. and H., but think it probable that this latter species should be referred to Pecopteris 
plumosa, Artis, sp. 

As I am at present collecting specimens of this and some close allies, with the object 
of submitting them to a careful examination, I at present merely record the Staffordshire 
plant under the name originally given it by Lindley and Hutton. 

Lower Coal Measures (Lower Thick Series). 
Horizon and Locality. — Below the New Mine Coal.* Adderley Green. 

Alethopteris, Stemb. 
Alethopteris aquilina, Schloth.,sp. 

Alethopteris aquilina, Schimper, Traite d. paleont. veget., vol. i. p. 556, pi. xxx. figs. 8-10. 

Pecopteris aquilina, Brongt., Hist. d. veget. foss., p. 284, pi. xc. 

Filicites aquilinus, Schloth., Flora d. Vorwelt., p. 38, pi. iv. fig. 7; pi. v. fig. 8. 

* This is the uppermost seam in the Lower Coal Measures, see note, ante, p. 73. 
VOL. XXXVI. PART I. (NO. 5). P 



80 MR ROBERT KIDSTON ON THE 

Upper Coal Measures. 

Horizon and Locality. — About 300 yards above Bassy Mine Ironstone. 

,, „ Railway Cutting, Florence Colliery, Longton, and Quarry, 

Bradwell Wood, Longport. 

Middle Coal Measures. 
Horizon (?) and Locality. — Tunstall. 

Alethopteris lonchitica, Schloth., sp. 

Alethopteris lonchitica, Schimper, Traite d. paleont. veget., vol. i. p. 554. 
Pecopteris lonchitica, Brongt., Hist. d. veget. foss., p. 275, pis. lxxxiv. and cxxviii. 
Filicites lonchiticus, Schloth., Mora d. Vorwelt., p. 55, pi. xi. fig. 22. 

Horizon and Locality. — About 300 yards above Bassy Mine Ironstone. Quarry, 

Bradwell Wood, Longport. 

Middle Coal Measures. 

Horizon and Locality.— Roof of Great Row Coal. Longton. 

„ ,, Knowles Ironstone. Longton and Fenton. 

Lower Coal Measures (Upper Series). 

Horizon and Locality. — Ten foot Coal. Chesterton, Newcastle-under-Lyme. 
,, „ Bowling Alley Rock. Adderley Green, near Longton. 

,, „ Holly Lane Coal. Bucknall. 

Alethopteris decurrens, Artis, sp. 

Alethopteris decurrens, Zeiller, Flore foss. d. bassin, houil. d. Valenciennes, p. 221, pis. xxxiv. figs. 2, 3 ; 

xxxv. fig. 1; xxxvi. figs. 3, 4. 
Filicites decurrens, Artis., Antedil. Phyt., p. 21, pi. xxi. 
Pecopteris heterophylla, L. and H., Fossil Flora, vol. i. pi. xxxviii. 
Pecopteris Mantelli, Brongt., Hist. d. veget. foss., p. 278, pi. lxxxiii. figs. 3, 4. 

Middle Coal Measures. 

Horizon and Locality. — Knowles Ironstone. Stafford Iron and Coal Company, 

Fenton. 

Lower Coal Measures (Upper Series). 
Horizon and Locality. — Bowling Alley Rock. Adderley Green, near Longton. 



FOSSIL FLORA OF THE STAFFORDSHIRE COAL FIELDS. 81 



Rhacophyllum, Schimper. 
Rhacophyllum crispum, Gulbier, sp. (?). (Plate, fig. l.) 

Fucoides crispus, Gulbier, Vers d. Zwick. Schwarzk., p. 13, pi. i. fig. 11. j pi. vi. fig. 18. 
Schizopteris Lactuca, Germar., Vers. v. Wettin. u. Lobejun, p. 45, pis. xviii., xix. 

Rhacophyllum Lactuca, Schimper, Traite d. paleont. vege't., vol. i. p. 684, pis. xlvi. fig. 1; xlvii. figs. 1, 2; 
vol. iii. p. 524. 

Lower Coal Measures (Upper Series). 
Horizon and Locality. — Bowling Alley Rock. Adderley Green, near Longton. 



Lycopodiacese. 
Lepidodendron, Stemb. 
Lepidodendron ophiurus, Brongt. 

Sagenaria ophiurus, Brongt., Glass, cl. ve'ge't. foss., p. 27, pi. iv. fig. 1, a, b {Mem. Museum d'hist. not. 

vol. viii.), 1822. 
Lepidodendron ophiurus, Brongt., Prod., p. 85. 
Lepidodendron Sternbergii (Kidston, not Brongt. 1) in Ward. Geol. of the North Staffordshire Coal Fields, 

p. 113. 

Middle Coal Measures. 

Horizon and Locality. — Generally distributed throughout the series. Longton. 

,, ,, About horizon of Bassy Mine Ironstone. Railway Tunnel, 

Newcastle-under-Lyme. 
„ „ Peacock Marl. Berry hill, Stoke-upon-Trent. 

„ ,, Great Row Coal Rock. Stafford Iron and Coal Company, 

Fenton. 
„ ,, Chalky Mine Ironstone. Fenton. 

Lepidodendron obovatum, Stemb. 

Lepidodendron obovatum, Sternb., Vers., i., fasc. i. pp. 20 and 23 ; pi. vi fig. 1; pi. viii. fig. la ; fasc. iv. p. 10. 
Lepidodendron obovatum, Zeiller, Flore foss. d. bassin houil. d. Valenciennes, p. 442, pi. lxvi. figs. 1-8. 

Middle Coal Measures. 

Horizon and Locality. — Generally distributed throughout the series. Longton. 
„ (?) „ Marl Pit, Fenton. 

Loiver Coal Measures (Upper Series). 

Horizon and Locality. — Bowling Alley Rock. Weston Coyney Colliery, near 
Longton. 



82 MR ROBERT KIDSTON ON THE 

Lepidodendron aculeatum, Sternb. 

Lepidodendron aculeatum, Sternb., Vers., i. fasc. i. pp. 20 and 23, pi. vi. fig. 2 ; pi. viii. fig. lb ; fasc. ii. 

p. 25 ; pi. xiv. figs. 1-4. 
Lepidodendron aculeatum, Zeiller, Flore foss. du bassin houil. d. Valenciennes, p. 442, pi. lxv. figs. 1-7. 

Middle Coal Measures. 

Horizon and Locality. — Generally distributed throughout the series. Longton. 

„ „ Great Row Coal Rock. Stafford Iron and Coal Company, 

Fenton. 

Lower Coal Measures (Upper Series). 

Horizon and Locality.— 12 yards below New Mine Coal. Adderley Green Coiliery, 

near Longton. 

Lepidodendron serpentigerum, Konig. (?) 

Lepidodendron serpentigerum, Konig., Icones fossilium sectiles, pi. xvi. fig. 195. 

Middle Coal Measures. 
Horizon and Locality. — Knowles' Ironstone. Fenton. 

Lepidodendron rimosum, Sternb. 

Lepidodendron rimosum, Sternb., Vers. i. fasc. i. pp. 21 and 23, pi. x. fig. 1, fasc. iv. p. 11. 

Sagenaria rimosa, Geinitz (in part), Vers. d. Steirikf. in Sachsen., p. 34, pi. iii. figs. 13-15 ; pi. iv. fig. 1. 

Lower Coal Measures (Upper Series), 
Horizon (?) and Locality. — Mier Hay Colliery. Longton. 

Lepidophloios, Sternb. 
Lepidophloios, sp. 

Remarks. — This genus is only represented by specimens of Halonia tortuosa, L. and H. 
(Fossil Flora, vol. ii. pi. lxxxv.), and Halonia regidaris, L. and H. {loc. cit., vol. iii. pi. 
ccxxviii.), which are the cone-bearing branches of Lepidophloios. Owing to the absence 
of the leaf-scars on the examples examined, the species of Lepidophloios, to which the 
Halonia belonged, could not be determined. 

Lower Coal Measures (Upper Series). 
Horizon and Locality. — Little Mine Ironstone. Longton. 

Lepidophyllum, Brongt. 
Lepidophyllum lanceolatum, L. and H. 

L'-jrido/ihi/l/uni laui-folahini, L. and II., Fossil Flora, vol. i. pi. vii. figs. 3, 4. 



FOSSIL FLORA OF THE STAFFORDSHIRE COAL FIELDS. 83 

Middle Coal Measures. 

Horizon and Locality. — About horizon of Bassy Mine Ironstone. Railway Tunnel, 

Newcastle-under-Lyme. 

Lower Coal Measures (Upper Series). 

Horizon and Locality. — Two yards below Hard Mine Coal. Weston Coney Colliery, 

near Longton. 

Lepidophyllum triangulare, Zeiller. 

Lepidopliyllum triangulare, Zeiller, Flore foss. d. bassin Jiouil. de Valenciennes, p. 508, pi. lxxvii. figs. 
4-6, 1886. 

Remarks. — This species is very closely related to Lepidostrobus anthemis, Konig. sp., 
if it is really specifically distinct.* 

Middle Coal Measures. 
Horizon and Locality. — Peacock Marl, Berry Hill, Stoke-upon-Trent. 

Lepidostrobus, Brongt. 
Lepidostrobus variabilis, L. and H. 

Lepidostrobus variabilis, L. and H., Fossil Flora, vol. i. pis. x. xi. 

Upper Coal Measures. 

Horizon and Locality. — About 300 yards above Bassy Mine Ironstone. Bradwell, 
Wood, Longport. 

Middle Coal Measures. 

Horizon and Locality. — Generally distributed throughout the series. Longton. 
,, ,, About horizon of Bassy Mine Ironstone. Railway Tunnel, 

Newcastle-under-Lyme. 

Sigillaria, Brongniart. 
Sigillaria discophora, Konig. sp. 

Lepidodendron discophorum, Konig., Icones foss. sediles, pi. xvi. fig. 194. 
Ulodendron magus, L. and H, Fossil Flora, vol. i. pi. v. (Excl. ref.). 
Ulodendron minus, L. and H., ibid., pi. vi. (Excl. ref.). 

Sigillaria discopliora, Kidston, Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., ser. vi., vol. iv. p. 61, pi. iv. figs. 1, la ; and 
Proe. Roy. Phys. Soc, vol. x. p. 90, pi. iv. fig. 1, la. 

* Gonophoroides anthemis, Konig., Icones foss. sediles, pi. xvi. fig. 200 ; copied by Brongniart. — Lepidostrobus 
Hist. d. vtgtt. foss., vol. ii. pi. xxiii. fig. 6, and named by Schimper Lepidostrobus radians. Traits d. pale6nt. ve'ge't, 
vol. ii. p. 63. 



84 MR ROBERT KIDSTON ON THE 

Middle Coal Measures. 

Horizon and Locality. — Great Row Rock. Great Fenton Colliery. 

„ ,, Knowles Ironstone. Longton and Stafford Iron and Coal 

Company, Fenton. 
„ (1) „ Pinnox Colliery. Tunstall. 

Lower Coal Measures (Upper Series). 

Horizon and Locality. — Little Mine Ironstone. Longton. 

„ „ 12 yards below New Mine Coal. Adderley Green Colliery 

near Longton. 

Sigillaria Brardii, Brongt. 

Clathraria Brardii, Brongt, Class, d. veget. foss., p. 22, pi. i. fig. 5. 

Sigillaria Brardii, Brongt., Prodrome, p. 65. 

Sigillaria Brardii, Brongt., Hist. d. veget. foss., p. 430, pi. clviii. fig. 4. 

Note. — I hope in another communication to figure and describe two specimens of 
S. Brardii from this coal field, along with some other Sigillarise from various localities 
so defer making any remarks on this species at present. 

Upper Coal Measures. 

Horizon and Locality. — About 300 yards above Bassy Mine Ironstone. Railway 

Cutting, Florence. 

Middle Coal Measures. 
Horizon and Locality. — Shales above Peacock Coal. Cope's Marl Pit, Longton. 

Sigillaria tessellata, Brongt. 

Sigillaria tessellata, Brongt., Hist. d. veget. foss., p. 43G, pi. clvi. fig. 1 ; pi. clxii. figs. 1-4, 
Sigillaria tessellata, Geinitz, Vers. d. Steinkf. in Sachsen., p. 44, pi. v. figs. 6-8. 

Sigillaria tessellata, Zeiller, Flore foss. d. Bassin houil. d. Valenciennes, p. 561, pis. lxxxv. figs. 1-9 ; 
lxxxvi. figs. 1-6. 

Middle Coal Measures. 

Horizon and Locality. — Great Row Coal Rock. Stafford Iron and Coal Company, 

Fenton. 

Lower Coal Measures (Upper Series). 
Horizon and Locality. — Sandstone below New Mine Coal. Longton. 

„ „ 12 yards below New Mine Coal. Adderley Green, near 

Longton. 



FOSSIL FLORA OF THE STAFFORDSHIRE COAL FIELDS. 85 

Sigillaria elegans, (Sternb.) Brongt. 

Sigillaria elegans, Hist. d. veget. foss., p. 438, pi. cxlvi. fig. 1 ; pi. civ. ; pi. clviii. fig. 1. 
Sigillaria elegans, Zeiller, Flore foss. d. bassin houil. d. Valenciennes, p. 582, pi. lxxxvii. figs. 1-4. 

Middle Coal Measures. 
Horizon (?) and Locality. — Apedale, Newcastle-under-Lyme. 

Remarks. — Weiss describes and figures a number of varieties of Sigillaria elegans 
in his " Sigillarien der Preussischen Steinkohlengebiete, I. Die Gruppe der Favularien," 
p. 32. # 

Sigillaria scutellata, Brongt. 

Sigillaria scutellata, Brongt., Class, d. veget. foss., p. 22, pi. i. fig. 4. 

Sigillaria scutellata, Brongt., Hist. d. veget. foss., p. 455, pi. iv. figs. 2, 3 ; pi. lxiii. fig. 3. 

Sigillaria scutellata, Zeiller, Flore foss. d. bassin houil. Valenciennes, pi. lxxxii. figs. 1-6, 9, 1886 ; p. 533, 

1888. 
Sigillaria notata, Brongt., Hist. d. veget. foss., p. 449, pi. cliii. fig. 1. 

Middle Coal Measures. 
Horizon and Locality. — Peacock Marl. Fenton. 

Sigillaria rugosa, Brongt. 

Sigillaria rugosa, Brongt., Hist. d. veget. foss., p. 476, pi. cxliv. fig. 2. 

Sigillaria rugosa, Zeiller, Flore foss. d. bassin. houil. d. Valenciennes, p. 551, pi. lxxx. figs. 1-5. 

Sigillaria rimosa, Sauveur, Veget. foss. de la Belgique, pi. lviii. fig. 1. 

Lower Coal Measures (Upper Series). 
Horizon and Locality. — Shale over Yard Coal. Fenton. 

Sigillaria ovata, Sauveur. 

Sigillaria ovata, Sauveur, Veget. foss. de la Belgique, pi. li. fig. 2. 

Sigillaria ovata, Zeiller, Flore foss. d. bassin houil d. Valenciennes, p. 522, pi. Ixxix. figs. (3 ?) 4-7. 

Middle Coal Measures. 
Horizon (?) and Locality. — Fenton and Longton. 

Sigillaria alternans, Sternb. sp. 

Sigillaria alternans, L. and H., Fossil Flora, vol. i. pi. lvi. 
Syringodendron alternans, Sternb., Vers., i. fasc. iv. p. 24, pi. lviii. fig. 2. 

* Koniglich Preussischen geologischen Landesanstalt, Berlin, 1887. 



Si} FOSSIL FLORA OF THE STAFFORDSHIRE COAL FIELDS. 

Middle Coal Measures. 

Horizon (?) and Locality. — Fenton. 

Remarks. — The fossil placed here only shows a decorticated condition, the characters 
of which may be common to several species of Sigillaria. 

Sigillaria camptolsenia, Wood. 

Sigillaria camptolcvnia, Wood, Trans. Amer. Phil. Soc, vol. xiii. p. 342, pi. ix. fig. 3, 1866. 

Sigillaria camptolcenia, Zeiller, Flore Foss. d. basmi houil. d. Valenciennes, p. 588, pi. lxxxviii. figs. 4-6, 

1886. 
Asolanus camptolwnia, Wood, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sc. Phil., vol. xii. p. 238, 1860. 
Sigillaria monostigma, Lesqx., Rept. Geol. Survey of Ulin., vol. ii. p. 449, pi. xlii. figs. 1-5, 1866. 
Sigillaria monostigma, Lesqx., Coal Flora of Pennsyl., vol. ii. p. 468, pi. lxxxiii, figs. 3-6, 1880; vol. iii. 

p. 793, 1884. 
Sigillaria rimosa, Goldenberg, Flora Sarcepont. foss., part ii., pp. 22 and 56, pi. vi. fig. 1, 1857. 
Sigillaria rimosa, Roehl, Palceont., xviii. p. 93, pi. xxx. fig. 5, 1869. 
Lepidodendron barbatum, Romer, Palceont., vol. ix. p. 40, pi. viii. fig. 12, 1862. 
Pseudosigillaria monostigma, Grand' Eury, Flore Carb. du Depart, de la Loire, p. 144, 1877. 

Middle Coal Measures. 
Horizon and Locality. — Shale overlying Ash Ironstone. Fenton. 

Lycopod Macrospores. 

Very little attention has been paid to the examination of the shales and under- 
clays in the Potteries Coal Field for spores. In only three localities have collec- 
tions been made with this object, and from all of them several of the gatherings have 
yielded numerous and well-preserved macrospores. The finer material has not yet been 
searched for the much minuter spores, which are usually found associated with the 
macrospores.* 

Collections from Wetley Moor, Lower Coal Measures (Lower Series). 
Locality 53t. — Shales cropping out on banks of small stream, near Ash Hall. 

Triletes IX. 
Triletes XII. (?) 

Locality 54. — Shales near Brook House Lane. 

Triletes VIII. 
Triletes IX. 
Triletes XII. 

The specimens at these two localities were numerous and well preserved. 

Collections from the Middle Coal Measures. 
Locality 52. — Eastwood Marl Pit, Hanley. 

* The shales have been carefully prepared for me by Mr James Bennie, in the manner recommended in our paper 
in the Proc. Hoy. Phys. Soc. Edin., vol. ix. p. 92, to whom for his assistance I am again much indebted. 

+ The numbers refer to the working list of localities from which collections have been made at various times. The 
i-ontents of localities 1 to 37 have been already published. See Proc. Roy. Phys. Soc, vol. ix. pp. 93-102. 



VOL. XXXVI. PART I. (NO. 5). 



88 



MR ROBERT KIDSTON ON THE 




Fig. 1. 
Specimen No. 20 in list. 




Fig. 2. 

Specimen No. 39 in list. 



South. 



Main or 90 yards Fault. 

I North. 



Howson's Marl. 

3" Coal with standing trees, c 

f 
a 
Gutter or Fenton Low Coal, h Y 
38" thick. Dip 15°. / 



Grey and Red Marl. 




1 Bassy Mine Ironstone and 
— a Coal. Dip 14°. 



I 



B — Coals and Shale — name 
d unknown. 



Shales and Marl. 



12" Coal. 

Fig. 3. 

Section of Marls, &c, exposed in Eastwood Brick and Marl Works, Hanley, 1890. 

Dip of measures is nearly east and west. The downthrow of the Fault is on the south side. Height of section about 80 feet. 



FOSSIL FLORA OF THE STAFFORDSHIRE COAL FIELDS. 89 

Through the kindness and assistance of Mr William Hampton, careful collections 
were made of the shales and underclays exposed at the time of my visit, and of those 
which proved most rich in organic remains, a second collection was made by Mr Hamp- 
ton. Three new forms of macrospores have been discovered in this Marl Pit which are 
described below. Associated with the macrospores, in one case especially, were numerous 
crustacean remains as well as fragments of carbonised stems and other plant debris. 

As this Marl Pit is interesting, not only on account of the rich gatherings of macro- 
spores which the shales and underclays have yielded, but also on account of the standing 
trees which occur on the " 3" coal " on the southern side of the fault, I give a section 
of the strata, which has kindly been prepared for me by Mr Hampton, and on which has 
been indicated in letters the position from which the better "gatherings" were collected. 
The general strike of the strata is nearly east and west. Owing to a fall on the north 
side of the fault, the strata could not be conveniently measured at the time the section 
was prepared. 

Above the " 3" coal," and standing on it at right angles to its surface, many stems 
of trees, as already mentioned, have been met with while working the marls. Mr Ward 
gives the measurements and descriptions of thirteen specimens found prior to 1880. # It 
is a curious circumstance that on none of the trees discovered are the roots preserved, the 
portions of the stems now existing being apparently only a few feet of the lower portion 
of the trunks ; the roots having apparently decayed before mineralisation took place. 

The following list, which includes those described by Mr Ward (Nos. 1-13), supplied 
to me by Mr Hampton, contains a complete record, as far as is known, of all the standing 
trees that have been found in the Eastwood Marl Pit up to the present time. 



Notes on some op the Trees. 

No. 17. The bottom of the stem had the appearance as of thickening out to form the 
roots. 

No. 19. This is the only specimen that was found lying horizontally. The tree had 
been taken away with the marl, having undergone little induration during fossilization. 
The impression left in the marl by which it had been surrounded was very perfect, and 
pieces of carbon which had evidently been on the outside of the stem were still adhering 
to. the impression. 

No. 20. The general appearance of the bottom part of the trunk for the height of 
4 feet from the base was as if it had been subject to great pressure before having been 
fossilized. It was of very irregular shape, but the upper 4 feet were perfectly round and 
had been partially pushed off the bottom portion as it was overhanging it at least 
12 inches. Woodcut, fig. 1. 

* " Notes on some Fossil Trees in a Marl Pit at Joiner's Square, near Hanley," Report North Staffordshire Nat. 
Field Club for 1880. With a Plate. 



90 



MR ROBERT KIDSTON ON THE 



Fossil Trees Jound in Eastivood Marl Works, Hanley, Staffordshire. 



Date. 


No. 


Hei 


ght. 


Diameter at 
Bottom. 


Diameter at 
Top. 


Remarks. 






Feet. 


Inches. 


Feet. 


Inches. 


Feet. Inches. 






1 


6 









2 






2 


4 









3 






3 


5 









4 






4 


1 









2 8 


' 




5 


1 









2 3 






6 


8 









2 






7 


4 









3 10 






8 


4 









3 






9 












No measurements taken. 




10 


8 









2 6 






11 


2 









1 






12 


4 









3 






13 


8 











7 ft. 3 in. in circumference. 




14 


6 





3 


6 


2 






15 


2 


6 






2 7 




1882 
















May 


16 


18 





4 


6 


2 




May 12 


17 


5 









3 6 


In the interior of this there was a 
branch-like form imbedded which 
measured 3 ft. by 2 ft. 3 in. 


>) 


18 


5 





2 


6 


1 4 




JJ 


19 












Horizontal ; about 2 ft. in diameter. 
Only specimen found in this position. 




20 


8 





2 


6 


1 6 




May 26 


21 


9 





2 


3 


1 8 


2 branches (?) were found in this of 2\ 
in. and 1 \ in. diameter. 




22 


8 





2 


6 


2 






23 


8 


6 


2 


5 


1 7 






24 












Specimen broken by fall before measure- 
ments were taken. 




25 


7 





2 


8 


1 9 






26 


7 


7 


2 


4 


1 8 


In this were found branch-like forms 
which exhibited woody structure. 




27 


4 


6 


2 


6 


2 






28 


12 





3 


9 


2 


This example had a projection as if a 
branch had grown from it. 




29 


9 


9 


3 





1 6 






30 


11 


4 


2 


3 


1 3 






31 


8 


6 






2 2 






32 


11 





3 


6 


2 






33 


6 


6 






1 9 






34 


9 


7 


2 


4 


1 6 






35 












Not measured. 




36 


10 


6 


2 


6 


1 


There was a very deep indentation on 
this stem about 3 ft. from top. 




37 


9 











The diameter of this stem could not be 
measured. 




38 


10 





2 


8 


2 4 






39 


4 


6 


4 





3 




1883 
















Dec. 20 


40 


6 


3 


3 





2 1 




1884 
















Oct. 21 


41 


6 





1 


7 


1 2 




1885 
















May 19 


42 


9 


11 


2 


6 


2 




<> 


43 


6 


6 


2 


6 


1 11 






44 


10 











The diameter of this stem could not be 
measured. 



FOSSIL FLORA OF THE STAFFORDSHIRE COAL FIELDS. 91 

No. 21. The inside of this tree was full of fragments of carbonised wood, bound 
together into a conglomerate-like rock by the infilling marl. It also contained portions 
of two branches. 

No. 22. The top portion of this stem was overhanging about 8 inches, in a similar 
manner to that described as occurring in No. 20. 

No. 25. This specimen had a swelling on the trunk about 6 feet from the bottom, 
from which a branch may have been removed. 

No. 26. This specimen, owing to several transverse fractures and displacement of the 
segments, had a curious step-like appearance. On the tree being taken down, branches 
were found in it showing structure. 

No. 28. The upper 4 feet of this stem was pushed aside and overhung about 8 inches. 
On the specimen was a projection as if a branch had been broken off from that part. 

No. 33. This stem appeared as if it had been subject to great pressure, for in one 
place it was not more than 9 inches thick. 

No. 39. Several transverse fractures ran through the uppermost 2 feet of this speci- 
men, and the segments so formed had been thrust to one side and overhung in layers or 
segments about 2 inches thick. Woodcut, fig. 2* 

The outer surface of the stems is usually converted into coal, and in no case have 
they shown the form of their leaf-scars, by which alone the generic nature of the stems 
could be determined ; we are therefore unable to say whether they belong to Sigillaria 
or Lepidodendron, or in part to both. The only markings observable on the stems are 
longitudinal striations. 

Gathering 52a. — Marl immediately underneath the Bassy Mine Ironstone and Coal. 

North side of fault. 

Triletes I. 
II. 
V. 
XII. 
XV. 
XIX. 
XXI. 

Gathering 52b. — Shale a short distance above unknown Coal (B on section) on north 

side of fault. 

Triletes II. 
V. 
VII. 
XII. 
XV. 
XIX. 
XX. 

Gathering 52c. — Marl immediately above Coal " B." North side of fault. 

Triletes V. 
* The foregoing list and these particulars have been supplied by Mr Wm. Hampton. 



92 MR ROBERT KIDSTON ON THE 

Gathering 52d. — Top of underclay of Coal " B." 





Triletes II. 

v. 




„ XI 


Gathering 52e.- 


-Howson's Marl, surrounding stems of standing trees, 




Triletes I. 
II. 

y. 

„ VII 


Gathering 52f- 


-Marl a short distance above " Gutter or Fenton Lot? 




Triletes I. 
II. 

y 

„ VII. 


Gathering 52g.- 


—Immediately below 52/! 




Triletes I. 

v. 




„ XII. 


Gathering 52h.- 


—Immediately above " Gutter or Fenton Low Coal." 




Triletes I. 
II 

v. 

„ XII. 

„ XIX. 

XX. 



Gathering 52i. — Top of underclay of " Gutter or Fenton Low Coal." 

Triletes V. 
„ VII. 
„ XII 

Owing to the amount of faulting in this district one cannot be quite certain as to the 
identity of the coal in the section named the " Gutter or Fenton Low Coal " with the 
coal of that name which occurs in other parts of the Coal Field, but if it is not that 
seam, it is one that occupies about the same horizon. 

Locality 51. — Mousecroft Marl Works, Hanley. 

This Marl Pit lies on the opposite side of the road from that occupied by the East- 
wood Marl Works and contains some of the same beds as those occurring in the Eastwood 
Works, but owing to the dip of the strata some beds on a higher horizon than those of 
the Eastwood Works occur in this opening. It is also worked by the Messrs Hampton, 
and Mr William Hampton has favoured me with the following section of the strata at 
present exposed there : — 



FOSSIL FLORA OF THE STAFFORDSHIRE COAL FIELDS. 



93 



Feet. 


Inch 


6 





7 





2 


7 


35 


6 


10 








3 


5 


11 


3 


2 


20 






Surface Earth and Boulder Clay, about 

Marl, about 

" Peacock Goal," (?) 

Marl, 

Howson's Marl, 

" 3" Coal," 

Marl and Shales, . 

" Gutter or Fenton Low Coal" 

Grey and Red Marls, 

90 5 
The angle of dip is 15°. Although the " 3" Coal" has yielded so many standing- 
trees in the Eastwood Marl Works, none have been discovered in the Mousecroft Works. 
The only gathering made was from the top of the underclay of the " Peacock Coal "(?) 
which yielded the following forms : — 

• Triletes II. (?) 
„ VII. 
IX. 

„ XII 

Crustacean and vegetable remains 



Description of New Microspores. 
Triletes XIX. 

Plate, figs. 9-11. x30. 

Description. — Macrospore small, triangular with dentate margins. Outer surface 
ornamented with blunt mamillate spiny processes, varying in number from five to eight. 
On each lateral margin of the spore are usually three or four thickenings or blunt 
elongated elevations, which extend outwards and produce the dentate margins. Inner 
surface smooth with a strong triradiate ridge, which extends into the three angles of the 
spore ; border about \ or ^ width of spore, undulate. 

Size. — 1'45 mm. 

Middle Coal Measures. 

Horizon and Locality. — Eastwood Marl Works. Hanley. 



Triletes XX. 

Plate, figs. 5-8. x 30. 

Description. — Macrospore small, triangular, bordered with produced angular points and 
convex sides. Outer surface granulated, and generally showing the circular body of the spore 
surrounded by its triangular border. Inner surface. — Triradiate ridge strong, prominent, 



94 MR ROBERT KIDSTON ON THE 

and extending into the produced angular points, central portion smooth, border faintly 
striated transversely. 
Size. — *90 mm. 

Middle Coal Measures. 
Horizon and Locality. — Eastwood Marl Works. Hanley. 

Triletes XXI. 
Plate, fig. 4. x 30. 

Description. — Macrospore small, circular. Outer surface smooth. Inner surface 
smooth, triradiate ridge occupying about fths of surface, well defined, but not very 
strong ; extremities of arms of triradiate ridge connected by a semicircular line. 

Size. — 90 mm. 

Middle Coal Measures. 
Horizon and Locality. — Eastwood Marl Works. Hanley. 

Stigmaria, Brongt. 
Stigmaria ficoides, Stemb. sp. 

Stigmaria ficoides, Brongt., Class, d. veget. foss., pp. 9 and 28, pi. i. fig. 7. 

„ „ L. and H., Fossil Flora, vol. i. pis. xxxi.-vi. 

Variolaria ficoides, Stemb., Vers., i. fasc. i. pp. 22 and 24, pi. xii. figs. 1-3. 

Generally distributed. 

Upper Coed Measures. 

Horizon and Locality. — About 300 yards above Bassy Mine Ironstone. Railway 

Cutting, Florence Colliery, Longton, and Bradwell Wood, 
Longport. 

Middle Coal Measures. 

Horizon and Locality. — Bassy Mine Ironstone. Florence Colliery, Longton. 
„ ,, Great Row Coal Rock. Fenton. 

Lower Coal Measures ( Upper Series). 

Horizon and Locality. — 12 yards below New Mine Coal. Adderley Green Colliery, 

near Longton. 
,, ,, 2 yards below Hard Mine Coal. Weston Coyney Colliery, 

Longton. 



FOSSIL FLORA OF THE STAFFORDSHIRE COAL FIELDS. 95 

Cordaiteae. 

Cordaites, Unger. 

Cordaites borassifolius, Sternb., sp. 

Cordaites borassifolius, Unger, Genera et Species, p. 277. 

Cordaites borassifolius, Zeiller, Flore foss d. bassin houil. d. Valenciennes, p. 625, pi. xcii. figs. 1-6. 
Flabellaria borassifolia, Sternb., Vers., i. fasc. 2, pp. 27 and 32, pi. xviii; fasc. 4, p. xxxiv. 
Pycnophylhim borassifolium, Schirnper., Traite d. palednt. veget, vol. ii. p. 190. 

Middle Coal Measures. 

Horizon and Locality. — Grey Shale below Little Cannel Eow Coal. Clan way Colliery, 

Tunstall. 

Lower Coal Measures ( Upper Series). 

Horizon and Locality. — 12 yards below New Mine Coal. Longton. 

,, ,, Bowling Alley Rock. Weston Coyney Colliery, Longton. 

,, (?) ,, Ravens Lane. Audley. 

Artisia, Sternb. 
Artisia transversa, Artis., sp. 

Sternbergia transversa, Artis. Antedil. Phyt., p. 8, pi. viii. 

Middle Coal Measures. 

Horizon and Locality. — About horizon of Bassy Mine Ironstone. Railway Tunnel, 

Ne wcastle-under-Lym e. 
,, „ Bassey Mine Ironstone. Stafford Iron and Coal Company, 

Fenton. 

Incertse sedis. 

Rhabdocarpus, Goppert and Berger. 

Rhabdocarpus sulcatus, Presl., sp. 

Plate, fig. 12. 

Carpolithes sulcatus, Sternb., Vers., ii. p. 208, pi. x. fig. 8. 

Rhabdocarpus multistriatus, Kidston (not Sternb.), Catal. Palceoz. Plants, p. 213. 

Description. — Seed oval, about 1 inch long and t 6 jt inch broad, and bearing about 9 
longitudinal ribs on the exposed surface. 

VOL. XXXVI. PART I. (NO. 5). R 



96 MR ROBERT KIDSTON ON THE 

Remarks. — This seed I originally identified as a small specimen of Rhabdocarpus 
multistriatus, Presl., sp., but now believe it to be the Rhabdocarpus sulcatus, Presl., sp. 
(which must not, however, be mistaken with the Carpolithes sulcat(a)us, L. and H., 
which is an essentially distinct species).* 

I have figured, from the Radstock Coal Field, a seed which appears to be the true 
Rhabdocarpus multistriatus, Presl., sp. A comparison of the two figures will show 
wherein these species differ.t 

Up>p>er Coal Measures. 

Horizon and Locality. — About 300 yards above the Bassey Mine Ironstone. Quarry, 

Bradwell Wood, Longport. 

Millstone Grit. 

The following have been noted : — 

From Kerridge, Macclesfield — 

Catamites Suckowii, Brongt. 

Catamites variants, Sternb. 

Mariopteris muricata, Schl., sp., forma nervosa. 

Lepidodendron aculeatum, Sternb. 

Lepidodendron obovatum, Sternb. 

Lepidopltloios (Halonia regularis, L. and H.). 

Stigmaria ficoides, Sternb., sp. 

From shales that divide the 2nd and 3rd beds of grit, Stockton Brook — 

Alethopteris lonchitica, Schl. sp. 
Calamocladus, sp. 
Lepidodendron, sp. 
Lepidostrobus variabilis, L. and H. 

Yoredale Rocks. 

Felt House, Leek. 

Stigmaria ficoides, Sternb., sp. 

* Fossil Flora, vol. iii. pi. ccxx. 

t Trans. Roy. Soc. Edin., vol. xxxiii. pi. xxiii. fig. 4. 



FOSSIL FLORA OF THE STAFFORDSHIRE COAL FIELDS. 



97 



Table showing Vertical Distribution of Species Recorded. 







Coal Measures. 




Page. 
68 






Millstone Grit. 




Upper. 


Middle. 


Lower. 




Calamitina (Catamites). 










68 


varians, Sternb., 




X 


X 


X 


69 


approximates, Bgt., 




X 






69 


Eucalamites (Calamites). 










69 


ramosus, .... 




X 






69 


Styloealmites ( Calamites) . 










69 


Suckowii, Bgt., .... 


X 


X 


X 


X 


70 


Cistii, Bgt., . 






X 




70 


Pinnularia. 










70 


columnaris, Artis, sp., . 


X 


X 


X 




71 


Calamocladus. 










71 


equiseti/ormis, Schl., sp., 


X 


X 


X 




71 


Sphetiophyllum. 










71 


cuneifolium, Sternb., sp., 




X 






72 


cuneifolium, var., saxifrag., 




X 


X 




72 


Sphenopteris. 










72 


obtusiloba, Bgt., .... 






X 




72 


grandifrons, Sauv., 




X 






73 


latifolia, Bgt., .... 




X 






73 


(?) spinulosa, Stur., sp., . 




X 






73 


spinosa, Gopp., .... 






X* 




73 


Eremopteris. 










73 


artemisicefolia, Sternb., sp., 




X 






74 


Neuropteris. 










74 


heterophylla, Bgt., 




X 


X 




74 


(?) tenuifolia, Schl., sp., . 




X 






74 


rarinervis, Bunbury, 




X 






75 


ovata, Hoflin., .... 


X 








75 


plicata, Sternb., .... 




X 






75 


Scheuchzeri, Hoffm., 




X 






75 


gigantea, Sternb., 




X 


X 




76 


Didyopteris. 










76 


Miinsteri., Eicb., 




X 






76 


obliqua, Bunbury, 




X 






77 


Odontopteris. 










77 


sp., ..... 


X 


X 






78 


Mariopteris. 










78 


muricata, Schl., sp., . 




X 


X 




78 


muricata, forma nervosa, 




X 


X 


X 


78 


Pecopteris. 










78 


arborescens, Schl., sp., . 


X 








79 


arborescens, var. cyathea, 


X 








79 


Miltoni, Artis, .... 




X 






79 


caudata, L. and H., sp., . 






xt 




79 


Alethopteris. 










79 


aquilina, Schl., sp., 


X 


X 






80 


Irmchilica, Schl., sp., 


X 


X 


X 


X 


80 


decurrens, Artis, sp., 




X 


X 




81 


Rliacophyllum. 










81 


(?) crispum, Gulb., sp., . 






X 




81 


Lepidodendron. 










81 


ophuirus, Bgt., .... 




X 

1 







* See note, ante, p. 73. 



t See note, ante, p. 79. 



98 



FOSSIL FLORA OF THE STAFFORDSHIRE COAL FIELDS. 



Table showing Vertical Distribution of Species Recorded — continued. 







Coal Measures. 






Page. 








Millstone Grit. 




Upper. 


Middle. 


Lower. 


81 


Lepidodendron. 

obovatum, Sternb., 




X 


X 


X 


82 


aculeatum, Sternb., 




X 


X 


X 


82 
82 


(?) serpentigerum, Konig., 
rimosum, Sternb., 




X 


X 




82 
82 
82 
82 


Lepidophloios. 

sp., 
Lepidopli yllum. 

lanceolatum, L. and H., . 




X 


X 
X 


X 


83 
83 
83 


triangulares Zeiller, 
Lepidostrobus. 

variabilis, L. and H., 


X 


X 
X 






83 
83 
84 


Sigillaria. 

discopliora, Konig., sp., . 
Brardii, Brongt, 


X 


X 
X 


X 




84 


tessellata, Bgt., .... 




X 


X 




85 
85 


elegans, Bgt., .... 
scutellata, Bgt., .... 




X 
X 






85 
85 


rugosa, Bgt., .... 
ovata, Sauv., .... 




X 


X 




85 


alternans, Sternb., 




X 






86 
86 
93 
94 
94 
95 


camptolcenia, Wood, 
Macrospores, ..... 
Triletes, ..... 
Stigmaria. 

ficoides, Sternb., sp., 
Cordaites. 


X 


X 
X 


X 


X 


95 
95 


borassifoliits, Sternb., sp., 
Artisia. 




X 


X 




95 


transversa, Artis, sp., . 




X 






95 

95 


Ehabdocarpus. 

sulcatus, Sternb., sp., 


X 









EXPLANATION OF PLATE. 



Fig. 1. Mhacophyllum crispum(\), Guthier, sp. Bowling Alley Rock, Adderley Green. Specimen in Stoke 
Museum. 

Fig. 2. Sphenopteris spinulosa, Stur, sp. (?). Middle Coal Measures, Hanley. 

Fig. 3. Didyopteris obliqua, Bunbury. Great Row Rock, Longton (Specimen No. 889). 3a, Nervation 
magnified 8 times. 

Fig. 4. Triletes XXL, Eastwood Marl Pit, Hanley, Inner surface x 30. Fig. 4a, Nat. Size. 

Figs. 5-8. Triletes XX., Eastwood Marl Pit, Hanley. Figs. 5, 6, Outer surface ; 7, 8, Inner surface x 30- 
Fig. 5a, Nat. Size. 

Fig. 9-11. Triletes XIX., Eastwood Marl Pit, Hanley. Figs. 9, 10, Outer surface ; 11, Inner surface x 30. 
Fig. 9a, Nat. Size. 



Trans. Roy. Soc. Edm r Vol. XXXV. 
Kidston on Fossil Plants from the Potteries Coal Field. 




5. * 30 





12. 




4. * 30 



5 a 




7. >< 30 



8. * 30 



9* 





4 * 



2. 




6.* 30 



^CPC 




9. * 30 



11.- 30 



10." 30 



<>dsto„, del!- 



M c Fa.rla.ne &. Ers>iine, Lith r ? Edin T 



(99) 



VI. — The Solar Spectrum at Medium and Low Altitudes. Observations oj the Region 
between Wave-Lengths 6024 and 4861 A.U., made at Lord Crawford's Observa- 
tory, Dun Edit, during the Years 1887 to 1889. By Ludwig Becker, Ph.D., 
Temporary Second Assistant- Astronomer, Royal Observatory, Edinburgh. 



(Read 21st July 1890.) 



1. Introduction. 



At the end of 1886 a method occurred to me of rapidly recording the positions of the 
lines of the solar spectrum, which I thought might be used with advantage for deter- 
mining the faint " Telluric dry-gas lines" near D, mentioned in Professor Piazzi Smyth's 
maps of The Visual Solar Spectrum in 1884-.* The fundamental idea of the recording 
apparatus is that of magnifying by some mechanical means the motion of the grating, or 
prism, to such an extent that it can be recorded on a continuous fillet of paper. The 
viewing telescope being then firmly clamped, the exact positions of the grating can be 
pricked off on the strip of paper as the lines are successively brought to the fixed cross 
in the field of view. 

For the satisfactory use of the method two conditions suggest themselves as desirable. 
First, the punctures should not be less than a good-sized pin hole, and the interval 
between the closest lines, which the spectroscope is able to separate, should be represented 
on the paper strip by a space of several tenths of an inch. Now, in one of Rowland's 
gratings, the angular interval between the two positions of the grating which bring the 
components of the E t line to the same direction is but 1 second of arc in the second 
spectrum. To represent this small quantity by several tenths of an inch, we must either 
use an enormous radius or multiply the angular movement some thousands of times. 

By way of experiment, I geared together on a board five pairs of well-finished wheels 
and pinions, belonging to an excellent screw-cutting lathe, and observed under the highest 
magnifying power of a microscope the motion of the slowest wheel, when the fastest one 
was steadily turned by hand. The results being very satisfactory, Professor Copeland, 
then Astronomer at Lord Crawford's Observatory, suggested continuing these experiments 
with the head of the lathe mentioned. Soon afterwards Lord Crawford, whose atten- 
tion had been drawn to the promising state of the problem, kindly decided to erect a 
temporary station where the sun could be observed near the horizon. The place selected 
was the top of the Barmekin, a commanding eminence about a mile and a half west of 
Dun Echt Observatory. Lord Crawford also sent from his own workshop a horizontal 

* Trans. Roy. Soc. Edin., vol. xxxii. part 3. 
VOL. XXXVI. PART I. (NO. 6). S 



100 DR L. BECKER ON THE SOLAR SPECTRUM. 

lathe suitably altered to replace the one first used. Since it formed a part of the record- 
ing apparatus, it will be described later on. 

Dr Copeland was kind enough to undertake all the trouble of arranging and superin- 
tending the erection of the observing station, where camping accommodation was also 
provided on account of the short interval between sunset and sunrise in summer. The 
first week Dr Copeland camped out, but had to abandon his intention of partaking in 
the work, because the preparations for observing the solar eclipse of 1887 in Russia 
required all his attention. There was only one fine sunrise during that week, when the 
Rain-band was observed. But on account of the difference between our scales of inten- 
sity, it was necessary to exclude these observations. For the same reason I also struck 
out the first four sets of my observations which were taken in the first spectrum. The 
whole of the later readings were made on a uniform plan in the second spectrum. 

During the years 1887 and 1888, I spent all the nights on the hill from the begin- 
ning of June to the middle of August, by which time the lengthening nights made it 
practicable to sleep below. This change was by no means' unwelcome, as the slight 
wooden hut became very damp as the season advanced. The observations, however, 
were continued up to the end of September. It would have been advantageous to have 
extended them over the winter, but a range of hills to the south of the Baxmekin, which 
rise about 4° above the horizon, prevent all observations at the most desirable altitudes, 
while the prevailing mild winter temperature offered little change in the atmospheric 
conditions. It was therefore considered not worth while to alter the position of the 
heliostat, which was standing too near the hut for winter observations. 

The top of the Barmekin being 850 feet above the level of the sea, and about 14 miles 
from the coast, is a most suitable place for this kind of work. To the east many of the 
hills are below the horizontal plane, and the sea can be seen at various points ; to the 
west there is a range of hills about 7 miles distant, rising at but a few points more than 
a fraction of a degree above the horizon. Further south, however, as we have said, the 
Deeside hills obstruct the view considerably. 

The original working plan of restricting our survey to the yellow part of the spectrum 
was soon abandoned, and we proposed observing as much of the solar spectrum near the 
horizon as possible. In 1887 the lines from A =6030 to b were surveyed, and in the 
following year the tract from b to F was added. Beyond F it was found impracticable 
to proceed, as the finest condition of the atmosphere, such as very rarely occurs, is required 
to see the fainter lines when the sun approaches the horizon. There was already great 
difficulty experienced in observing the spectrum from c to F, and we had often to break 
off work at this part of the spectrum, because the wires of the viewing telescope were no 
longer discernible, although there was still sufficient light to study the less refrangible 
parts of the spectrum. Three sets of observations were added in 1889 to settle some 
doubtful points. 

It may be mentioned that in the summer of 1 889 the work was continued below X = 6030 
towards the red end, but this section was not completed when I removed to Edinburgh 



DR L. BECKER ON THE SOLAR SPECTRUM. 101 

at the beginning of September of that year. I hope, however, to have an opportunity of 
completing the survey next summer. 

The weather in 1887, though fine for low sun observations, was generally unfavour- 
able when the sun was at a considerable altitude. The Barmekin, too, being forty minutes' 
walk from the Observatory, it was not, of course, possible to utilise every opportunity. 
In 1888, however, the remaining parts of the high sun observations were supplied. 



2. Short Summary. 

In this memoir we publish a catalogue of 3637 lines of the solar spectrum between 
the wave-lengths 6024 and 4861 Angstrom units, including 928 telluric lines. They 
are deduced from 26,107 observations, yielded by 47 sunsets and 32 sunrises, and from 
8325 observations made when the sun was at medium altitudes. 28 lines excepted, the 
whole telluric spectrum is found by these observations to consist of three bands ranging 
from A = 6020 to 5666 A.U., A = 5530 to 5386 A.U., and A = 5111 to 4981 i.U. They 
contain respectively 678, 106, and 116 lines. 

All the darker lines of these bands are due to water-vapour. For the fainter lines, 
however, the small variations in the amount of water- vapour in our atmosphere did not 
suffice to produce different intensities of blackness at the same altitude of the sun. 
Nevertheless, investigations on the behaviour of the lines, combined with the results 
obtained by former observers, led us to assume that the water-vapour lines of the first 
band are split into two distinct groups by a band of faint lines, which are probably due 
to oxygen. These two groups have been called the Eain-band and the S-band. They 
were known to Sir David Brewster more than fifty years ago, and the description 
he gives of them virtually contains the assumption, that they are caused by the 
absorption of water-vapour. His drawing of telluric absorption bands gives also our 
other two bands under the designation £ and t, besides some other bands, which our 
observations do not attribute to atmospheric absorption. The £-band has never been 
mentioned by later observers to my knowledge. 

Of all the telluric bands within our zone, the Eain-band is the only one which has 
hitherto been resolved into lines. The names of Angstrom, Kirchhoff, Hofmann, 
Janssen, Piazzi Smyth, and Cornu, mark a continuous progress in our knowledge of its 
structure. Whilst Angstrom's drawing (1869) of this band contains only 19 lines, M. 
Cornu resolves it into 170 lines, by observations made with a Eutherfurd grating in 
the years 1879 to 1882. Of the S-band there is an interesting account in Angstrom's 
Recherches sur le Spectre Solaire* We have also to mention that in Professor Piazzi 
Smyth's maps of The Visual Solar Spectrum in 1884,\ the region where the S-band 
begins is marked as Region of Low Sun-Band of Thin and closely -set Telluric Dry-Gas 
Lines. But as this note stands within the spectrum copied from Angstrom's map for 

* Upsal, 1868. t Trans. Roy. Soc. Edin., vol. xxxii. part 3. 



102 DR L. BECKER ON THE SOLAR SPECTRUM. 

reference, and Angstrom himself ascribes the S-band to the same medium which produces 
the A, B, and a-groups, it is not clear whether Professor Smyth arrived at this conclusion 
from his own observations, or from those of the Swedish physicist. However, since 
Angstrom's band extends much further to the refrangible side, we are inclined to think 
that the note represents Professor Smyth's opinion. 

The water- vapour band (t), between b and F, is described by Angstrom as very 
strong in summer. It is the same which Mr Maxwell Hall has utilised as a rain- 
indicator at Jamaica. 

3. The Instrument. 

The optical part of the instrument is the same as has been used at Dun Echt Observa- 
tory for several years. The sun's rays, after reflection by the heliostat, fall on an object- 
glass, of 6 inches aperture and 7 feet focal length, which forms an image of the sun on 
the slit attached to the collimator. By two endless cords the observer can correct the 
position of the heliostat without going outside the hut. The slit is formed by two plates 
of platinum with both jaws opening simultaneously by the motion of a screw. By 
a rack and pinion the slit can be brought into the focus of the collimating lens. The 
latter has a free aperture of 4 inches and a focal length of 4 feet. Two feet in front of 
it the Rowland grating stands on the faceplate of the recording apparatus. It is fixed 
in a brass frame with a T footpiece, with levelling screws at the ends. The Rowland 
grating — a present from the Johns Hopkins University at Baltimore to the Earl of 
Crawford's Observatory — contains 14,438 lines to every inch, ruled on speculum metal, 
its ruled surface being 5 "5 by 3 '5 inches. Although there is a slight difference in the 
focus of the spectra on either side of the normal, we are convinced that the irregularities 
in ruling which cause this defect have been without influence on this work. This is 
satisfactorily shown by the fact, that close double lines, which were separated by 
Professor Piazzi Smyth with similar optical appliances, were found to be double and 
well defined at Dun Echt. Moreover, a great number of faint lines, never recorded 
before, were observed on both sides of the normal of the grating, their reality being often 
abundantly established by their increased intensity in a low sun. 

The diffracted rays are received by the 4-inch object-glass of the viewing telescope, 
of which the focal length is 4 ft. 11 in. There is a filar micrometer provided with two 
cross wires inclined 45° to the horizon. Their intersection serves as the zero point. 
An eye-piece, with a magnifying power of 120 diameters, was employed on all occasions. 
The viewing telescope forms an angle of 25° with the collimator. Each is supported on 
a separate concrete pier. 

The recording apparatus consists of two distinct parts, one for magnifying the 
angular motion of the grating, and the other for recording the corresponding arc on a 
broad fillet of paper. The grating stands on a plate attached to the same vertical axis 
as a 6-inch worm-wheel (A) of 180 teeth. This wheel is turned by a tangent-screw (a) on 



DR L. BECKER ON THE SOLAR SPECTRUM. 103 

the end of a half-inch steel rod 12 inches in length, the other end carries a 12^-inch gun- 
metal wheel (B) with 150 teeth. The position of the rod can be adjusted to insure 
proper contact of the screw with the worm-wheel. A system of wheelwork turns 
the wheel B. The latter is geared into a If -inch pinion (b) of 15 teeth, on the axis of 
which a second wheel (C) of 11^ inches diameter and 140 teeth gears with a second pinion 
(c) of the same dimensions as the first. The two horizontal axes of b, C, and c are 
clamped in the slot of an adjustable bracket. All these appliances are attached to a 
strong mahogany frame, 2 feet square by 2 feet high, provided with three foot screws, 
and carried by a massive concrete pier. 

It is apparent that the angular motion of the second pinion (c) is 180 x ^-^ x 1 1 ^ ) 
equal to 16,800 times as large as that of the grating. By a long f-inch iron rod the 
second pinion can be turned by the observer from the eye-end of the viewing telescope. 

The rod, however, is not fixed immediately to the pinion, but transmits its angular 
motion by a very useful kind of joint, without communicating any longitudinal vibration. 
It is employed by Mr L. Casella in his recording anemometers, and was introduced here 
at the suggestion of Dr Copeland. Two square bars are screwed crosswise together, each 
of which fits exactly without tightness into a deep groove in a corresponding disk. The 
grooved surfaces of the disks face each other, and turn in parallel planes, the only con- 
nection between them being the gliding cross. If the axes of rotation be parallel, 
although not necessarily in the same line, the transmission of rotary motion from one to 
the other is perfect. To prevent the cross from altering its plane of rotation, one of its 
bars has a projecting plate which slides in narrow channels at the back of the groove of 
the corresponding disk. In our instrument one of the disks is carried by the second 
pinion (c), while the axis of the other is supported by the pillar of the viewing telescope, 
and is connected with the long iron rod by a Hooke's joint. 

Underneath the eye-end of the viewing telescope, the other end of the iron bar is 
attached, by another Hooke's joint, to the axis of a wooden " recording " wheel. This 
wheel, which is 6^ inches in diameter, rotates inside a narrow box in such a way that 
its rim, 2 inches in breadth, is level with the outside of the lid of the box. Above the 
exposed part of the recording wheel is a loaded swing frame carrying a roller of the full 
breadth of the wheel. Both wheel and roller are covered with sand paper, to insure a 
grip on the paper fillet which passes between them. A load of about 5 lbs. is sufficient 
to prevent slipping. When observing, it is by turning this roller that the grating is 
moved. The paper, 1-| inch wide, is supplied from a large roll inside the box, and passes 
through a slit in the lid and over a flat surface to the wheels. On the lid, turning on a 
common axis, are five recording levers provided with prickers at their free ends. The 
prickers, which form dots in a straight line across the fillet about f inch apart, are easily 
worked by the thumb and fingers of one hand, either singly or simultaneously. To this 
end the levers are suitably splayed at the fulcrum ends. The levers are smartly raised 
by springs as soon as the pressure is removed. Thirty-one different records can be made 
by the various combinations of the five needles, but only 19 have been employed. The 



104 DR L. BECKER ON THE SOLAR SPECTRUM. 

full revolutions of the recording wheel are registered in a simple manner. A strong nail 
was driven into the rim of the wheel, and filed away to a sharp edge, which leaves a dis- 
tinct mark in the paper every time it passes beneath the roller. These marks served as 
zero points in reading off the observations. We may mention that in the 3500 feet of 
paper that contain the observations, not one of these marks is wanting ; and judging 
from the intervals between them, the fillet has never once slipped. Apart from this 
safeguard, the observer, when turning the roller, could always see in the viewing tele- 
scope that the grating had moved ; and this could not possibly happen unless the fillet 
had correspondingly advanced. If the recording wheel was intentionally held fast, it 
was impossible to draw the fillet over it by turning the roller. 

As to the linear distance between two lines on the paper, it may easily be computed 
from the figures given, that the D lines for instance are 19f inches apart, whilst the 
whole region from A = 6024 to 4861 would require a strip 314 feet long. 

The apparatus works in the following manner : — The observer with his right hand 
turns a toothed wheel on the same axis as the roller; this drives the recording wheel and 
moves the paper along by friction. The long iron rod transmits this motion to the disk 
of the connecting joint, and then by means of the cross to the other disk which is fixed 
to the second pinion. This second pinion, acting through the wheels and endless screw, 
slowly rotates the grating, thus causing the lines of the spectrum to move across the field 
of view. When the line under observation coincides with the intersection of the wires, 
the fingers of the left hand depress one or more of the needles according to the degree 
of blackness of the line. If the lines of the spectrum are near together, they can be 
registered as quickly as the eye can appreciate their individual characteristics. 

In spite of all the connections and the smallness of the worm-wheel, the probable 
error of one observation of the relative position of the grating is but +0 ff '77 of arc as 
computed from lines half-way between starfdard lines. This corresponds to -gu.^ju inch 
in the circumference of the worm-wheel. 

For effecting a quick motion of the grating, the bracket to which the wheelwork is 
fastened turns round a pivot at the upper end, and can be raised out of position by a 
string. By a long wooden handle the observer can then rotate the tangent-screw 
directly, without quitting his seat at the eye-end of the viewing telescope. 

The instrument could be much simplified. A small table moving easily round a 
vertical axis from which a rigid arm projects as far as its rigidity permits, and of course 
balanced, and a screw of low pitch acting on the arm similarly to the slow motion of a 
Transit- Circle in Declination, would be a simple substitute for all our multiplying gear. 

When a great number of lines have to be determined by eye-observations, such an 
instrument will always give accurate results in a comparatively short time, provided it is 
possible to introduce a sufficient number of standard lines. 



DR L. BECKER ON THE SOLAR SPECTRUM. 105 



4. The Observations. 

The working plan of 1887 embraced the region 603 to b, to be observed both in the 
evening and morning in both the second spectra. For the sunsets the plan was carried 
out, whilst the sunrise observations are complete in only one of the spectra. In the 
following year, 1888, the deficiency of observations in the one spectrum was made up to 
such an extent as was consistent with the idea of finishing the spectrum up to F during 
that year. The sun at medium altitudes has been observed at least once on both sides of 
the normal in the two spectra. 

On beginning a set of observations the first line was identified in Professor Smyth's 
maps of the Solar Spectrum. This work has afforded us the greatest help, not only 
while the observations were in progress, but also in the identification of the standard 
lines in the reductions. 

The day of the month was entered on each strip, followed by readings of the dry and 
wet bulb thermometers and notes about the weather. Sometimes the intensity of one 
or two, water- vapour lines between the sodium lines was also noted. The time at which 
a line was observed was occasionally put down, to allow of computing the sun's altitude 
above the horizon and the quantity of air traversed by the rays that entered the spectro- 
scope. At the end of each set the last line was again identified and the meteorological 
observations repeated. 

As the five needles of the recording apparatus made marks in a line at right angles 
to the motion of the paper, any of them sufficed to record the position of the grating ; 
while certain combinations served to describe the lines. Of the 19 signals employed 
14 refer to the comparative blackness of the lines. With the left hand resting on the 
five levers the thumb was used to indicate 1, and the consecutive fingers respectively 
2, 3, 4, 5. This covers the five lowest classes of intensity. The following numbers up 
to 14 were obtained by addition, thus: — 

6 = 5,1; 7 = 5, 2; 8 = 5, 3; 9 = 5,4; 10 = 5,4,1; 11 = 5,4,2; 12 = 5,4,3; 13 = 5,4,3,1; 

14 = 5,4,3,2. 

Since the main, object of our work was the determination of telluric lines, it was of 
the utmost importance to retain a uniform scale of intensity that did not alter during 
the time the same part of the spectrum was under observation. All the observations 
had therefore to be made in either of the two second spectra and with the same eye-piece 
on the viewing telescope. We defined by intensity = 3 the faintest lines that could 
just be distinctly seen across the whole breadth of the second spectrum, while those 
barely visible were designated by 1. The two webs forming the cross in the field of 
view being of different thicknesses were used as standards for intensities 6 and 8. The 
remaining classes were correspondingly estimated. If a line appeared much broader than 
corresponded to its intensity, the record of the line was closely followed by a sign made 
with the needles 3 and 2 ; and when the breadth was considerable, both its borders were 



106 DR L. BECKER ON THE SOLAR SPECTRUM. 

marked in this way. Most of these lines have been resolved into two or more lines on 
other occasions. A close double line whose components were not readily separated was 
marked as a single one with the sign " 3, 1 " affixed. There were also signs for indicating 
the blackness of an interval between two dark lines, for suspected irregularities in the 
working of the apparatus, and lastly for recording the interference of clouds. 

The following table gives the number of the series, the day of the month and 
week, the Greenwich mean time at the beginning and end, and the wave-length to which 
they belong. These are followed by the number of lines observed and the apparent 
altitude of the sun at the given times. Further, the table shows the elastic force of 
water-vapour as computed from Guyot's tables, the pressure of the air (at the observing 
station), the outside temperature, the degree of transparency of the air ranging from 1 
equal very transparent to 5 for thick haze, the direction of the wind and its strength 
rising up to 10 for a gale. Amongst the remarks the intensities of 2 water- vapour lines 
have been given sometimes, a symbolising the double line, X= 5885*18 A.U., and b 
X= 5833-24 A.U. 



[Table 



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VOL. XXXVI. PART I. (NO. 6). 



108 



DR L. BECKER ON THE SOLAR SPECTRUM. 



3 



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109 





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110 



DR L. BECKER ON THE SOLAR SPECTRUM. 



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112 DR L. BECKER ON THE SOLAR SPECTRUM. 

From these tables it appears that the spectrum has been observed on 79 occasions 
near the horizon, yielding a total of 17,782 observations. Since the work has been done 
in 44 h 54 m , each line required on the average 9 seconds. There are 32 sunrises and 47 
sunsets, the former with 45 per cent, of the observed lines. The observations of the sun 
at medium altitudes amount to 8325, which have been determined in 29 h 7 m , thus allow- 
ing about 13 seconds for each line, or half as much again as in low sun. While the slit 
was as narrow in high sun as it could be made, it had to be opened more or less if the 
sun approached the horizon. Yet there are several series, especially in the less refrangible 
part of the spectrum, which have been obtained with a narrow slit down to the horizon. 

5. The Reductions. 

The lines were read off from the strips to one-thousandth of a revolution of the record- 
ing wheel, by using a paper scale pasted on a piece of wood. One revolution covered 
19f in. The marks made by the projecting nail on the recording wheel served as zero 
points for each revolution. With the exception of the observations obtained in 1887, 
this trying work was done twice over by James M'Pherson, the attendant at Dun Echt 
Observatory. From these records the wave-lengths are easily computed when the correc- 
tion of the zero point has been determined from the standard lines. 

Let C be the angle between the collimator and the viewing telescope, and x the angle 
between the collimator and the normal to the grating, positive on the side of the viewer, 
and let a be the distance in millimetres between the lines of the grating. Then we have 
for the spectrum of the nth order 

± — = sin (C — x) — sin x . 
a 

The positive sign has to be chosen if the directly reflected beam of light falls between 
the collimator and the viewer or beyond the collimator, and the negative sign if it lies 
on the other side of the viewing telescope. In the first position the less refrangible part 
of the spectrum precedes the more refrangible rays when the grating is turned by the 
recording apparatus. Let x x correspond to this position (I) of the grating, and x 2 to the 
other (II), and let the dispersions be Ai and A 2 as defined by 



then we have 

A _ n 1 _ n 

1 a cos(C— a^) a cosa; 2 

and since « 2 >a^ , we have, disregarding the sign, 

A!>A 2 .* 

* Compare Hasselbero, Untersuchungen iiber das Absorptionsspectrum des Jodgases. St Petersburg, 1889. 



A dC 




1 n 1 


n 1 


coscc 2 ' 2 a cos(C— x 2 )~ 


a cosccj 



DR L. BECKER ON THE SOLAR SPECTRUM. 113 

From the constant of the grating a= # 0017592 mm. and C= 25°, we find for the second 
spectrum if X = 5500 A.U. 

a; t =-6 -2; a; 2 = 31°-2; Ai = 116A 2 - 

Suppose the rays from the edges of the slit enclose the angle 25 before diffraction, and let 
the angles be 2<j x and 2<r 2 after diffraction. Then 

cr l _d(G—x l ) _ cos x t _ <r 2 _ d(G — x 2 ) _ cos x 2 
s dx x coscc 2 ' s dx 2 cosa? x 

<r 1 >s><r 2 - 

This shows that the angular value of the slit remains unaltered if the collimator serves 
also as viewing telescope. Further, we see that the angular value of the slit in spectrum 
I, which gives the greater dispersion, has increased. The separation of close lines 
depends both on the dispersion and on the apparent size of the slit ; we must therefore 

compare — and 



4i _j A 2 



'i 



Ai_ nil A 2 __ W 1 



therefore 



a-! a s cosa^ <x 2 as coscc 2 

A_i/ A_ 2 



which means that although the dispersion Ai is greater on side I than on side II, the 
separating power is less in the first position. 
In the special case for X= 5500 A.U., it is 

42 = i-i6^- 1 . 
<r 2 0"i 

In this investigation one important point has not been taken into consideration at all, 
viz., the intensity of the light. It would require special experiments to find the intensity 
of the diffracted rays for the several positions of the grating with regard to the direction 
of the incident light. But we may compute the direct loss of light incurred by our 
spectroscope. The breadth of the ruled surface of the grating allows the same amount 
of light to be received from the collimator in both second spectra. After diffraction the 
horizontal diameter of the beam of light becomes 

, cos a?, . . , 7 cos x, . . 

d,= -4 m. and <L = l 4 m., 

1 cosa^ l cos% 

or for X = 5500 A.U., 

d x = 3-44 in. ; d 2 = 4"65 in. 

The aperture of the viewing telescope being 4 in., the second position of the grating 
entails a loss of light of about 15 per cent, 



114 



DR L. BECKER ON THE SOLAR SPECTRUM. 



After all, it is difficult to say which of the two positions is the better for observing. 
But the formulas leave no doubt that it is most advantageous to have the viewing 
telescope as close to the collimator as possible. 

After this digression we return to the first formula, which we shall write 



sm 



(ir*) =: 



n\ 



2a cos 



. n\ C 

c- or ^ sec r 



Instead of x we introduce the angular motion of the zero point of the recording wheel. 
Let r be the number of revolutions of the recording wheel required to turn the grating 
from the position x = to x = x , hence 

1296000" M 00 , Mt , 1 „ 

x = ~ 150140 r=[1 ' 8872957]r ' 

180 iff 

thus giving a simple relation between r and X. 

A table was computed for the second spectrum giving X with r as argument, the 
interval being one-tenth of a revolution of the recording wheel. On account of the 

relation 

x 2 = C - x 1 or t. 2 = c — t x , 

one table suffices for both positions of the grating. The following is an abstract of the 
table employed : — 



±r. 


X in A.U. 


1. Diff. 


±r. 


A. in A.U. 


1. Diff. 


±r. 


k in A.U. 


1. Diff. 


-380 
-370 
-360 
-350 
-340 
-330 
-320 
-310 


6055-92 
5995-76 
5935-52 
5875-19 
5814-78 
5754-29 
5693-71 
5633-05 


60-16 
60-24 
60-33 
60-41 
60-49 
60-58 
60-66 


-310 
-300 
-290 
-280 
-270 
-260 
-250 
-240 


5633-05 
5572-32 
5511-52 
5450-63 
5389-67 
5328-63 
5267-52 
5206-33 


60-73 
60-80 
60-89 
60-96 
61-04 
61-11 
61-19 


-240 
-230 
-220 
-210 
-200 
-190 
-180 


5206-33 
5145-06 
5083-73 
5022-33 
4960-86 
4899-32 
4837-71 


61-27 
61-33 
61-40 
61-47 
61-54 
61-61 



All the standard lines were first expressed in terms of r, and then compared, in every 
series of observations, with the observed revolutions of the recording wheel. Had the 
apparatus been perfect, the differences between calculated and observed quantities would 
have been constant for the same set, the difference being the correction of the zero point, 
after allowing for which the foregoing table would have supplied the wave-lengths by 
interpolation. Owing, however, to irregularities in the mechanism, changes of tempera- 
ture, &c, the zero point changed usually by a few hundredths of a revolution from line 
to line. So long as these changes were moderate in quantity it was easy to allow for 
them by a simple graphic process, but in certain positions of the worm-wheel the correc- 
tions changed very rapidly. The reducing curve then became so steep as no longer to 



DR L. BECKER ON THE SOLAR SPECTRUM. 115 

permit of accurate interpolation. When this happened we introduced another table, 
computed from the original one by altering all the first differences by the same quantity. 
This quantity was selected so that the first and last standard lines of the series gave 
the same correction. Of course "r" had again to be interpolated from this auxiliary 
table for the standard lines, and the whole process repeated. The curve could then be 
readily drawn. Geometrically the ordinates of the new curve are equal to the differences 
of the ordinates of the first curve and of a straight line drawn through the first and last 
points, or, in other words, the second table eliminates the progressive error in the motion 
of the apparatus. 

The standard lines are those published by Professor H. A. Rowland, in his essay " On 
the Relative Wave-lengths of the Lines of the Solar Spectrum." # To these were added 
fifteen lines, principally between c and F, which were reduced from the memoir entitled 
" Bestimmung der Wellenlangen von 300 Linien im Sonnenspectrum," t by Drs Muller 
and Kempf, and from Angstrom's Recherches sur le Spectre solaire. Twenty-two 
lines between b and F which were determined by Messrs Eowland and Muller-Kempf, 
gave the constant difference — 0"19 A.U., the probable error of one difference being 
± 0*04. To the same region forty-seven comparisons between wave-lengths determined 
by Eowland and Angstrom were made, and the differences combined by a curve. The 
probable error of one difference amounted to ±0'07A.U. Angstrom's measures, 
however, were only combined with those of Muller-Kempf with regard to their weights 
when there was no doubt left that the wave-lengths referred to the same line. 

The reduction of the bulk of observations was carried on in three columns ; one 
column contained the readings, the second the corrections of the zero point as taken from 
the curve, and the third the wave-lengths, which were interpolated from the table with 
the difference of the values of the two preceding columns. 

All the wave-lengths were then compiled, and the corresponding lines identified. This 
turned out to be a most difficult task in those regions where many faint lines of the same 
intensity stood close together and were occasionally wanting. In such cases special 
drawings were prepared and the most probable identifications adopted. There was not 
so much difficulty experienced with faint lines in the neighbourhood of darker ones. 
Neighbouring lines of different intensities were invariably combined line for line with 
others of corresponding blackness, although other combinations might have brought 
the wave-lengths to a closer agreement. Very often close double lines were found not to 
have been separated when the sun was close to the horizon or the faintness of the light 
had necessitated a wider opening of the slit. 

The adopted values of the wave-lengths are the means of all the observations made, 
as well at medium altitudes of the sun as near the horizon. In the case of double lines, 
which had not always been resolved, the mean of the middle was first computed and then 
corrected by the average distance between the lines. The fainter lines having, as a rule, 

* American Journal of Science, vol. xxxiii., March 1887. 

t Publicationen ales Astrophijsikalischen Observatoriums zu Potsdam, Fiinfter Band, Potsdam, 1886. 

VOL. XXXVI. PART I. (NO. 6). U 



116 



DR L. BECKER ON THE SOLAR SPECTRUM. 



been observed on fewer occasions, it was found inadmissible to take the mean values of 
the wave-lengths before the single determinations had been corrected for systematic 
deviations derived from the darker lines. 

As the observations of the standard lines were reduced with the others, the wave- 
lengths thus obtained should not deviate far from the standard values adopted. How- 
ever, we must not forget that the curve was drawn as regularly as possible, and therefore 
at places where two or more standard lines lie close together discrepancies must occur in 
the several determinations of the wave-lengths of the standard lines. In the following 
table we give a comparison of the wave-lengths determined by Professor Eowland and 
by Drs Muller and Kempf with the mean of our final values. The Potsdam wave- 
lengths, which served as standards, are marked by a star in the column MK-B. Double 
lines have a d affixed. 

Table II. 



Final 
Wave-Lengths. 


R-B 


MK-B 


6024-22 


- 1 


+ 16 


6021-94 


+ 1 




6020-23c? 


+ 5 




6016-81 


-3 




6013-68 





+ 15 


6008-71 


-1 




6003-17 





+ 16 


5987-20 


+ 1 


+ 20 


5984-90 1 


+ 8 




5976-94 


_ i 


+ 17 


5975-51 







5965-97 




+ 15 


5958-45 




+ 10 


5956-86 


-1 




5955-10 


+ 1 




5951-68 


+ 3 




5948-67 


+ 1 


+ 26 


5946-14 


-1 




5934-82 


-1 


+ 17 


5930-33 


+ 1 




5919-83 


-4 




5916-42 


-1 




5914-32<2 





+ 15 


5905-81 


+ 1 




5901-62 


+ 1 




5898-33 







5896-08 





+ 17 


5893-08 2 


-5 




5890-12 





+ 11 


5889-78 


+ 2 




5883-98^ 


-1 


+ 21 


5862-51 





+ 15 


5859-73 


+ 1 




5857-61 





+ 19 


5853-85 


-1 





Final 
Wave-Lengths. 


R-B 


MK-B 


5848-36 




+ 16* 


5831-81 




+ 15* 


5816-50 





+ 18 


5809-35 


+ 1 




5806-89 




+ 16* 


5798-36 


-3 




5791-14 





+ 16 


5788-09 


-2 




5784-02 


-1 




5782-30 


- 2 




5780-72 




+ 18 


5775-24 


-1 


+ 12 


5772-28 


+ 2 




5763-15 





+ *8 


5754-82 





+ 8 


5753-29 


-1 




5752-21 


- 2 




5748-12 




+ "7 


5741-97 


+ 2 




5731-92 


-1 


+ 15 


5718-00 




+ 13 


5715-25 


-i 




5709-71 
5709-55 


-i 

+ i 


1 +12 


5701-71 







5698-57^ 




+ 13 


5688-38 


-i 


+ 13 


5682-84 3 
5682-41 


+ 5 


1 +17 


5679-21 


-3 




5675-59 





+ 17 


5662-68 







5659-04 




) 


5658-82 




)■ +13 


5658-65 




1 



Final 
Wave-Lengths. 



R-B 



5657-99 


+ 3 


5655-70* 


-6 


5645-76 


-1 


5644-31 




5644-13 




5641-58 


+ 1 


5638-39 




5634-02 




5624-70 





5624-18 





5615-82 


-1 


5615-44 


+ 1 


5603-03^ 


-1 


5594-87 




5594-66 5 




5588-92 


-1 


5586-90 




5582-12 





5578-82 




5576-22 





5572-98 




5569-76 


+ 1 


5565-83 




5555-05 


-1 


5544-07 





5543-34 





5534-98 


+ 1 


5528-56 





5514 - 57<2 




5513-12 





5506-92 





5501-58 


+ 3 


5497-68 


- 2 


5487-88 




5477-05 


-1 



MK-B 



} +5 

+ 19 

+ 18 
+ 5 

J- +22 
+ 12 

}♦_• 

+ 14 

+ 19 

+ 16 

+ 16 
+ 12 

+ 10 

+ 12 

+ 18 



+ 21 
+ 15 
+ 19 



1 Telluric companion. 2 Telluric companion. 3 Telluric companion. 

4 Another line to the violet side. ° Another lino to the violet side. 



DR L. BECKER ON THE SOLAR SPECTRUM. 



117 



Final 
Wave-Lengths. 


K-B 


MK-B 


Final 
"Wave-Lengths. 


R-B 


MK-B 


Final 
Wave-Lengths. 


R-B 


MK-B 


5476-876? 1 




+ 10 


5255-01 




+ 31 


I 5090-88 


+ 2 


+ 24 


5466-51 


+ 1 




5253-58 


-2 




5084-20 




+ 19 


5463-44 
5463-11 


- 2 
-2 


J +12 


5250-75 
5250-33 


+ 1 



1 +31 


5083-47 
5076-43 


-1 


+ 19* 


5462-59 


+ 8 




5242-60 5 




+ 15 


5068-88 







5455-68^ 





+ 12 


5233-02 


+ 3 


+ 19 


5065-30 




) 


5447-04 


+ 1 


+ 16 


5229-98 


-3 




5065-12 




} +24 


5434-65 


+ 1 


+ 16 


5227-31 




) 


5064-73 


+ 4 


J 


5429-86 




+ 16 


5226-98 




} +33 


5060-19 


+ 




5424-21 


-1 




5226-67 




) 


5051-74 




+ 11 


5415-32 


+ 2 


+ 20 


5225-62 


6 




5049-94 


6 


+ 11 


540591 





+ 15 


5217-52 


-3 




5041 -80rf 




+ 16* 


5400-60 2 




+ 23 


5215-27 


+ 1 


+ 29 


5041 -00d 




+ 24* 


5397-26 


+ 1 


+ 19 


5210-48 


+ 1 




5036-04 


-1 


+ 18 


5393-27 


+ 3 


+ 30 


5208-59rf 




+ 18 


5027-27 




+ 24* 


5389-62 


-1 


+ 21 


5204-62 


+ 3 




5020-14 


6 




5383-49 


+ 1 


+ 19 


5202-46 


-4 


+ 15 


5018-47^ 




+ 18 


5379-71 


-1 




5198-81 


+ 1 




5014-36 


-i 




5371-63 3 


-1 


+ 11 


5193-07 







5012-13 6 




+ 33 


5370-09 







5192-44 




+ 23 


5007-34 


+ 3 


+ 24 


5367-62 


-2 


+ 17 


5191-55 




+ 21 


5006-26 


-2 


I +23 


5362-93^ 


+ 4 


+ 22 


5188-89cZ 







5005-85 


-1 


5361-76 


-1 




5183-73 





+ 20 


4999-64 


-1 


+ 16 


5353-52 


+ 1 


+ 19 


5173-83 


+ 1 




4994-23 


+ 2 




5345-99 




+ 17 


5172-78 


+ 1 


+ 6 


4991-27d 




+ 17* 


5341-22 




+ 14 


5171-73 


-2 




4985-53^ 




+ 21 


5333-04* 





+ 12 


5169-10d 


-1 




4981-85 


-1 




5328-61 




[- +17 


5167-51d 


-1 


+ 16 


4980-32 


-3 


+ 20 


5328-34 




5165-54 


-2 




4978-75 


-4 




5328-06 




5162-39 


+ 10 


+ 21 


4973-25 


+ 4 


+ 15 


5324-32 


-1 


+ 17 


5159-18 


-1 


+ 22 


4966-21 




+ 15* 


5316-79d 


+ 1 


+ 22 


5155-90 


-4 




4957-54(2 




+ 16* 


5307-49 


-1 


+ 17 


5154-17 


-1 




4950-26 




+ 17* 


5302-43 




+ 17 


5150-94 


+ 2 




4942-65 




+ 17* 


5300-86 


-2 




5148-25^ 




+ 19 


4934-20 


-2 


+ 17 


5298-90 




j 


5146-62 


-1 




4924-90 


-1 




5298-57 




>+13 


5142-97J 


+ 2 




492404 


+ 1 


+ 21 


5298-34 




5141-81 


+ 4 




4920-63 





+ 16 


5298-06 




J 


5139-Ud 


+ 3 


+ 28 


4919-12^ 


-1 


+ 8 


5296-76 


+ 4 




5133-82 


-1 


+ 18 


4907-85 


+ 2 




5288-68 


-4 


+ 17 


5127-47 







4903-42 


-1 


+ 21 


5283-75 





+ 18 


5126-32 


-1 




4900-31 


-7 




5281-89 


+ 2 


+ 26 


5125-26^ 




+ 22 


4900-05 


-1 




5276-20 


-6 


I +22 


5121-74 


-1 




4891-68 




+ 10 


5275-89 




5115-50 





+ 29 


4890-87 


+ 1 


+ 23 


5273-37c£ 


+ 1 




5110-48 


+ 2 




4885-38^ 




+ 19* 


5270-43^ 





+ 12 


5109-76 







4878-30 




+ 19* 


5269-66 


-1 


+ 24 


5107-63^ 




+ 22 


4871-41 




+ 19* 


5265-73^ 




+ 24 


5105-67 


-1 




4861-42 


+ 1 


+ 22 


5262-36 




) 


5098-72*2 




+ 19 


4859-86 







5262-28 




} +25 


5097-10 


) - 3 










5261-82 


-i 


) 


5096-94 


H + 5) 


... 









1 Another line to the violet side. 

2 Companion to the red side. 

3 Companion to the violet side. 



4 Companion to the violet side. 

5 Probably Rowland's 5241-60. 



6 Double line to the red side. 

7 Three lines to the violet side. 



118 DR L. BECKER ON THE SOLAR SPECTRUM. 

The intensity of the lines adopted for medium sun is the mean of the estimations 
made near the meridian ; yet if the mean fell between two classes of the intensity scale, 
the low sun observations were consulted. As to the fainter lines the mean of the 
intensity had often to be corrected in accordance with the definition of our classes of 
inteusity. Thus a faint line which had only once been seen was considered equal 1, 
except when it stood near a dark line, or was a component of a close double line. 
Further, if a line of intensity " 3 " at high sun had frequently been overlooked in low 
sun, we assumed it to be of intensity "2." Moreover, a line of intensity " 2 " was 
entered as " 3 " when never missed either in high or low altitudes of the sun. 

Before the intensity of the telluric lines can be treated of, it is necessary to show how 
the absorption at different altitudes may be expressed in units of that in the zenith. 



6. Absorption at Different Altitudes. 

This problem has been solved in its simplest form by Laplace. Supposing the 
absorption to increase with the first power of the density, he finds the absorption in our 
atmosphere, for any zenith-distance, proportional to the refraction divided by the sine of 
the zenith-distance. Yet M. Janssen * has shown that, for certain bands in the absorp- 
tion spectrum of oxygen, the same absorption is produced in columns of oxygen of 
different lengths, if these are inversely proportional to the squares of the densities. 

This discovery induces us to develope the problem generally ; the more so, as one of 
these remarkable oxygen bands falls within the region of our work. 

Let 5 be the uniform density of a layer of atmosphere bounded by spheres of the 
radii r and r + dr ; and let v' be the angle between the curve of light and the radius r. 
Suppose the absorption to be proportional to the (n + 1 )th power of the density ; then we 
have 

dF = —, P ^ (1); 

where F denotes the length of a column of atmosphere of the density 1, which produces 
the same absorption. 

Assuming Bessel's hypothesis t respecting the decrease of density, we have 

P = Po e ~ l3s anu * = 1 -^ .... (2). 

in which p designates the density at the surface of the earth, /3 a constant (= 745747), 
and a the radius of the earth. 

Now suppose that /x and {x are respectively the indices of refraction in the layer of air 

* Vierteljahmschrift der Astronomischen Gesellschaft, 25 Jahrgang, Erstes Heft, Leipzig, 1890. 
t Bessel, Fundamenta astronomies Regiomonti, 1818, Sectio iv. 



DR L. BECKER ON THE SOLAR SPECTRUM. 119 

under consideration and in the air at the earth's surface, Z the angle between the curve 
of light and the radius a, then 

r/A sin v = a/j. sin Z (3). 

Combining these formulae we have 

\J cos^Z — ( 1— c - i \ + (2s— s^snrZ 

a form similar to Laplace's differential equation of astronomical refraction.* We 
integrate this equation at first for large Z, following almost the same course as Laplace 
has chosen for n = 0. We introduce with him the constant of refraction defined by 

2 -1 

Mo 

and consider that 

m 2 — 1 p 

Mo" 1 Po 

hence and by (2) 

l-^ = 2a(l-e-^) (5). 

Mo 

^ ^- changes from 1 at the earth's surface to 1*025 at a height of 50 miles. We may 

(1 — s ) Mo 

therefore develope (4) into a series according to powers of s. The first term becomes after 

integrating 

j, _ ,4.x -i r de-Wit* 

*o-"P (n + l)P/ I T a V 

y i yooS.Z + 2 8 in>z[ 8 -^ I <l-e-^)J 

Denote 

sin 2 L 
and 

y = x-\ — =— or? (6). 

u sin 2 Z v ' 

Lagkange's formula for Eeversion gives 

sm 2 Z v '^ (m — l)!\sm J Z/ 

Hence the mth term of F becomes 

_ .q-i 1 r(n+m)q^|»-> -***£* f *-^*dx 
*o,m-"Po ( m _i)!J_ s i n 2Z J e y Jco&Z + 2sm*Z.z 

* Laplace, Traite'de rn&anique celeste, Tome iv. livre x. p. 246. Paris, 1805. 



120 DR L. BECKER ON THE SOLAR SPECTRUM. 

The integration must extend from x = to x = s x — ^27(1— e' Ph ) , where Sj corresponds 

to the upper limit of the atmosphere. But since the value of the function which has to 
be integrated is very small for the upper limit, the value of the integral will not be 
altered if this limit be supposed to be 00. Laplace defines (loc. cit., p. 250) 



yfr(r) = e r '/e- t2 dt if T = x /r|cotg Z, 



or 

e~ r P x dx 



Jr. 



= shTzv|v^(^)- 



7cos 2 Z+2a;sin 2 Z sinZV £ 
We arrive therefore at the result : 



F = — 

sinZ, 



Kip^ ^{.-*«>**fe±a + r ( . + j> j*].-«*3Ks±2 + ...l.. m 

mZ/r° v ^\ Jn + 1 L 7 sin 2 ZJ Jn + 2 ) ' 

and the general term within the bracket becomes 

(m-l)!L / sin 2 ZJ V^+m 



The next largest term in the series into which F (4) has been developed arises from 
second term 
and (6) we have 



the second term in (1 — s) 2 . At the same time — may be taken into account. By (5) 

r"0 



fi 1 , 2a 



Lsin 2 Z J 



_l=_J^_ a _ -P±-- a \e-f is + 2x 



/x (l-s) 2 sin 2 Z 

When we substitute this expression in dF (4), and write (7) 

F = ° ¥(w+l). 

sin Z ' 

the correction depending on a becomes 

{i^Z-«][^ +1 )-^+ 2 )] <»> 



C r 2a 
sinZl 



a being less than 1 minute of arc, this correction is of no consequence. The part multi- 
plied by 2x may be also reduced to ^ functions. We find that this term can be taken 
into account if we replace in F (7) 

yfr(n+m) y}r{n+m)r. , „ 1 ~| , cotgZ 

v^r h y ^+^L 1 - cotg2Z+ (^^J + (^-fm)^ (9) - 



DR L. BECKER ON THE SOLAR SPECTRUM. 121 

Since Z has been supposed to be large and /3 = 745747 in Bessel's hypothesis, 
the correction is very small indeed. This holds also for smaller values of Z, because 

; . ,- ErF , makes the first term # in — cotg 2 Z , vanish. 

(n+rn)J2p «/u+m 

For small values of Z we can develope dF (4) according to powers of tg 2 Z. Neglecting 

all terms multiplied by s 3 and a 2 we obtain 

cosZ/Sn + l 1 ^(w+l)^"' * Un + 1)/T (w+l) 2 /^ w+2/ 
, 47 / 3_ _3a 2^ + 3 \ ) 

For the zenith the formula becomes 

P «JSff ( 1+ «i + l (11 ). 

/3 71+1 (_ + l)/3 j v ' 

With Bessel's values of -5 and ^ we find for the oxygen of our atmosphere 

F = 5572 feet if n be equal 0, 
F = 579 feet if n be equal 1 ; 

or, in words, the absorption produced by the oxygen of our atmosphere in the zenith is 
the same as that of a column 5572 feet in length of oxygen under a pressure of 
1 atmosphere, if the absorption be proportional to the density ; and of 579 feet, if it 
be proportional to the square of the density. M. Janssen finds 1660 and 172 metres 
respectively, by employing a coefficient which Ramont had computed from the heights 
of mountains determined by barometric and trigonometric measurements.t 

The formulae (7), (8), (9), (10) enable us to compute the absorption in any zenith- 
distance, but for our purpose we may dispense with the corrections given in (8) and (9). 

For n = they admit of great simplification. This special value makes the expression 
within the bracket of (7) identical with that in Laplace's and Bessel's formula of 
refraction. Hence we obtain 

1 a l-a, 7 

1 sinZj8 ru a 

in which SZ denotes the astronomical refraction, or in units of F in the zenith (see (11)) 

A- 1 ™ < 12 >- 

This result might have been immediately deduced from the fundamental equations. 

* Laplace, ibid., No. 5. f Laplace, Traite de mdcanique c&este, Tome iv. livre x. chapitre iv. 



122 



DR L. BECKER ON THE SOLAR SPECTRUM. 



For small Z (10) gives 

Supposing n=\, (7) gives for large Z, if j^= 1 corresponds to the zenith 

l!Vsm 2 Zj J $ + 2!Vsin 2 ZJ 



(12a). 



f*~ sinZ 1 
and for smaller Z 



272^1,31^^(2) l/3 aj 8\ ^1^(3) 



n/2 



+ 



JA 



+ 



^^b-Hw-iV^iw-^)^ 



(13), 



(13a), 



which may he used up to Z = 85°. 

If Bessel's constants be introduced, f refers to a barometric pressure of 29 '6 inches 
and about 50° Fahrenheit. In the case of w = any change of pressure and tempera- 
ture is easily taken into account by employing Bessel's tables of refraction. From these 
a table was computed which gave f x and its corrections for any barometer and thermo- 
meter readings. The interval of the argument " Apparent Zenith-Distance" was taken at 
0°"1 between Z = 90° and Z = 83°. 

The ^ functions in (13) were interpolated from Bessel's tables in the Fundamenta 
Astronomies. The following is an abstract of our tables : — 



Apparent Zenith- 
Distance. 


Absorption proportional to the Density. 


Absorption proportional to the Square 
of the Density. 


A 


Fj in Miles. 


ft 


F 2 in Miles. 


0° 
20 
40 
60 
80 

83 
84 
85 
86 
87 
88 
89 
90 


1-0 
1-1 
1-3 
2-0 

5-6 

7-7 
8-8 
10-2 
12-1 
14-8 
18-9 
25-4 
36-4 


11 
1-2 
1-4 
2-2 
6-2 

8-5 
9-8 
113 
134 
16-4 
21-0 
28-2 
40-4 


10 

11 

1-3 
2-0 

5-7 

7-9 
91 
10-7 
131 
165 
22-0 
32-1 
537 


0-12 
0-13 
0-15 
0-23 
0-66 

0-9 
1-0 
1-2 
1-5 
1-9 
2-5 
3-7 
6-2 



F gives the length in miles of a column of oxygen under a pressure of 29 6 inches at 
50° Fahrenheit, which would produce the same effect as the oxygen of our atmosphere. 
To assign to every line the corresponding value of f, the zenith distance was 



DR L. BECKER ON THE SOLAR SPECTRUM. 123 

computed from the observed Greenwich mean time. Let t be the hour angle of the sun, 
e the equation of time, I the longitude, and T the observed Greenwich mean time, then 

t = T-l-e. 

A table was prepared which gave the apparent zenith-distance with the two arguments, 
hour angle t and the sun's declination. When the values of f had been interpolated from 
these tables for every observed Greenwich mean time, they were entered as ordinates on 
cross-lined paper, the abscissse being the current numbers of the lines to which they 
belong. A curve was then drawn through the points and the number of the line read off, 
for which the numerical value of /"was a whole number. Close to the horizon, however, 
where f alters rapidly, it was necessary to secure more points of the curve by taking 
f from the table with several intermediate values of the zenith-distance. 

7. The Probable Error of the Eesults. 

The complexity of the recording apparatus did not entitle us to expect any great 
accuracy in observations which were at some distance from the standard lines. It is true 
the working of the train of wheels had been examined under a high magnifying power of 
a microscope, before the work was undertaken. But although the wheels appeared to 
move regularly, when the fastest of the set was turned steadily, there was still the chance 
of periodic errors being produced by the form of the teeth. 

It will be remembered that the bracket which carried the second wheel and the two 
pinions could be pulled out of position to permit a quick motion of the grating. This 
quick motion was used before every set of observations, in order to bring the required 
region of the spectrum into the field of view. Therefore all the errors emanating from 
irregularities of these wheels have the character of accidental errors. With the first 
wheel, the endless screw, and the worm-wheel it was different. The grating had a fixed 
position in relation to the worm-wheel, so that every line was observed almost in the 
same position of these three parts. Yet the great number of standard lines acted 
favourably. One revolution of the screw covered about 90 standard lines on an average, 
thus rendering harmless all the periodic errors in the screw and the form of the teeth of 
the worm-wheel. But the first wheel, which is on the same axis as the screw, turns 
about a tooth and a half for the mean interval between the standard lines. Any irregu- 
larities in the form of these teeth must lead to systematic error, which cannot be eliminated 
by merely multiplying the observations. It was not until 1889 that the grating was 
frequently altered in position with reference to the worm-wheel. Hence it was of import- 
ance to observe the second spectrum on both sides of the normal of the grating. It is 
true that, as already pointed out, the observations on one side preponderate, but those on 
the other side are sufficiently numerous to test the magnitude of the errors arising from 
the source under consideration. Moreover, the recording wheel worked in only one 
direction, while the lines travelled in opposite directions through the field of view on the 

VOL. XXXVI. PART I. (NO. 6). X 



124 DR L. BECKER ON THE SOLAR SPECTRUM. 

two positions of the grating. Therefore any personal error in bringing the lines to the 

cross wires would be eliminated if it depended on the direction of the motion. 

In order to form an idea of the working of the apparatus 142 lines with 1583 single 

observations were selected, which lay about half-way between standard lines, and were 

distributed over the whole length of the spectrum. They gave as the probable error of a 

single observation 

r= ±0056 A.U. 

» 

This value corresponds to ^-th inch on the recording paper, to YTT* n mcn on the circumfer- 
ence of the first wheel, and to ^,ViRyth inch on the circumference of the worm-wheel. Every 
line having been observed on an average eleven times, the probable error of the wave- 
length of any well-observed line lying half-way between two standard lines amounts to 

r= ±0-019 A.U. 

It would have occupied too much time to repeat the same computation for all the lines. 
We therefore chose an entirely different way. In the course of the computations we had 
deduced the means of the wave-lengths for every line, as well from the high sun 
observations, as from those of the low sun in both positions of the grating. There are 
thus three series of results belonging to the same lines. 

Let s ± and s 2 designate the values given in two sets of results, and m the true value. 
The average error n of one value is then : 

„ ■ [si-m] . _ . fa-ro] 

if n is the number of values in each set, and [ ] stands for the sum irrespective of the 

signs. 

Let s x be the mean of p, and s 2 of q observations, and suppose all the observations 

equally accurate. 

fo-m] J'p - [s 2 -m] Jq = 0. 
Further 

[Sj-m] + [s 2 -m] = fo-sj 

when the true value m is supposed to lie between s x and s 2 . 

This granted, the average error of one value resting on p + q observations becomes : 

Jp+q(Jp+Jq) n 

The factor being symmetrical with respect to p and q, the same formula will hold good 
if p and q be interchanged for any pair of values. 
The probable error follows by the known relation 

r = 0-845??. 

In using this formula we are well aware that neither the condition of equal accuracy, 
nor that of equality in the number of observations, is strictly fulfilled. Comparing the 



DR L. BECKER ON THE SOLAR SPECTRUM. 125 

wave-lengths of 2395 different lines obtained on one side of the normal with those found 
on the other side, we find the average difference 

[Vl*J = o-065 lU. 

n 

The probable error of one wave-length, which is the mean of all low sun observations, 
then becomes for p = q 

r = ± 001 9 A.U. 

One series, however, contains on an average twice as many observations, hence p = 2q 
and 

r = ± 0018 A.U. 

which nearly holds for the mean of six observations of the same line in low sun. 

The same comparisons give on an average a systematic difference of 0*007 A.U. 

We next compared the wave-lengths which result from all the low sun observations 
with those derived from high sun. They were divided into two classes, one of which 
comprised the faint lines of intensity 1 to 3, and the other the darker lines. 1710 faint 
lines show an average difference of 0*074 A.U. and + 0*007 systematic difference, whereas 
1215 well-defined lines give respectively 0*048 A.U. and + 0*001 A.U. Supposing 
the low sun observations to be twice as numerous as those made at medium altitudes, 
we find the probable error of one definite wave-length 

r = ± 0*021 A.U. for intensity <4 
r = ± 0*014 A.U. for intensity ^4. 

There is an increase of 1 in the last decimal, if the mean of the observations in low 
and high sun are considered equally accurate. The greater probable error of the fainter 
lines is sufficiently explained by the smaller number of observations on which each 
wave-length rests, and the greater difficulty in perceiving them. 

From the preceding examination we gather that there is no systematic difference 
either between the observations on opposite sides of the normal or between those made 
at medium altitudes and near the horizon. The probable error of one definite wave-length 
may be considered to amount on an average to ± 0*02 A.U., if the line has been observed 
about six times. There will be lines, of course, which may turn out to deviate considerably 
more than this from the true value, in spite of having been frequently observed. But 
this will not surprise anybody who has ever compared the difference of two independent 
series of results with the probable errors as given by their authors. 

The probable error is not so small as to render it worth while to correct the morning 
and evening observations for the displacement of the lines due to the rotation of the earth. 
For the latitude of Dun Echt the maximum effect is about 0*005 A.U. The displacement 
produced by the eccentricity of the earth's orbit can also be neglected, although it 
amounts to about 0*01 A.U. at the time of the equinoxes. 



126 



DR L. BECKER ON THE SOLAR SPECTRUM. 



The probable error of the estimations of intensity of blackness was derived from those 
regions where no telluric lines were found. High and low sun observations were 
treated separately. The number of instances was counted in which the estimated 
intensity was the same as the final mean value expressed in whole numbers. The same 
was done for all the observations that deviated ± 1, ± 2, &c, classes from the average. 
The results are found in the following table : — 

Table III. 





High Sun. 


Low Sun. 


Region of Spectrum, \ in 10 ~ 6 mm 


566-552 


538-511 


497-486 


566-552 


538-511 


497-486 


Number of single observations, .... 


830 


1844 


710 


1501 


2855 


1006 


Number of observations in 100 of intensity equal mean 


71-5 


71-6 


72-8 


63-8 


61-7 


61-0 


,, ,, ,, equal mean ± 1 


28-0 


27-9 


26-6 


34-6 


36-6 


36-5 


,, ,, ,. equal mean ± 2 


0-5 


0-5 


0-6 


1-5 


1-5 


2-1 


,, ,, ,, equal mean ± 3 








o-i 


2 


0-4 


Probable error of one estimation of intensity, 


i'b-25 


±0-25 


i'b-24 


±0-32 


±0-33 


±0-35 



If it is borne in mind that the intensity-scale progresses by whole numbers, it is 
evident that the high sun estimations are as accurate as the scale allows. The low sun 
estimations are a little inferior to them in point of accuracy, as would be expected from 
the great variations in the intensity of the continuous spectrum. 

We further compared the mean intensity as observed in low sun with that in high 
sun observations. All the lines which were darker in low sun than in high sun were 
counted, and the average difference between their intensities computed. The same 
was repeated with those which appeared feebler in low sun, and with those of equal 
intensities at both altitudes. The lines were divided into two classes, one comprising 
those fainter than 8, and the other the darker lines. Close double lines were excluded 
unless they had been separated on all occasions. The spectrum was divided into zones 
to show the changes in the regions where telluric lines are numerous. 



Table IV. 

Difference of Intensities of Low and High Sun Observations. 



Region of Spectrum, 


'o 06 














"o oo 
u A 














A in 10- G mm. 


1 8 
S « 


n 


Ai 


n 


Ai 


n 


Ai 


Numb 
lines 


n 


Ai 


11 


Ai 


n 


At 


566-552 


322 


30 


+ 0-5 


30 





40 


-05 


26 


40 


+ 0-3 


10 





50 


-0-5 


535-524 


258 


34 


+ 0-6 


33 





33 


-0-5 


38 


32 


+ 0-5 


27 





41 


-0-7 


524-512 


246 


33 


+ 0-5 


35 





31 


-0-5 


61 


54 


+ 0-4 


15 





31 


-0-6 


. 500-486 


231 


18 


+ 0-4 


27 





55 


-0-6 


50 


40 


+ 0-6 


20 





40 


-0-5 


"S | f 602-590 
a. s | 590-578 


291 


82 


+ 2-6 


8 





10 


-1-1 


10 






40 





60 


-1-6 


361 


69 


+ 17 


12 





19 


-0-8 


4 


25 


+ 0-1 






75 


-0-4 


§ .g -j 578-566 


328 


72 


+ 1-8 


17 





11 


-0-6 


19 


16 


+ 0-4 


16 





68 


-07 


'§>J 552-535 


409 


48 


+ i-o 


20 





32 


-0-6J 


42 


33 


+ 0-5 


14 





52 


-0-6 


«3 1512-500 


258 


56 


+ 1-5 


15 





29 


-0-7 


53 


43 


+ 0-6 


25 





32 


-0-6 



DR L. BECKER ON THE SOLAR SPECTRUM. 127 

In this table n is the number of lines in 100 that show an average difference Ai 
between the means of the intensities in low and in high sun. The first part of the 
table, in which there are no telluric lines, proves that the same scale of intensity applies 
to both low and high sun. Only in the regions of blue-green have the lines been 
estimated too faint near the horizon. In the regions of telluric lines, especially in the 
less refrangible part, where many dark lines spring up in low altitudes, the solar lines 
are estimated much too faint in a low sun. The reason for this may be traced to the 
effect of contrast. This difference, however, simply emphasizes the lines produced by 
atmospheric absorption. 



8. The Tellueic Lines. 

A great many of the telluric lines could be designated immediately, while others 
presented much difficulty. The faint lines of the two lowest classes of intensity naturally 
gave the most trouble; at high altitudes they were easily overlooked in the strong light 
of the continuous spectrum, while near the horizon they might be easy objects under 
favourable conditions of the sky. In these instances we were guided in our decision by 
the behaviour of other faint lines of undoubted solar origin. 

In order to avoid mistakes this part of the work was repeated several times. Of course, 
in a region where many telluric lines occur, there is a tendency to ascribe lines to 
atmospheric absorption which in other places would pass as solar. For this reason the 
sheets on which the observations were entered were taken at random, when being 
examined respecting the origin of the lines. 

Due regard was also paid to the mass of air the light had to pass through. Throughout 
we endeavoured to reduce the intensity of the telluric lines to a uniform depth of 
atmosphere, at least in the same spectral region. In the yellow they correspond to about 
89°, and in the green to 88° - 3 zenith-distance for an average amount of water- vapour. 

With few exceptions all the telluric lines thus picked out were found to be arranged in 
three bands, the first with 678 lines stretching from \= 6020 to 5666 A.U., the second 
from A = 5530 to 5386 A.U., with 106 lines, and the third from \ = 5111 to 4981 A.U., 
with 116 lines. 

One would think that telluric lines which are of equal intensity in the same part of 
the spectrum at medium altitudes of the sun would behave alike, if the absorption be 
increased. This, however, does not happen as a rule. 

In the following table the horizontal rows show the number of telluric lines of a given 
intensity in any part of the spectrum at medium altitudes, while the vertical column in 
which the number stands indicates the intensity of the same lines, when seen near the 
horizon. E.g., from the second row of the table we see that with high sun there are 14 lines 
in \ — 602 to 584 of an intensity = 1, which assume an intensity of 6 near the horizon. 
Lines that are not visible in a medium sun are ranged in the row of intensity = 0. 



128 



DR L. BECKER ON THE SOLAR SPECTRUM. 



Table V. 



Region of 

Spectrum, 

\ in 10" 6 mm. 


Intensity at 

Medium 

Altitudes. 


Intensity near Horizon. 


2 


3 


4 


5 


6 


7 


8 


9 


10 


11 


12 


13 


14 


602 to 584 




1 

2 
3 
4 
5 
6 
7 
8 


3 

1 


9 

4 
6 


14 
17 

18 

2 


13 

11 

20 

4 

1 


8 
14 
22 
6 
2 
1 


5 
17 

7 
1 




5 

4 

14 

27 

4 

1 


4 
13 
14 

3 


i 

5 
18 
10 
1 
1 
1 


1 

9 
11 
2 
2 
1 


2 

7 
7 
1 








1 


584 to 578 



1 

2 
3 
4 
5 
6 


3 

4 


8 
7 
7 


9 

14 
29 

4 


3 
5 
4 
3 
1 


2 
2 


1 




1 


2 




















578 to 572 



1 
2 
3 
4 
5 
6 
7 


4 
4 


5 

16 

6 


1 
10 
12 

6 


1 
4 
8 
1 




3 
6 


3 

6 

2 




5 

2 


2 
4 
1 

1 


1 

2 




1 












572 to 566 



1 
2 
3 
4 
5 
6 


1 


4 
5 
4 


6 

7 

7 


1 

5 
6 

2 


2 
2 
1 


1 
1 


2 

2 
5 
1 
1 


2 
2 


2 
1 
1 

1 




1 












553 to 538 



1 
2 
3 
4 
5 


3 


5 

9 

11 


6 

7 

18 
1 


1 
3 

8 
6 


1 
5 
1 
3 


1 
1 
4 
1 
3 
2 


1 

2 

2 


i 




















511 to 498 



1 
2 
3 
4 
5 
6 
7 
8 
9 




2 
5 
5 


4 
6 
9 

4 


6 

5 

12 

7 
1 




3 

2 
9 
6 


1 
1 
3 

1 

i 


1 
1 
1 
5 
2 
2 
1 


l 
l 

l 

i 
l 




1 

1 




1 

2 













DR L. BECKER ON THE SOLAR SPECTRUM. 



129 



At a glance it is apparent, that lines of equal intensity at medium altitudes increase 

differently in blackness as the sun approaches the horizon. If to each class of intensity 

at medium altitude we ascribe that intensity near the horizon, which is shown by the 

maximum number of lines in the preceding table, we obtain the values entered in the 

following table, where two numbers are given whenever the lines are clustered about two 

maxima : — 

Table VI. 





Intensity near Horizon. 


Intensity at Medium 














Altitudes. 


Wave-Length 


Wave-Length 


Wave-Length 


Wave-Length 


Wave-Length 


Wave-Length 




602 to 584. 


584 to 578. 


578 to 572. 


572 to 566. 


553 to 538. 


511 to 498. 





4-5 


3 5 


2-5 


6 


3-5 


6 


3-5 


4-5 


1 


5 


4 


35 


7 


4 


7 


35 


4-5 


2 


6 


4 


4 


8 


4-5 


8 


4 


5 


3 


8 


5 


4 






9 




5 


4 


9-5 
















5 


11 






... 










6 


12 

















From the fact that every class of intensity has a range of ±0*5 we shall show, that, for 
some of the regions, the values given in this table explain the different behaviour of lines 
of the same intensity at medium altitudes as exhibited in the Table V. 

Region A = 6020 to 5840. — Since intensity " 3 " for instance ranges from 
intensity 2*5 to 3 "5, the preceding table shows that lines between 2*5 to 3 "5 at medium 
altitudes give an intensity between 7 and 9 near the horizon. This range further 
increases to 6"5 and 9*5 on account of the extent of each class of intensity. Without, 
therefore, admitting any error in the estimations of intensity, we find thus, that lines 
of intensity " 3 " at medium altitudes may increase near the horizon to any intensity 
between 6"5 and 9'5. According to Table V., at least 47 lines out of 65 fulfil this con- 
dition. But there are errors in the adopted intensities which will increase this range 
considerably. We have to bear in mind that the single estimations of intensity of the 
telluric lines vary with the altitude of the sun, and in this region, as we may anticipate, 
with the amount of water -vapour, and that the adopted intensities are chosen to cor- 
respond to a uniform altitude of the sun and an average amount of water-vapour. 
These reductions entail, of course, a considerably larger error than is met with for the 
solar lines (comp. Table III.). If it be permissible, therefore, to ascribe to every 
class of intensity a range of ±1 instead of ±0*5 in high sun as well as in low sun, 
we find, by analogous reasoning, that lines of adopted intensity " 3 " at high sun 
should develope near the horizon into lines of intensity 5 to 10 '5, with the restriction 
that the number of lines of each class within this range increases towards the middle 
of the range. With this extension of our scale there are but 3 lines left out of 65, of 
which the intensity at low sun falls beyond this range. Two of these three alter but one 
class of intensity near the horizon, and one as much as eight classes. With regard to 



130 DR L. BECKER ON THE SOLAR SPECTRUM. 

the former it may be supposed that they are solar lines on which fainter telluric lines are 
superposed. Also, the great change in intensity of the one line may be accounted for by 
the table. By comparing the intensities of many close double lines with the intensities 
observed when they were not separated, we deduced that two close faint lines combined 
appeared hardly one class of intensity darker than the components, while two close dark 
lines produced the effect of a line two classes darker in intensity than its components. In 
this particular case the line " 3 " ought to consist at least of 4 lines of intensity " 2," in order 
to present at low sun the appearance of a line of intensity 11. If the probability of this 
explanation is not conceded, one is obliged to assume that the absorption produced by 
one and the same medium in the same part of the spectrum need not necessarily obey the 
same law. Treating all the other classes of intensity in the same way, we find amongst 
376 telluric lines, 23 superposed on solar lines and 12 close multiple lines. These 
numbers will increase if the range of each class be diminished. 

We have to draw attention to one particular telluric line, which, invisible at medium 
altitudes of the sun, comes into existence as one of the broadest lines of the spectrum, on 
the less refrangible side of D 2 , when the sun is near the horizon. At an altitude of 
about 6° it appears just as broad and of the same intensity as its great solar companion. 
Besides the observations given below, we found the D 2 -\me double on 1 2 occasions from 
June 14, 1887, to August 15, 1888, the sun being at an average altitude of 6 degrees. 
On July 19, 1888, this appearance was confirmed in the third spectrum under a higher 
magnifying power of the viewing telescope. Further to the less refrangible side, another 
line of the intensity " 4 " was observed close to it on three of these days. When the sun 
approached the horizon both lines broadened and formed one dark band with D 2 . Now 
D 2 is one of those broad solar lines whose intensity of blackness is below that of a telluric 
line of the same breadth. If, therefore, the telluric companion at a certain altitude showed 
the same intensity and breadth as D 2 , we might explain its appearance by supposing the 
telluric line produced by a set of very close atmospheric lines of less intensity. 

In the next region, A = 5840 to 5780, we meet with faint telluric lines of different 
behaviour. In a high sun they are hardly perceptible, while near the horizon their 
intensity is increased only two or three classes of the scale. The changes in their intensity 
may be explained by Table VI. in the same manner as before. This band appears 
to be continued in the following region, A = 5780 to 5720, although there are 
some lines to be found which suffer a much greater absorption. On account of the 
small changes in the intensity of most of the lines it seems improbable that the lines 
which alter up to nine classes of intensity are produced by bands of lines. We rather 
believe them to be due to the action of another medium. Under this supposition we 
represent the changes of intensity, as exhibited by Table V., by two sets of intensities 
in Table VI. 

Both classes of lines are continued within the region A. = 5720 to 5660; the 
number of the faint telluric lines has however decreased, while the darker ones are 
still as numerous as before. 



DR L. BECKER ON THE SOLAR SPECTRUM. 131 

About the two isolated bands, X = 5538 to 5386 and X = 51 1 1 to 4981 , we could 
not arrive at a satisfactory conclusion. Certainly, most of the lines can be brought into 
agreement with the values given in the table on p. 93, but some would still remain 
liable to a far greater absorption. Perhaps the values given in that table for the intensity 
at low sun may have to be increased, and many further coincidences of telluric and solar 
lines admitted. 

From the foregoing examination we come to the conclusion that the telluric lines 
from X = 6020 to 5660 can be arranged in three bands, and that all the lines of the 
same band are probably due to the same absorptive medium. 

There is no doubt left by our observations that most of the lines of the first band, 
X = 6020 to 5840, originate in a variable constituent of our atmosphere. That this 
constituent is water- vapour was established long ago by M. Janssen. The band is univer- 
sally known as the rain-band. Our observations ascribe also the darker lines of the third 
band, X = 5780 to 5660, to the absorption of a variable element, whereas the origin of the 
group of faint lines which form the second band and overlap the third cannot be deduced 
from our observations alone. 

On the refrangible side of the rain-band Brewster's 1 map contains a very dark band, 
which he calls 3, and which is very probably identical with our third band. He gives the 

following description of it : — " it is one of the most characteristic features of the 

prismatic image of the light that has passed through a long space of air. It is discernible 
in the diffuse light of a dull day at any hour ; it is that which Professor W. A. Miller 
observed manifesting itself on the occasion of a thunder shower, 2 and it becomes evident in 

the direct solar rays when the luminary is several degrees above the horizon : and 

when the sun is just setting, it becomes a broad space of almost total darkness. It appears 

to cover a larger amount of the image in the direction of E, as it deepens in shade 

There seems to be a difference in the visibility of these bands at different times, 

thus on October 29, 1837, at Allerly, near Melrose, at the instant of sunset the luminous 
sky gave a spectrum in which C6 ( = a), though distinctly seen, was not black, nor was D, 

nor 8, while the line B was very broad and deep and until the twilight had gone, 

the forementioned bands, usually so prominent, did not appear either black or white. On 
October 31, again, the atmospheric lines were not so dark as usual, while the rays beyond 

ClO ( = rain-band) had evidently suffered a considerable absorption, but that the 

phenomena did not depend on either the absence or presence of humidity in the atmosphere, 
is evident from the fact that on the earlier date there was a keen frost, while on the later 

day the weather was wet, the thermometer being 38° F That moisture has some 

influence in the production of these bands, is shown by the effect of a fog on the solar 
radiations; thus on November 20, 1858, at 10 o'clock a.m., at London, the sun loomed red 
through a mist, and a prismatic analysis of its light showed a and B with extreme 
distinctness, and the characteristic C (6), S, and >?." 

1 Phil. Trans., vol. 150, 1860, p. 154, London, 1861. 

2 Phil. Mag., August 1845, p. 85. 

VOL. XXXVI. PART I. (NO. 6). Y 



132 DR L. BECKER ON THE SOLAR SPECTRUM. 

Considering that there is a strong water-vapour band close to the oxygen band B, Sir 
David Brewster's description appears to us consistent with the assumption of water-vapour 
being the cause of the <5-band. Also, his observations on October 31 are not adverse to 
this hypothesis, because the atmospheric lines, which did not appear so dark as usual, 
include, besides S, other water-vapour bands in the red end of the spectrum. That at the 
same time the rain-band had suffered a considerable absorption cannot be considered an 
argument against this view, if we compare the number of dark lines in the rain-band and 
<^-band in Table V. Brewster's description as well as our interpretation are ap- 
parently in oyjposition to the observations of Angstrom, 1 who says: — "Outre les trois 
groupes de raies situes pres deA, B et a, il existe, a gauche deD, une bande d'absorption, 
toujours visible dans le spectre du ciel pur. Cette bande s'etend de 5681 a 5812 a peu 
pres, et, d'apres Brewster, je la design erai daus la suite par la lettre $. Des que cette 
bande commence a se montrer dans le spectre solaire, on peut la resoudre en raies 
tres-fines ; mais au coucher du soleil, les raies, en se joignant, forment une bande obscure 
et continue. Or, puisque l'apparence de cette bande ne change pas avec les circonstances 
desquelles depend rintensite" des raies d'absorption dues a la vapeur d'eau, l'origine en 

doit etre attribute a une cause toute diff erente Pour expliquer l'origine des bandes 

A, B, a et S, qui sont tres-constantes et ne dependent pas sensiblement des variations de la 
temperature de Fair, il faut recourir a d'autres corps gazeux moins variables en tension que 
la vapeur d'eau." We can only reconcile Angstrom's view with Brewster's description 
and our own observations by supposing the fainter lines within the S band to be produced 
by dry-gas absorption. Certainly these closely set lines present a sufficiently striking 
appearance, if viewed in a spectroscope like Angstrom's, as may be concluded from the 
extent he gives to the <5-band towards the red. Besides, little water-vapour would 
suffice to make the region from A =5710 to 5680, which contains so many conspicuous 
solar lines, appear dark in a low sun. 

This hypothesis is supported by some experiments that M. Janssen 2 has made on the 
absorption produced by oxj^gen. By employing tubes of different lengths filled with 
oxygen under different pressures, M. Janssen discovered that several absorption bands 
begin to appear in a tube 60 metres in length charged with oxygen under a pressure of 
6 atmospheres, and that the same effect is produced if the length of the tube be altered 
inversely as the square of the density. Thus he finds that the oxygen of one of these tubes 
is equivalent to a column of oxygen 2160 metres long under the pressure of 1 atmosphere. 
But since the oxygen of our atmosphere in the zenith equals only 172 metres at 
normal pressure, M. Janssen concludes that the absence of these bands in the solar 
spectrum at considerable altitudes of the sun is fully explained. The figures given in 
Chapter 6 prove that at zenith-distances larger than 86° the band should be visible in a 
spectroscope of the power M. Janssen employed. Most of our observations fulfil this con- 

1 Recherclies sur le spectre solaire, p. 40. 

2 Vierteljalirsschrift der astronomiscluin Geselkchaft, 25 Jahrg., 1 Heft. Leipzig, 1890. 






DR L. BECKER ON THE SOLAR SPECTRUM. 



13( 



dition, some of them referring to a column of oxygen even three times as long as M. Janssen 
demands. There are, however, many faint telluric lines within the space A = 580 to 572 
which are visible at medium altitudes, when the atmosphere traversed equals only one- 
fifth of the length M. Janssen considers essential for their visibility. We are inclined 
to believe this to be due to the excellent optical appliances at our disposal, as shown by 
the great number of faint lines now observed for the first time. 

However, there still remain numerous faint lines between this band and the rain-band, 
which, although of the same order of intensity as those of M. Janssen's oxygen-band, 
could hardly be grouped with them. Nor could they belong to the rain-band, a few dark 
lines excepted. Before beginning this work we were struck by a relation between the 
oscillation frequencies of the head lines of the groups A, B and a and of the region 
under consideration, which Professor Piazzi Smyth named in his maps Region of " Low 
Sun Band " of Thin and Closely -set Telluric Dry -Gas Lines. If we suppose the relation 
between the oscillation frequencies of A, B and a not to be accidental, we should expect 
an oxygen-band to end at A = 5788 A.U., or very near to the place where M. Janssen's 
band begins. This supposed oxygen band could not be identical with the latter, because, 
according to M. Janssen, the A, B and a groups increase proportionally to the first power 
of the density. Now our observations give a band of closely-set lines, which ends at X = 
5788, and which does not at all present the general aspect of the water- vapour bands. It 
still remains an open question whether this is the result of a fortuitous coincidence, or is 
due to some unknown law. 

The two isolated groups of lines from A = 5538 to 5386 and from 5111 to 4981 
are produced by a variable element of our atmosphere. We conclude this from the 
behaviour of the darker lines only. 

We have now to draw attention to a remarkable relation among the oscillation fre- 
quencies which correspond to the middle of the water-vapour groups. Attributing the 
two isolated groups of lines in the green and green-blue to the absorption of water-vapour, 
we obtain the following values of i , each being the mean of — of the first and last prominent 
lines of each band. The values of the inverted wave-lengths of the water- vapour bands 
in the red end of the spectrum have been taken from Professor Smyth's maps and my 
own observations in 1889. 



a, .... 

Water- vapour group near B, 
„ „ near C, 

Rain-band, 

8-band, .... 

Water-vapour group A = 5538 to 5386 (£), 

„ A = 5111 to 4981 (t), 



1 

A 


No. of Band 


1380 


1 


(1434) 
1533 


2 
3 


1684 


4 


(1748) 
1833 


5 

6 


1978 


7 



The inverted wave-lengths of the first, third, fourth, sixth, and seventh bands form very 



134 DR L. BECKER ON THE SOLAR SPECTRUM. 

nearly an arithmetical progression which could easily be made perfect without moving 
appreciably from the middle of each band. The first, third, and fifth of this series are 
the strongest in their respective parts of the spectrum. It will be interesting to see if 
the water-vapour bands beyond F fit into the series given above. Possibly they may 
also give some information about the water-vapour group near B and the ctband. 1 

Outside the groups mentioned but few telluric lines have been picked out, although 
the work has been done without knowing where telluric lines would occur. In fact, 
previous maps were only consulted after our charts were drawn. 

We close this chapter by alluding to the faintness of the more refrangible part of the 
spectrum in the low sun. According to our observations this dulling of the continuous 
spectrum is independent of the intensities of the water- vapour lines between b and F, but 
varies with the transparency of the air. We therefore conclude that its variable part is 
produced by condensed water- vapour. 

Catalogue of Lines. 2 

The first column contains the oscillation frequencies which are identified with the 
reciprocal values of the wave-lengths. The wave-lengths are given in the fourth column 
in Angstrom's units, of which there are 10 millions in a millimetre. The second column 
gives the adopted intensities of blackness of the solar and telluric lines as they would 
appear at medium altitudes of the sun for an average amount of water-vapour (elastic force 
of vapour = 0'5 inch). The third column shows the intensities of the telluric lines only, 
when the sun is at an apparent altitude of 1° to 2°. Unless both components of double 
lines were measured repeatedly, the line has been entered as single with the letter d 
affixed to the intensity. The letter b means band. It stands either between two lines 
which form the borders of the band or it is affixed to the intensity, in order to show that 
the line is broader than its intensity alone would lead one to expect. The intensity of 
the light between two lines is signified by the letter i before the figure giving the 
intensity. Lines which have been only once observed are considered to be doubtful and 
are marked therefore with ?, unless they are of the lowest intensity (1). The same 
notations are employed with the telluric lines in column 3. In this column the sign ? is 
intended to show that the telluric character of the line is open to some doubt, whereas 
the same notation enclosed in brackets is chosen to express the bare possibility that the 
line is telluric. 

The columns from 5 onwards comprise the original observations of intensity in full, 
without any corrections whatever, — first those made at medium altitudes, and then those at 
low altitudes of the sun. Each column is headed by the number of the series, which ranges 
from 1 to 13 in high sun, and from 1 to 73 in low sun. They enable the reader to find 

1 M. Thollon'h maps, which we have just received (see Postscript), give water-vapour lines in the a-group, the middle 
of the band being in - = 1586. Each of the first three bands of the series is thus followed by a group of lines which are 
fainter than the bands themselves. 

2 The Catalogue begins on p. 48. 



DR L. BECKER ON THE SOLAR SPECTRUM. 135 

the time and meteorological notes by the Tables I. and Ia. The second line of figures in 
the heading gives the elastic force of vapour in units of 0*01 inch, while the third line 
shows the column of atmosphere (f-^) traversed by the light in units of that in the zenith 
(comp. p. 86) ; f 2 may be interpolated from the table on p. 86 with argument /^ The 
notations d, b, i have the same meaning as above. B and E indicate the beginning and 
end of a series. 

Although the printing of the single observations of intensity demands much addi- 
tional space, we trust that this will be compensated by the advantage they will afford 
in later investigations. They may serve as a check on the values adopted, and enable 
spectroscopists to consult the intensities of lines suspected to be of telluric origin. 

Table VII., on p. 100, may give an idea of the distribution of the lines with regard to 
their intensity in different parts of the spectrum. 

The Maps. 1 

The maps are the graphical reproduction of the first three columns of the Catalogue, 
and they are only intended to facilitate the identification of the lines with those given in 
other maps. The main object of our work was the identification of the telluric lines, 
which could only be done efficaciously when observing the sun close to the horizon. Rapid 
observing was necessary ; we therefore dispensed with noting the definition of the edges 
of lines and the various degrees of paleness in lines of the same breadth, &c. 

Of the two spectra the top one refers to the second column of the Catalogue, and the 
lower one to the third column. The scale is in terms of oscillation frequencies (-£-) but 
for the convenience of comparing with other maps the positions of the full wave-lengths 
expressed in 10" 6 mm. are marked by a dot. 

The intensities of the lines are represented by the breadth of the lines only, with the 
exception of the two lowest classes of the scale, which are distinguished from intensity 3 
by the length of the lines. In choosing the breadth for the different classes we were guided 
by the distance of close double lines. The notes below the spectra are a reproduction of 
those given in the Catalogue. Lines of possibly telluric origin are not mapped in the 
lower spectrum but their intensity is stated below the telluric spectrum. Double lines 
which have been once separated are mapped as single, and their distance is stated at the 
foot of the line in units of the distance between the lines of the scale ; thus d.3 stands 
for a double line whose components are 0'3 of the interval of the lines of the scale apart. 

Postscript. 

This memoir was on the point of being presented to the Royal Society of Edinburgh 
when we received the third volume of the Nice Observations, 2 with the late M. Thollon's 

1 The maps have been reproduced by photo-lithography, and are about one-fourth of the size of the original drawings. 
It will be noticed that the faintest lines are far from continuous in the lithographs, but as it was found impracticable 
to make good this defect without altering the breadth of the lines, they are left untouched. 

2 Paris, 1890. 



136 



DR L. BECKER ON THE SOLAR SPECTRUM. 



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DR L. BECKER ON THE SOLAR SPECTRUM. 



137 



work on the solar spectrum. It comprises the whole region from A to b, and gives the 
solar lines as well as the water-vapour and dry-gas lines. M. Thollon has observed 
(in the years 1883 to 1887?) not only the positions and intensities of the lines but 
also their breadth in various altitudes of the sun. They are reduced to four states. 
The first refers to a zenith-distance of the sun of 80° when the air contains little 
water- vapour ; the second and third correspond to a zenith-distance of 60° when the 
air is either almost saturated with water-vapour or very dry the fourth gives the 
solar lines only. The charts are drawn by M. Thollon, and are really a work of art. 

As the observations are not reduced to wave-lengths we could not compare the positions 
of the lines with our own, but to judge from the maps the agreement appears to be very 
close in all the parts compared. M. Thollon finds the same groups of water- vapour lines 
as we have given above. There are, however, some telluric lines which our observations 
do not attribute to atmospheric absorption, as for instance lines between A = 5295 and 
5292 i.U. 

As to detail, we must say that the Rowland grating, combined with the large collimator 
and viewing telescope, has proved its superiority over a prismatic train. M. Thollon 
employed a spectroscope with a set of bisulphide of carbon prisms. The telluric lines are 
also more numerous in our observations. This we are inclined to attribute to the great 
depth of atmosphere in which our observations were obtained. This is shown by the 
following summary : — 





Number of Solar and 


Number of Telluric 






Telluric Lines. 


Lines. 




Portion of the Spectrum. 








Thollon. 


Becker. 


Thollon. 1 


Becker. 


6020-5840 


456 


574 


326 


376 


Rain-band 


5840-5780 ) 
5780-5720 V 
5720-5660 ) 


370 


613 


( 23 

<^ 66 
( 44 


109 ( 
117 j ) 
76 j 


Supposed oxygen band 
Water-vapour band 8. 


5660-5530 


246 


396 


1 


2 




5530-5390 


314 


447 


46 


106 


Water-vapour band £. 


5390-5250 


328 


428 


9 


19 




5250-5167 


178 


272 









1 On p. A15, loc. cit, there is a table of water-vapour lines in which the figures do not agree with those given above. 
M. Thollon gives 107 telluric lines more than we counted from the hook. We reproduce his summary : — 



Longueurs d'ondes. 


Nombre de raies 
telluriques. 


Mixtes. 


0-597-0-585 
0-578-0-567 
0-548-0-542 


319 

118 
40 


72 
15 
18 



138 



DR L. BECKER ON THE SOLAR SPECTRUM. 



CATALOGUE OF LINES. 



Oscillation 


Mean Intensity. 




High Sun. 


Low Sun. 


| m . 


V 




















Frequency. 




.2*| a 


A. 


1 


8c 


12« 


1 


2 


4 


6a 


48 


56& 




S.Jj 


-SO 

rS ° .2 

T 1 <E '2 




47 


58 


47 


48 


53 


59 


31 


37 


38 




-M i^ 


*> $ o 
























o3 <H 

O 


H .SW 

H-5 




1-2 


1-4 


2-2 


27 


10 


9 


9 


23 


23 










B 


E 


E 


E 


B 


B 


B 


B 


B 


165997 


10 




6024-22 


9 


9 


9 


10 


10 


9 


9 


10 


11 


166012 


1 




3-66 






2 














023 


2 




3-26 


i 


2 


2 















040 


2 




2-66 


1 


2 


2 






1 




3 


3 


060 


9 




1-94 


8 


9 


9 


8 


8 


8 


8 


9 


9 


070 


2 




1-55 


1 




2 














088 


2 




0-91 


1 


2d 


2 






1 




2 




104 
110 


9 
8 


(10?) 


033 

6020-13 


8 

7 


8 
8 


8 
8 


}" 9 


10 


{I 


8 

8 


}° 


H 


129 


2 




6019-43 


1 


2 


2 














134 


2 


7 


9-25 


1 


2 


2 


7 


4 


5 


3 


6 


6 


149 


1 




8-71 




2 


1 














156 


3 




8-45 


3 


3 


3 


3 




3 


3 


2 




176 


2 




7-71 


1 


2 


2 






2 




2 




179 


1 




7-62 


1 


















187 


1 




7-31 




2 
















201 


8 




6-81 


9 


8 


9 


6 


7 


8 


8 


8 


8 


208 




6? 


6-56 


... 






6 




2 








222 


2 


8 


6-06 


3 


2 


3 


9 


}"• 


f 5 


4 


8 7 

8 b 


8 


227 


3 


9 


5-88 


4 


2 


3 


9 


1 5 


3 


9 


238 


1 


81. 


5-48 


2 


2 








4 


3 




8 


245 


1 


6 


5-22 


1 




2 


4 


2 


3 


3 


4 


6 


261 


2 


4 


4-64 




2 


2 






1 




3 


4 


278 


1 


4 


4-03 


1 


1 


2 






1 




3 


4 


287 


8 




3-68 


9 


8 


8 


"7 


8 


8 


8 


6 


8 


294 


2 




3-43 


1 


2 














3 


305 


2 




3-04 






2 












3 


308 


2 


"*6 


2-93 


2 


2 


2 


4 




' i 


3 


4 


6 


323 


5 




2-41 


5 


5 


5 




1 


4 


5 


3 


4 


329 




5 


2-17 












3 




3 


4 


339 




5 


1-83 








3 


1 






J 


5 


345 


2 


5 


1-58 




2 


2 


3 




3 




3 


5 


357 


2 


5 


1-18 




2 


2 










2 


5 


365 


1 




0-87 




2 
















380 


2 




032 






1 






2 








387 


2 


"*4 


6010-09 




2 


2 


4 




2 




3 


4 


402 


2 


9 


6009-53 


2 


2 


2 


8 


5 


6 


5 


6 


9 


405 


1 


5 


9-43 






2 










5 


4 


425 


8 




8-71 


8 


8 


8 


8 


8 


8 


8 


7 


8 


431 




"5? 


8-50 


















5 


441 


7d 




8-12 


7 


7 


7 


8 


7 


7 


5 


6 


M 


458 


5 




7-52 


5 


5 


5 


4 


4 


4 


5 


4 


5 


467 


1 


5 


7-20 




1 


2 


5 




3 


3 


4 


5 


478 


2 


4? 


6-81 


2 


2 




4 












490 


2 




6-37 


3 


2 


2 








2 


3 




498 


1 


5 


6-08 






2 


4 




3 


2 


4 


5 


509 


5 




5-68 


6 


5 


5 


5 


4 


5 


5 


4 


6 


527 


1 


5 


5-03 






2 


5 




4 




5 


6 


533 


2 


8 


4-82 


3 


2 


2 


6 




6 


4 


5 


8 


546 




4 


4-33 
















5 


3 


557 


2 


8 


3-96 


3 


2 


3 


5 


4 


5 


3 




8 


166566 


1 




6003-61 






2 










... 





DR L. BECKER ON THE SOLAR SPECTRUM. 



139 



Osc. Freq. 


Mean Intensity. 


>. 


High Sun. 


Low Sun. 


a 

^T3 


g* a 


1 


8c 


12a 


1 


2 


4 


6a 


48 


56& 






3 s.s 
3 




47 
1-2 


58 
1-4 


47 
2-2 


48 
23 


53 
11 


59 
9 


31 
9 


37 

20 


38 
25 


166579 


9 




6003-17 


9 


8 


8 


7 


7 


8 


8 


7 


10 


590 


3 


8 


2-78 


3 


3 


2 


6 


5 


5 


4 


7 


8 


600 


2 




2-41 




b 


2 














605 


2 


"V 


2-22 


1 


2 


2 


4 




4 


3 


5 


"7 


620 


1 


6 


1-68 


1 




2 


5 


3 


4 


4 


5 


6 


628 


2 


5 


1-39 


1 


2 


2 


4 




4 


3 




5 


636 


1 




1-10 


2 














2 




647 


2 




0-72 


2 


3 


2 








2 






657 


2 


"7 


6000-34 


3 


2 


2 


6 


4 


5 


4 


6 


7 


671 


4 


11 


5999-83 


5 


4 


4 


9 


9 


8 


6 


10 


12 


672 


2? 




9-80 














2 






685 


3 




9-35 


3 


3 


3 




1 


1 


3 


3 


3 


691 


2 




9-14 


1 


1 3d 


{"i 














696 


2 




8-95 


1 














702 


2 


"(Sf) 


8-73 


1 














3 




712 


2 


6d 
i2 


8-37 


1 


2 


2 


5 


3 


5 


3 


5 




724 


7 




7-94 


7 


7 


6 


4 


3 


6 


6 


5 


5 


730 


4 




7-71 


3 


4 


4 












iZ 


738 


4 


10 


7-43 


4 


4 


4 


9 


8 


7 


6 


9 


10 


755 


5 




6-82 


6 


5 


5 


4 


1 


4 


5 


4 


4 


759 




5 


6-67 








4 




3 




& 


} 5 


763 




5 


6-53 








4 




1 




4 


776 


3 




6-08 


2 


3 


3 








2 


2 




790 


2 




5-56 




3 








1 






3 


795 


1 


5 


5-39 


i 




2 


4 




1 


2 


3 


4 


805 


1 




5-02 




2 
















813 


4 


11 


4-74 


4 


4 


"4 


9 


9 


8 


6 


9 


11 


831 


2 


6 


4-08 


1 




3 


4 


2 


4 


3 


4 


6 


839 


2 


5 


3-81 




2 


2 


4 








4 


5 


855 


3 


8d| 


3-27 
3-17 


}} 


3 


3 


{i 


f« 


6 


4 


6 


8 


870 


2 




2-68 




2 


2 










2 




884 
889 


4 

4 


I lid I 


2-17 
2-01 


5 

4 


4 

4 


4 
4 


6 
6 


}" 9 


8 


6 


9 


11 


901 


5 




1-58 


6 


5 


5 


4 


3 


4 


6 


4 


5 


916 


4 


ii 


1-03 


5 


4 


4 


8 


8 


8 


6 


8 


11 


924 


3 


10 


0-74 


3 


3 


3 


8 


2 


6 


5 


6 


10 


931 


1 


6 


5990-50 




2 




6 


2 






4 


6 


949 


2 


... 


5989-86 


1 


2 


"2 




... 






1 




961 


4 


11 


9-44 


4 


3 


4 


8 


ft 


7 


7 


8 


11 


971 


1 


4 


9-06 






2 


3 




1 




2 


3 


981 


4 


lOdi 


8-75 
8-67 


}"* 


3 


4 


{e 


}' 8 


7 


6 


7 


10 


166993 


2 


8 


8-27 


2 


2 


3 


7 


5 


5 


5 


5 


8 


167014 


3 




7-51 




3 


2 






2 




3 


3 


023 


8 


11? 


7-20 


9 


8 


8 


9 


10 


9 


8 


9 


11 


044 


2 




6-45 


1 




3 










2 




050 


2 


4 


6-25 


1 


2 


2 


4 




"2 


1 


3 


*3 


060 


2 


5 


5-86 




2 


2 






3 


2 


4 


5 


167074 


4 


10 


5985-37 


3 


4 


5 


9 


8 


8 


7 


9 


11 



VOL. XXXVI. PART I. (NO. 6). 



140 



DR L. BECKER ON THE SOLAR SPECTRUM. 



Osc. Freq. 


Mean 
Intensity. 


A 


High Sun. 


Low Sun. 


a . 

w 3 
— A 




Telluric 

Lines on the 

Horizon. 


1 
47 
1-2 


8c 
58 
1-4 


12a 

47 
2-2 


1 

48 
20 


2 
53 
13 


3« 
53 

7 


4 
59 
10 


5a 

25 
11 


6a 
31 
10 


48 
37 
18 


566 

38 
28 


167084 
087 


8 


8 


5985 -00 
4-90 


9 


8 


8 


}• 


8 




{e } 




8 


6 


{? 


101 


3 


7 


4-41 


3 


2 


3 


5 






4 




3 


5 


6 


106 


2 


6 


4-24 




2 


3 








4 








5 


116 


8 




3-87 


8 


8 


8 


4 


3 




7 




8 


6 


6 


125 


2 


7 


3-55 


1 


2 


2 


4 


4 




3 




2 


4 


6 


140 


2 


6 


3-00 


2 


3 


2 


3 






4 




3 


4 


5 


155 


2 


5 


2-47 


2 


3 


2 








2 




3 


3 


4 


164 


2 


8 


2-15 


2 


2 




5 


4 




4 




3 


5 


8 


171 


2 


7 


1-89 




2 


2 


5 






4 




3 


4 


7 


185 


3 


9 


1-40 


3 


3 


3 


7 


4 




7 




5 


6 


8 


197 


1 


4 


0-96 


1 


2 


• • • 








4 




2 


4 


4 


204 


1 


6 


0-70 






2 


4 






5 




3 


4 


6 


215 


3 


8 


5980-31 


2 


3 


3 


6 


4 




6 




5 


6 


8 


226 




4? 


5979-93 




















2 


4 


232 


2 




9-70 


1 


2 


2 












1 






243 




5 


9-33 








4 


1 










3 


5 


250 


2 


6 


9-08 


i 


2 


2 


4 










2 


4 


6 


262 


5 




8-64 


5 


5 


5 












6 


3 


3 


275 


1 


6 


8-18 






2 


5 




E 




E 




4 


5 


282 


4 


12 
*3 


7-94 


5 


4 


4 


9 


10 


7 


9 


6 


7 


10 


12 


293 


3 


8 


7-55 


3 


3 


3 


5 




4 


6 


2 


4 


"i 


8 
i3 


304 


5 


12 


7-14 


5 


5 


5 


11 


12 


7 


9 


8 


8 


ii 


12 


310 


7 


10? 


6-94 


7 


8 


7 






6 


6 




8 


7 


11 


318 


3 


8 


6-66 


5 


3 


3 


5 


4 


6 




4 


6 


7 


8 


335 


2 


7 


6-04 


3 


2 


2 


4 




2 


6 


2 


4 


6 


7 


343 


1 




5-76 






2 


















350 


6 




5-51 


"i 


6 


6 






6 


6 




*8 


5 


5 


356 


5 


12 


5-27 


6 


5 


5 


9 


11 


8 


9 


9 


8 


11 


12 


371 


1 




4-75 






2 


















381 


3 


8 


4-40 


2 


3 


3 


7 


2 


4 


6 


4 


5 


6 


8 


400 


2 


4 


3-72 


1 


2 


2 














3 


4 


421 


1 


6 


2-95 


1 




2 




2 




3 




3 


5 


6 


426 




31 


2-77 














3 










428 


2 


5 


2-71 


1 


2 


2 






2 


3 


3 


2 


4 


5 


441 


2 




2-25 




2 


1 














3 




457 


2 




1-68 




2 




















461 


5 


11 


1-53 


6 


5 


5 


8 


10 


8 


9 


8 


8 


11 


11 


465 


2 




1-40 






3 


















480 
485 


2 
2 


M 


0-87 
0-70 


}' 3 


[1 


2 
2 


}»; 


2 


2 


4 


3 


3 


4 


5 


493 


1 




0-41 






2 


















497 


5 


10 


5970-24 


6 


5 


5 


8 


9 


7 


8 


7 


"i 


8 


io 


509 


3 




5969-83 


2 


3 


2 














3 


3 


525 


4 


10 


924 


5 


4 


4 


8 


7 


7 


8 


6 


"i 


8 


10 


542 




41 


8-64 


















4 






547 


3 


12 


8-49 


F 


{] 


2 


8 


10 


8 


12 


9 


7 


11 


12 


551 


5 




8-32 


6 














4 


a 


564 
167570 


5 
4 


11 

10 


7-87 
5967-66 


6 

4 


5 

4 


5 

4 


7 
7 


}» { 


7 
6 


}u 


8 


{'i 


9 
6 


}» 



DR L. BECKER ON THE SOLAR SPECTRUM. 



141 



Osc. Freq. 


Mean 
Intensity. 


A 


High Sun. 


Low Sun. 


a . 


o 

o +» a 

£ g.s 

" — 1 ?H 


1 
47 


8c 
58 


12a 
47 


1 
48 


2 
53 


3a 

53 


4 
59 


5a 

25 


6a 
31 


8 
34 


24 

27 


48 
37 


566 
38 


57a 
42 




I 3 


3 




1-2 


1-4 


2-1 


18 


14 


8 


11 


12 


10 


21 


26 


17 


32 


34 


167578 


3 


7 


5967-39 


3 


3 


3 


6 




4 


6 


3 


4 






6 


7 




583 




3? 


7-18 
























3 






594 


5 


10 


6-81 


5 


5 


5 


8 


7 


'V 


8 


7 


7 






8 


io 




606 


3 


lOrfj 


6'42 
6-33 


}* 


3 


3 


8 




6 


7 


6 


{^ 






}' 


10 




617 


5 




5-97 


6 


5 


5 


5 




5 


5 


4 


4 






5 


5 




633 


2 


4 


5-40 




2 


2 








4 




1 






4 


4 


... 


643 


3 


8 


5-05 


3 


3 


3 


7 


4 


5 


6 


5 


5 






6 


9 




651 


2 




4-77 






2 


















2 






673 


1 


4 


•3-98 






2 








1 










3 


4 




681 


2 


5 


3-71 




2 


2 










2 








2 


5 




692 


2 


4 


3-30 


1 


2 


2 








1 










3 


4 




698 


2 




3-09 




2 


2 
























711 


4 


10 


2-65 


4 


4 


4 


7 


7 


6 


8 


6 


5 






8 


10 




719 


1 


6 


2-35 




2 


1 


4 




2 


4 


4 


3 






4 


6 




732 


1 


5 


1-89 






1 


















3 


5 




740 


3 


8 


1-59 


3 


3 


3 


6 


6 


5 


6 


5 


5 






6 


8 




762 


2 


(3?) 


0-82 




3 


2 


















2 


3 




774 




2? 


0-38 
























2 






782 


3 


9 


5960-13 


3 


3 


3 


6 


7 


5 


7 


5 


6 






8 


9 




790 


2 


5 


5959-84 


2 


3 


2 


4 










2 






2 


5 




802 


2 


6 


9-39 


2 


2 


2 


5 




3 


6 


3 


4 






5 


6 




809 


2 


6 


9-14 




2 


2 












4 








6 




814 




8 


8-98 












2 












5 


8 




818 


5 


12 


8-85 


7 


5 


5 


9 


14 


8 


12 


8 


8 






9 


12 




829 


5d 


u { 


8-48 
8-42 


}' 


{1 


I 5 


9 


E 


8 


12 


8 


8 






9 


12 




841 


5 


12 


8-02 


7 


5 


5 


9 




8 


12 


8 


8 






9 


12 




843 




4? 


795 
























4 






859 
862 


2 

2 


M 


7-37 

7-27 


J.:. 


2d 


f 

I 2 


V 




2 


3 


2 


3 






4 


5 




874 
876 


7 


8? 


6-86 
6-76 


8 


7 


7 


I 8 




{e 


} 8 


8 


9 






8 


9 




884 


4 


9 


6-50 


4 


4 


4 


8 




7 


8 


7 


6 






8 


9 




901 


2 


6 


5-90 


1 


3 


3 


4 




2 


5 




3 






4 


5 




916 


1 




5-37 






2 
























923 


5 


11 


5-10 


6 


5 


5 


9 


... 


8 


9 


8 


8 






10 


11 




937 


2 


6 


4-61 




2 


2 


4 


... 


1 


4 


2 


2 






4 


4 




950 


2 




4-14 




2 


2 


















2 






958 




31 


3-88 
























3 






965 


2 


8 


3-61 


3 


2 


2 


4 




4 


7 


3 


5 






5 


8 




975 


6 




3-28 


6 


6 


5 


3 




4 




3 


5 


B 




4 


3 




985 
167988 


7 


8 


291 
2-81 


7 


7 


7 


6 
6 


}'■'- 


6 


8 


7 


8 


9 




5d 


8d 




168000 


2 




2-40 




2 




















2 




B 


020 


5 


10 


1-68 


5 


5 


4 


6 




6 


9 


"7 


7 


8 




8 


10. 


9 


025 


2 


8 


1-50 


1 


3 


2 


5 




4 


9 




3 






5 


8 


4 


037 


3 


9 


1-05 


3 


3 


3 


4 




4 


8 


4 


5 


8 


B 


6 


9 


8 


042 




4? 


091 








4 






















053 


4 


10 


0-49 


4 


4 


4 


5 




4 


8 


5 


6 




6 


6 


10 


8 


168057 


2 


8 


5950-35 


2 


3 


3 


5 




4 


«6 




5 




6 


5 


E 


t'5 



142 



DR L. BECKER ON THE SOLAR SPECTRUM. 



Osc. Freq. 


Mean 
Intensity. 


\ 


High Sun. 


Low Sun. 


a 




1 


8c 


12ri 


1 


3« 


4 


ha 


6a 


8 


24 


48 


57a 




5l 


J- 3 tn o 




47 


58 


47 


48 


53 


59 


25 


.31 


34 


27 


37 


42 




^5 
0^ 


3 




1-2 


1-4 


2-1 


16 


8 


12 


13 


11 


21 


26 


15 


32 


168070 


4 


11 


5949-92 


4 


4 


4 


6 


4 


9 


7 


8 


11 


9 


8 


11 


073 
076 


1 


7 
5 


9-80 
9-69 


1 






6 


4 
2 


I i6 


h 


5 






6 
iZ 


1 id 


084 
088 


6 
6 


10 

11 


9-42 
9-25 


6 
6 


6 

6 


6 
6 


"7 

7 


I 8 


9 


9 


{j 


}» 


12 


10 


11 


090 




2? 


9-18 










2 
















097 


3 


8 


8-96 




3 


3 


5 


4 






4 


5 


5 


' i 


"7 


102 




4? 


8-78 
















4 










105 


8 




8-67 


8 


9 


8 


5 


5 


5 


6 


7 




5 


4 


5 


114 


2 


10 


8-35 


2 


3 


2 


5 


4 


5 


4 


5 


6 


7 


5 


8 


127 


2 




7-88 






2 
















2 




137 


3 


' S 


7-54 


3 


3 


3 


4 


'2 


"i 


3 


4 


5 


5 


4 


7 


145 
151 


6 
5 


12 
11 


7-24 
7-02 


6 
5 


6 
5 


6 

5 


9 
9 


7 
7 


}» 


10 


{s 


}» 


H 


10 
10 


i 12c? 


160 




4 


6-73 








1 


2 






3 




4 


4 




175 




(5?) 


6-18 


















5 








176 


6 


12 


6-14 


6 


6 


6 


10 


9 


9 


8 


9 


12 


12 


io 


12 


180 


3? 




6-03 






3 




















186 


4 


10 


5-81 


4 


4 


4 


8 


7 


7 


8 


"7 


6 


9 


*8 


10 


198 


4 


10 


5-39 


4 


4 


4 


8 


7 


7 


7 


7 


6 


10 


8 


9 


213 


4 


10 


4-84 


4 


5 


4 


8 


7 


8 


8 


7 


8 


10 


8 


9 


225 


5 


lOd 


4-42 


4 


5 


5 


8d 


7 


8 


8 


7 


8 


9 


8 


9 


232 


1 




4-16 






2 


















... 


242 


3 




3-82 


3 


4 


3 
















2 




249 


2 


"3? 


3-58 


2 


J 2>d 


u 


1 






3 


3 






3 


3 


259 


2 


3? 


3-22 




1 














2 


3 


273 

277 


6 
6 


12 

12 


2-73 

2-57 


7 

6 


5 
5 


6 
6 


6 
9 


7 
8 


}« 


11 


i' 9 
1 9 


}» 


14 


126 


Ud 


284 




8 


2-35 








7 


6 






2 










298 


4 




1-86 


}' 


ft 

1 5 


3 




















301 


5 


10 


1-73 


5 


4 


8 


8 


9 


9 


9 


10 


10 


10 


312 


5 




1-33 




6 


3 


5 
















ii 


316 
322 


5 

4 


11 

8 


1-19 
1-01 


7 


5 


5 
4 


9 

8 


8 

7 


}'• 


10 


{": 


}1 ° 


n 


11 
6 


\\2d 


330 


2? 




0-70 






2 




















335 


4 


9 


0-54 


5 


5 


4 


7 


6 


"7 


6 


7 


"s 


9 


8 


9 


342 




4 


0-27 




















4 




ii 


349 


3 


8 


5940-03 


3 


4 


3 


6 


5 


6 


5 


6 


"i 


8 


5 


8 


357 


I 




5939-76 
















2 










367 


2 




9-39 


1 


2 


2 
















2 




386 


2 


7 


8-72 


1 


2 


2 


4 


3 


5 


3 


4 


5 


6 


5 


7 


395 




4 


8-41 




















4 


3 


3 


401 
406 


4 
3 


9 

8 


8-21 
8-01 


4 
3 


3 
3 


4 
4 


6 

5 


6 
6 


is 

1 


8 


{"i 


}"• 


9 


8 


11 


419 


2 


8 


7-58 


2 


2 




3 


4 


6 




3 


6 


6 


4 


8 


425 


1 


6 


7-37 






3 


3 






4 


2 




5 


4 


6 


429 




2 


7-22 








2 


2 
















440 


2 


4 


6-85 




2 


"a 








3 








3 


3 


452 


2 


4 


6-42 




2 


2 














4 


3 


3 


465 


4 


10 


5-96 


4 


4 


3 


7 


7 


9 


"7 


7 


9 


10 


8 


10 


168473 




2 


5935-66 


... 




... 
















2 


2 



DR L. BECKER ON THE SOLAR SPECTRUM. 



143 



Osc. Freq. 


Mean 
Intensity. 


\ 


H 


igli Sun. 












Low 


Sun. 






S 
S3 


,J=, - 

"SSJ 


1 

47 


8c 
58 


12a 

47 


1 

48 


3a 
53 


4 
59 


5a 
25 


56 
25 


6a 
31 


65 8 
27 34 


24 

27 


48 
37 


56c 
38 


57a 
42 


586 
39 




©3 


Eh sW 
3 




1*2 


1-4 


2-1 


15 


9 


13 


14 


7 


12 


21 20 


27 


14 


37 


29 


21 


168481 


2 


7 


5935-38 




2 


2 


4 


5 


6 


3 




5 




6 


7 


5 




7 




490 


21 




5-07 






2 




























497 


7 




4-82 


9 


7 


7 


5 


7 


"7 


6 




*8 




6 


'V 


6 




7 




511 


2 


9 


4-32 


3 


2 


3 


4 


4 


7 


4 




4 




8 


8 


5 




9 




516 




4 


4-14 










3 














5 


3 




3 




523 


3 


7 


3-91 


i 


3 


3 


3 


4 


6 


4 




3 




8 


6 


4 




7 




533 


2 




3-57 




2 


2 




























544 


1 


5 


3-16 






1 


3 










3 






5 


3 




6 




550 


5 


11 


2-96 


6 


5 


5 


8 


8 


10 


8 




8 




9 


10 


10 




11 




563 


1 


*3 


2-51 






1 
























li 




569 


6 


12 


2-28 


7 


6 


6 


10 


9 


10 


9 




9 




10 


11 


11 




12 




574 


1 


3 


2-13 




2 






4 




3 




















585 


1 




1-74 






2 




























601 


3 


8* 


1-17 


3 


3 


2 


5 


4 


6 


4 




5 




'*6 8 


5 




8 




612 


2 


8 


0-77 


2 


3 


2 


5 


4 


6 






5 




6 8 


5 




8 




625 


8 




0-33 


9 


8 


8 


5 


6 


6 


6 




8 




6 8 


6 




8 




629 


2 




5930-19 








1 


3 












...! 










638 


6 




5929-85 


6 


6 


6 


4 


4 




4 




6 






6 


5 




5 




646 


1 


6" 


9-57 


1 




2 


3 


3 








4 






6 


4 




5 




655 
663 


2 
3 


9 
9 


9-25 
8-99 


2 
3 


2 
3 


3 
3 


4 
4 


4 
4 


M 


4 




{ 5 

1 5 




}" 6 


f 8 
1 7 


6 
6 




9 
9 




671 




4 


8-69 
























4 


2 








677 


5 


Udi 


8-53 
8-43 


H 


5 


5 


8 


it 


}' 9 


8 




8 




10 


10 


11 




11 




691 


6 




8-01 


7 


6 


6 


4 


5 


4 


5 




6 




5 


4 


5 




4 




695 




6 


7-86 


• • • 






















5 






6 




704 


i 




7-54 






2 




















2 








721 


2 


5 


694 


"i 


2 


2 


4 


3 


6 


4 




2 






4 


3 




4 




727 


2 


8 


6-74 


i 


2 


2 


6 


6 


6 


4 




3 




6 


7 


5 




8 




740 


1 


4 


6-29 






1 


1 










1 






4 


3 




4 




753 


1 


4 


5-82 




16 


1 


1 








E 




E 




4 


3 


B 


4 




771 


5 


12 


5-19 


5 


5 


5 


8 


7 


10 


9 


6 


9 


12 


11 


12 


10 


14 


12 




777 


1 


6 
iS 


4-96 




2 




4 


2 






5 


3 


6 




4 


3 




6 
i3 




791 


6 


12 
*3 


4-49 


6 


6 


6 


8 


8 


"9 


8 


7 


9 


12 


11 


11 


10 


14 


12 




805 
810 


5 

5 


11 
11 


"3-98 
3-82 


6 
6 


5 

5 


5 
5 


8 
8 


8 
8 


}" 


10 


7 


{I 


10 

10 


}» 


MO 

1 10 


10 
10 


}» 


111 




822 


3 


7 


3 39 


3 


3 


3 


5 


4 


4 


4 


3 


4 


5 


4 


7 


5 


5 


7 




828 


3 




3-20 


3 




3 






... 




3 


















837 


3 


9 


2-87 


4 


3 


3 


5 


6 


) 




6 


5 


8 


) 


( 9 


6 


) 






843 


4 


10 


2-66 


}* 


U 


5 


6 


7 


M 1 


8 


} 6 


{I 


9 


M 1 


I 10 


8 


ll4 






847 


4 


8 


2-54 


4 


6 


6 


J 




7 


1 


I 8 


4 


J 






855 


5 




2-24 


5 


5 


4 


2 


3 




3 


2 


4 


4 




4 


4 








867 


3 


7 


1-83 


4 


3 


3 


5 




5 


4 


2 


5 


7 


4 


6 


5 








881 


3 


Qdi 


1-39 
1-25 


} 3 


3 


3 


4 


Ci 


h 


4 


2 


5 


6 


4 


6 


5 








898 


4 


10 


0-73 


5 


4 


4 


7 


6 


8 


6 


6 


8 


9 


8 


10 


9 








911 


2 


6 


0-29 




2 


2 


3 


3 


... 






5 


6 


4 


6 


4 








918 


2? 




5920-03 






2 


























B 


924 


6 


12 


5919-83 


7 


6 


6 


10 


9 


10 


9 


8 


9 


12 


11 


12 


11 


14 


11 


12 


, 168941 


5 


12 


5919-22 


7 


5 


5 


10 


9 


10 


9 


8 


9 


12 


11 


12 


11 


14 


11 


12 











































144 



DR L. BECKER ON THE SOLAR SPECTRUM. 



OscFreq. 


Mean 
Intensity. 


A 


High Sun. 


Low Sun. 


E . 

2 en 

.— o 

•X3 ^3 


o5 d 

E « o 


1 


8c 


12a 


1 


3a 


4 


5a 


56 


6a 


66 


8 


lla 


24 


48 


56c 


57a 


586 




P*4 "2 


= §.2 

— * ^ 




47 


58 


47 


48 


53 


59 


25 


25 


31 


27 


34 


30 


27 


37 


38 


42 


39 




-M 1 1 


H =33 




1-2 


1-4 


2-1 


13 


9 


15 


16 


7 


13 


22 


19 


26 


29 


13 


38 


25 


21 




o 


3 






































168943 


3? 




5919-15 






3 






























958 


4 


12 


8-62 


Y 


{1 


4 


10 


9 


10 


9 


8 


9 


12 


11 




10 


10 


14 


11 


12 


963 


5 




8-45 


5 






5 




















E 




974 


2 


7 


8-08 


' 3 


2 


2 


4 


4 




4 


2 


4 


5 


4 




7 


5 






5 


978 


2 




7-93 






2 






















3 








989 


3 


8 


7-53 


4 


3 


3 


5 


5 


6 


5 


4 


6 


8 


5 




"7 


5 






6 


168996 




5 


7-29 








1 






... 




3 


4 






4 


3 






3 


169006 


2 


6 


6-93 




3 


2 


2 




Y 


{;• 




4 


4 


H 




{* 


4 






6 


Oil 


2 


7 


677 




3 


2 


5 


4 


3 


5 


6 




5 






6 


021 


7 




6-42 


"V 


6 


7 


4 


4 


6 


4 


3 


6 


5 


5 




6 


4 






6 


027 


2 


6 


6-21 




2 


2 


4 


4 






3 


5 


5 






6 


4 






4 


040 
047 


4 
4 


9 
9 


5-77 
5-52 


5 
5 


4 
4 


4 

4 


7 
8 


6 
6 


ft 


9 


{1 


7 
7 


8 
8 


ft 




{^ 


7 
7 


ft 




is 


060 


4 


9 


5-06 


5 


4 


4 


7 


6 


8 


6 


5 


7 


8 


6 




9 


8 






9 


072 


1 


4 


4-64 






1 












1 








4 


3 






3 


079 
083 


8 
8 




4-38 
4-27 


ft 


it 


8 
8 


}• 


8 


9 


9 


9 


9 


10 


9 




10 


9 






10 


093 


1 


4 


392 






1 








4 






3 






4 


3 








105 


2 




3-50 




2 


2 










• •* 










3 


2 








115 


4 


10 


3-15 


4 


5 


5 


8 


7 


9 


8 


6 


'8 


9 


9 




10 


9 


10 




"9 


124 
127 


3 
3 


8 
8 


2-82 
2-70 


3 
3 


I s 


3 


{§ 


5 
5 


}* 


8 


4 


{5 


6 
5 


Y 




{^ 


6 
5 


ft 




{I 


143 

148 


2 
2 


7 

7 


2-15 

1-99 


2 
2 


I 3d 


2d 


{1 


4 
4 


}* 


{? 


}* 


5 


{^ 


Y 




{? 


5 
5 






6 
G 


160 
167 


2 


5 
5 


1-56 
1-33 


1 


2 


2 


4 
3 


I 3 




4 




{J 


4 
4 


Y 




{! 


4 
4 






4 
4 


175 




3? 


1-05 
























B 




3 








178 
180 


4 
3 


} n "{ 


0-95 
0-87 


}« 


ft 


4 
3 


"7 

7 


}' 8 


10 


10 


6 


8 


10 


10 


11 


11 


9 


14 




11 


182 




4 


0-79 








3 










4 


) 






tf 


i3 






iZ 


196 




3? 


0-32 








3 


























198 


4 


lid 


0-25 


4 


4 


4 


7 


7 


10 


10 


6 


"6d 


9 


10 


11 


9 


7 


14 




10 


203 


6 




5910-08 


6 


5 


5 


5 


6 


E 




6 


6 


8 






6 


5 


E 




5 


217 


3d 


7 


5909-57 


1 


3d 


3 


4 


4 




"4 


4 


5 


7 


"4 


4 


7 


5 


* • > 




6 


229 


5 


10 


9-14 


5 


5 


5 


8 


8 




9 


6 


8 


9 


9 


9 


9 


9 






9 


238 


1 


3 


8-85 






1 










4 












2 








252 


4 


9 


8-36 


4 


4 


4 


'V 


6 




7 


5 


6 


8 


8 


9 


9 


7 






*8 


262 


5 


9 


7-98 


5 


5 


5 


5 


6 




7 


5 


6 


8 


8 


8 


9 


7 






8 


274 
279 


3 

4 


8 
8 


7-58 
7-42 


4 


4 


3 

4 


5 
6 


6 
6 


... 


}* 


{J 


5 
6 


8 
8 


Y 


9 


E 


{^ 






6 

7 


286 




6 


7-16 








3 


4 








3 


6 


5 


6 




4 






5 


292 


5 




6-95 


5 


5 


5 


3 


4 






3 


3 
















4 


304 
308 


2 

2 


G 
6 


6-53 

6-38 


2 

2 


3 
3 


2 
2 


4 
4 


V 




4 


3 


!.! 


4 

4 


Y 


4 




5d 






!! 


318 


2? 




6-04 






2 






























325 


7 




5-81 


8 


6 


8 


4 


5 




4 


6 


7 


"e 


5 


4 




6 






8 


328 




5 


5-68 








4 


5 
























«2 


335 


3 


9 


5-46 


3 


3 


3 


7 


6 




8 


5 


5 


8 


8 


"9 




7 






8 


341 


1 


7 


5-25 






2 


G 


6 






5 


6 


7 








6 






7 


349 


3 


5 


4-97 


2 


3 


3 


1 


1 








2 


4 








3 






4 


169362 


3 


5 


5904-53 


4 


2 


2 


2 


2 








3 


4 








3 






4 



Dft L. BECKER ON THE SOLAR SPECTRUM. 



145 





Mean 
Intensity. 




High Sun. 






Low Sun. 






Osc. Freq. 


S 


a> 


A. 


1 


4 


5 


8c 


12a 


1* 


1 


3a 


36 


5a 


56 


6a 


66 


8 


11a 


25 


26 


47a 


48 


586 


746 






S fl S 




47 


30 


44 


58 


47 


38 


48 


53 


53 


25 


25 


31 


27 


34 


30 




38 


36 


37 


39 


44 




-1-3 . ■ 

i«l 


a> 5f? O 




1-2 


2-0 


1-3 


1-4 


2-1 


11 


12 


10 


6 


19 


8 


14 


25 


18 


25 


28 


24 


10 


12 


23 


25 







3 










































7d 




169372 
376 


3 
3 


8 
8 


5904-16 
4-04 


} : 






3d 


{I 




4 
5 


}' 








H 


}' 


8 


9 




B 

8 




5 


380 


4 


7 


3 '87 








4 


4 




5 


4 




6 


5 


4 


7 








6 




4 


6 




387 


2 


9 


3-64 










3 




6 


6 




8 


6 


7 


8 


8 


9 




9 




6 


9 




396 


3 


(4?) 


3-34 








4 


2 
















4 








4 




2 


3 




408 


2 


5 


2-90 








2 


2 




3 


"i 








3 


4 


4 


5 




5 




4 


4 




413 




4 


273 
























4 


5 








4 




4 


i3 




419 


"i 


5 


2-53 


4 






"i 


3 




3 


1 






3 


5 


5 








5 






4 




427 
430 


3 
3 


10 
8 


2-25 
2-13 


i' 






i: 


3 
3 




5 
5 


> 




7 


6 


1? 


9 
6 


} M 


10 




{I 




}' 


11 




439 


2? 




1-82 










2 


































445 


7 


12 

i5 


1-62 


8 






"6 


8 




8 


"a 




10 


"7 


10 


12 


11 


ii 




i'6 




10 


12 
i5 




450 


"3 


9 


1-43 


'4 






3 


3 




"7 


5 






6 


6 


"9 








9 




"6 


7 




461 


3 


8 


1-07 


3 






3 


3 




4 


4 






3 


6 


8 


5 


5 




8 




5 


7 




474 


2 


7 


0-60 


3 






2 


2 




4 


1 






3 


5 


5 


5 


5 


B 


7 




4 


6 




485 
490 


6 
5 


11 
10 


0-22 
5900-06 


7 
4 






5 

5 


6 

6 




8 
8 


}» 




10 


{? 


9 
8 


}» 


11 


11 


10 


1 




11 

11 


}» 




503 


4 




5899-60 


4 






3 


4 












4 


5 


3 








4 




2 






509 


5 




9-39 


5 






5 


5 




3 


3 






6 












5 




3 


5 




515 


4 


10 


9-17 


4 






4 


5 




7 


6 




8 


4 


8 


9 


8 


8 


8 


10 




8 


9 




522 


1 


6 


8-94 










2 




3 










4 


5 






b 


6 




5 


5 




533 


2 


6 


8-56 








2 


2 




4 


4 






"4 


4 


5 








6 




5 


6 




540 


7 


11 


8-33 


"7 






6 


7 




8 


8 




10 


8 


9 


8 


10 


9 


11 


9 




9 


10 




546 
552 


2 


6 
6 


8-10 
7-90 


3 












4 

4 


}* 




4 




{I 


6 
6 


}* 




5 


it 




4 
4 


I 5 




561 


4 


9 


7-58 


4 






3 


"i 




6 


5 






6 


7 


5 


7 


7 


7 


9 




6 


8 




566 


3 




7-42 


3 






3 


3 


































571 




"e 


7-22 














3 


3 








3 


5 


4 


4 




6 


E 


"i 


5 


E 


578 


4 


10 


6-97 


5 






4 


4 




7 


6 




8 


6 


8 


9 


8 


8 


"a 


9 


6 


7 


9 


10 


586 




ib 


6-72 






























4 










iS 


iS 


590 


4 


11 


6-58 


4 






3 


"i 




"7 


"6 




8 


6 


8 


i'6 


9 


9 


9 


10 


7 


"7 


9 


10 


596 




56 


6-37 




B 


B 






E 






E 












56 




5 






i3 


iS 


604 


12 




6-08 


12 


11 


12 


12 


12 


11 


ii 


i'6 


12 


i'6 


12 


12 


ii 


9 


9 


8 


10 


i'6 


ii 


11 


10 


610 


2 


5 


5-89 




3 


3 










3 












4 


4 




5 


1 


2 


5 




617 




16 


5-64 




































16 








628 
632 


3 

3 


10 

10 


5-26 
5-11 


4 
4 


3 
3 


J2d 


{« 


3 
3 


6 
6 


"7 
7 


"7 

7 


5 

5 


}' 


{'! 


"6 
6 


}' s 


5 


9 


9 


1": 


6 
6 


5 
5 


8 
8 




644 


1 


5 


471 




2 








3 




2 




4 




2 


4 




46 


4 


5 


3 


3 


4 




649 


4 


9 


4-51 


4 


4 


2 


4 


3 


6 


"7 


6 


5 


6 


5 


6 


7 


"7 


6 


8 


9 


6 


5 


7 




657 


2 




4-25 




2 


2 


3 


2 






2 























1 






668 




4? 


3-88 












4 
























2 








672 


*4 


10 


3-72 


"i 


"i 


3 


4 


5 


6 


"7 


2 


6 


6 


5 


8 


8 


8 


8 


9 


io 


7 


6 


9 




678 


1 


4 


3-52 




1 








3 






2 












36 


4 




1 




il 




686 


4 


9 


3-24 


4 


4 




3 


4 


6 


5 


5 


6 


V 


5 


7 


8 


8 


9 


9 


"9 


6 


6 


8 




691 


7 




3-08 


7 


6 


8 


7 


7 


4 


5 


5 


6 




5 


7 


8 


5 


\ib 


46 


I 6 


6 


5 


7 




696 


4 


6 


2-88 


4 


3 


4 


4 


4 


4 




















15 


3 


3 


4 




705 


5 


10 


2-59 


5 


5 


4 


5 


5 


6 


"7 


7 


"e 


"7 


"7 


8 


9 


9 


9 


10 


10 


8 


8 


10 




710 


1 


(3?) 


2-40 




1 














3 


























719 


2 


4? 


2-09 




1 


2 


3 


"2 
























4 










725 


5 


11 


1-87 


6 


5 


4 


5 


5 


6 


7 


8 


6 


} 8 


{1 


9 


10 


1" 


10 


11 


flO 


8 


9 


11 




169729 


4 


10 


5391-73 


3 


4 




4 


4 


5 


7 


2 


6 


8 


10 


7 


6 


11 





146 



DR L. BECKER ON THE SOLAR SPECTRUM. 





Mean 
Intensity. 




High Sun. 


Low Sun. 


Osc. Freq. 


e 

2 » 

-!3 a 




-M h 


A 


1 


4 


5 


8c 


12a 


1* 


1 


3a 


36 


5a 


56 


6a 


66 


8 


11a 


25 


26 


47a 


48 


586 




SO *w 

g_5 


S « g 
3 .2 




47 


30 


44 


58 


47 


38 


48 


53 


53 


25 


25 


31 


27 


34 


30 




38 


36 


37 


39 




■4-3 "+-» 


7^ w 














































o< 


3 




1-2 

5 


2-0 
4 


1-3 

5 


1-4 
5 


2-1 
5 


11 
5 


10 
4 


11 
4 


6 
4 


21 
5 


9 
4 


16 
6 


27 
8 


17 
6 


23 

4 


29 
8 


25 

8 


10 
6 


11 

5 


25 

8 


169740 


5 


8 


5891-37 


747 


1 


6 


I'll 




1 


1 




2 
























5 




2 




753 


1 


7 


0-92 




1 


1 


2 


1 


2 


3 


"3 


"3 




3 


"4 


"7 


6 


"i 


8 


5 


5 


4 


5 


767 


1 


7 


0-42 




1 


1 


3 






4 




2 




5 


6 


fl4 








(14 


4 




f 14 


770 
776 


14 


14 

is 


0-34 
5890-12 


14 


14 


14 


13 


13 


jl4a" 


14 


9 
i2 


14 


14 


14 


14 


U 


}» 


14 


14 


U 


12 
12 


12 
12 


t8 


786 


5 


11 


5889-78 


6 


"5 


5 


5 


6 


8 


8 


9 


"7 




9 


9 


i'6 


i'6 


i'6 




ii 


9 


8 


11 


798 


1 




9-36 




1 








B 






B 














E 


E 


B 






802 


2 


5 


9-23 




2 




"2 


2 




3 


3 






"3 


"4 


5 


"4 


"4 








3 




812 


4 


9 


8-86 


5 


5 


3 


4 


4 




7 


7 






7 


8 


8 


8 


8 








8 


9 


818 


2 




8-64 










3 
















3 












2 


3 


828 


2 




8-31 






2 




2 














3 






2 








2 




837 


3 


"7 


8-01 




3 






3 




"4 


"4 






4 


4 


"7 


"5 


4 








5 


5 


842 


5 


9 


7-82 


5 


5 


"4 


5 


5 




8 


8 






7 


8 


9 


9 


9 








8 


9 


848 


1 


46 


7-60 




1 


























46 










iZ 


855 


5 


10 


7-36 


5 


5 


"4 


5 


5 




8 


9 






"7 


9 


9 


"9 


9 








8 


10 


863 


1 


3 


7-10 




1 


































3 


3 


870 


3 


6 
( 


6-84 
6 55 


3 
1 


4 
( 4 


1 
1 


3 


3 




"5 


"i 






4 


5 


6 


"4 


"4 








4 


6 


879 


id 


'{ 


6-51 




i. 


}_• 


4 


4 




7 


7 






6 


9 


9 


8 


9 








8 


9 


885 




36 


6-34 


I 




























36 












891 


5 


10a" 


6-12 


6 


6 


5 


5 


5 




8 


8 






la" 


9 


"9 


8 


9 








9 


io 


901 

904 


2 
2 


6 
6 


5-77 
5-68 


2 
2 


3 
2 




} 3 


2 




{1 


y 






{i 


5 
5 


6 
6 


h 


6 








« 


} 6d 


914 


3 




5-33 


2 


3 


"2 


3 


2 














3 


















923 


2 


3? 


5-02 




2 


2 










'2 








3 














3 


3 


933 


2 


4? 


4-68 




2 




2 


2 




"2 












"4 












3 




943 


2 


8 


4-34 


2 


3 


"2 


2 


2 




4 


4 






4 


*6 


8 


"5 


6 








6 


"8 


951 


7 


11 


4-04 


V 


S 6 


1' 


8 


9 




9 


9 






f 


1.0 


12 


9 


9 








S 8 


1,0 


954 


7 




3-93 


) 


(e 


J 
















V 


J 














(6 


J 


966 


1 


4 


3-52 




2 




1 


2 




2 


2 








3 


4 


3 










3 


3 


978 


2 


8 


3-12 


3 


3 


"i 


2 


3 




6 


6 






"4 


7 


8 


6 


6 








5 


8 


984 


3 


8 


2-92 


3 


3 


2 


3 


3 




6 


6 






5 


7 


8 


6 


6 








5 


8 


990 


2 




2-71 


2 


2 


3 




2 
































994 
169996 




"e 

6 


2-58 
2-51 














2 
2 


I' 1 






3 


{] 


}' 


4 


4 








4 


6 


170006 


3 




2-14 


3 


"3 


"3 




3 
































010 
013 


3 
3 


"s 

8 


2-02 
1-91 


3 


3 
2 


3 


3 
3 


4 
3 




"4 

5 


}• 






{J 


6 
6 


1"' 


7 


8 








6a" 


9 


016 




6 


1-79 














3 








3 


4 


6 












3 




025 


4d 


(5?){ 


1-53 
1-45 


}' 3 


{! 


P 


4 


4 




1 


2 








3 


5 


2 


2 








3 


3 


033 


3 


8 


1-21 


3 


3 


3 


3 


3 




4 


6 






4 


5 


8 


7 


J9d 








{^ 


lOrf 


038 


3 


8 


103 


3 


3 


2 


3 


4 




5 


6 






5 


6 


8 


7 








044 


2 


8 


0-84 


3 


3 




1 


4 




4 


6 






4 


6 


8 


3 


3 








5 




050 


3 


ui 


0-65 
0-59 


}-■ 


2 




3 


3 




3 


2 











} 6 


3 










4 


5 


058 


3 




0-33 


3 


2 


3 


4 


3 














3 














3 




066 


3 




5880-08 


V 


l 3 


I 4 




4 




3 


2 






3 


f 


[' 


3 


3 








4 


5 


170069 


4 


6 


5879-98 


s 


u 


J 


















u 

















DR L. BECKER ON THE SOLAR SPECTRUM. 



147 



Osc. Freq. 


Mean 
Intensity. 


A 




Hi 


gh Sun. 


Low Sun. 


S . 
.2 S 

13 T3 


.2^ p 


1 


4 


5 


8c 


12a 


1 


3a 


56 


6a 


66 


8 


11« 


48 


586 


746 




® 3 


fn fl o 




































E-g 


5 o.S 

r— 1 (/J fr- 




47 


30 


44 


58 


47 


48 


53 


25 


31 


27 


34 


30 


37 


39 


44 




"S^ 


© <£ o 




1-2 


2-0 


1-3 


1-4 


2-1 


10 


12 


11 


17 


30 


16 


21 


11 


27 


24 




o 


1-5 


































170075 
078 


4 
4 


9 
9 


5879-77 
9-64 


4 
4 


3 
3 


3 
3 


4 
4 


4 
4 


6 
6 


}9 


{I 


6 
6 


1>; 


9 


9 


{' 


h 




084 


2 




9-46 




2 






















3 






090 


1 


"7 


9-24 


1 


2 


2 


2 


2 


"i 


4 


3 


5 


6 


4 


4 


5 


7 




100 


2 




8-90 




2 




2 








B 










3 






107 


2 




8-64 




6 


2 




2 














1 


3 






119 


2 




8-24 




2 


2 




2 
















3 






128 


4 




7-92 


4 


4 


5 


*5 


4 


2 


2 












3 






136 


1 


6 


7-66 


1 












3 


V 




{"! 


6 


4 


4 


4 


Ur? 




142 


2 


6 


7-43 




2 


2 


2 


"2 


3 




6 


4 


4 


4 




149 


1 


4 


7-21 








2 


2 




2 




4 








4 






154 




3 


7-04 


















3 


3 




3 


3 






166 
171 


3 
3 


9 


6-62 
6-44 


3 

2 


}"* 


(3 


j-3d 


(I 


h 


7 




8 


9 


8 


9 


7 


9 




177 


3 


9 


6-22 


3 


4 


3 


4 


4 


6 


7 




8 


9 


8 


9 


7 


9 




192 


3 


9 


5-71 


3 


4 


2 


4 


I 3c? 


{i 


7 




8 


9 


8 


9 


6 


9 




197 


1 


5 


5-55 






2 








5 






* . > 


4 






206 


3 


5 


5-24 


3 


3 


2 


3 


3 


4 


4 




5 


5 


4 


4 


5 


"5 


E 


221 


2 


4dj 


4-77 
4-68 


}> 


2 


2 


2 


2 


2 


4 




3 


4 


3 


3 


{i 




}* 


231 


1 


4 


4-37 










2 








4 








3 






238 


1 




4-13 


























2 






241 


2 


5 


4'02 




3 




3 




2 


4 


. . . 


3 


5 


3 


3 


4 


4 


7 


250 


2 


7 


3-71 


1 


3 


3d 


3 


3 


5 


5 




6 


7 


5 


5 


5 


6 


7 


260 


5 


6 


3-37 


5 


4 


5 


5 


4 


2 


5 




5 


6 


4 


4 


4d 


5 


7 


276 


1 




2-82 


1 


2 


1 




2 
















2 






289. 


Id 


5 


2-37 




Id 




'2 




2 


"4 




"4 


5 


4 


3 


4 


46 


4 


297 


1 


4 


2-09 








■ • • 


2 


2 






3 


4 


3 


2 








304 


1 


4 


1-85 




1 


1 


2 


1 








3 


4 






3 






318 


3 


9 


1-38 


4 


3 


2 


3 


3 


"i 


6 




6 


5 


7 


V 


5 


9 


9 


321 




5 


1-26 












4 






5 








3 




i2 


337 


*3 


9 


073 


4 


3 


2 


3 


3 


6 


6 




7 


8 


V 


7 


5 


9 


9 


349 


1 




5870-31 




2 


1 




1 
















2 






360 
363 


3 
3 


6 
6 


5869-94 
9-82 


3 
3 


2 

2 


\ld 


[1 


} 2 


(| 


}• 




(! 


}• 


5 


5 


{^ 


} : 


7 


375 


2 




9-39 


1 


2 


2 


2 


2 
















2 




3 


390 


2 


7 


8-89 


1 


2 


2 


2 


2 


4 


5 




5 


7 


5 


5 


4 


5 


7 


405 


2 




8-37 




2 


2 


2 


2 
















3 




3 


416 


2 




7-99 




2 




























424 


5 


9 


7-71 


7 


5 


5 


"5 


5 


6 


'V 




8 


9 


7 


"7 


7 


"7 


"9 


427 


2 




7-62 












2 
















E 




439 


3 




7-20 


3 


2 


2b 






3 














2 


2 




3 


446 


2 




6-94 




2 






2 






















457 


7 




6-58 


8 


6 


"7 


"e 


7 


6 


5 




5 


"6 


6 


6 


6 




"7 


465 


2 


4 


6-31 




3 


3 












4 


4 


3 




4 




i3 


477 


2 


7 


5-90 


i 


2 


2 






2 


[• 




{a 


6 


5 


5 


5 




7 


484 


2 


7 


5-66 




2 




2 


2 


3 




6 


5 


5 


5 




7 


488 


3 




5-52 




2 




2 


2 


2 






4 








3 






506 


1 


4 


4-90 




1 


1 


2 


2 








3 




3 


2 


3 




"4 


518 
170521 


3 
3 


6 


4-49 
5864-38 


}'» 


f 3 


2 

2 


K 


3 


Is" 


2 




5 


6 


4 


3 


4 




5 



VOL. XXXVI. PART I. (NO. 6). 



2 A 



148 



DR L. BECKER ON THE SOLAR SPECTRUM. 



Osc. Freq. 


Mean 
Intensity. 


A 


High Sun. 










Low Sun. 






s 

3 CO 

O 


o 

.§■*; d 

i- c o 
Son 

% s'§ 

H .SK 


1 
47 
1-2 


4 
30 
2-1 


5 
44 
1-3 


8c 
58 
1-4 


12a 
47 
2-0 


l 

48 

9 


3a 
53 
13 


6re 
31 

20 


66 
27 
33 


7 

37 
8 


8 
34 
15 


11a 
30 
19 


18a 
40 
32 


48 
37 
10 


746 
44 
22 


78 
37 
31 


170531 


2 




5864-05 


2 


2 


1 


3 


2 










... 


1 






2 


2 




545 


2 




3-56 




2 


O 




2 


















2 






550 


1 


4 


3 37 




2 


1 


2 


2 








4 






2 




3 


3 




556 




4 


3-18 


















4 




1 






3 


3 




564 


2 




2-92 




2 


2 


2 


2 


















2 






573 


2? 




2-58 




2 
















B 














575 


8 




2-51 


8 


8 


8 


8 


8 


7 


6 


8 


9 


8 


"l 


8 




' 1 


"8 




582 


2 




2-27 




2 


1 




























594 
597 


2 

2 


5 
6 


1-86 
1-77 


}" 3 


I 2 


V 


(1 


2 
2 


V 


4 


{1 


}> 


{1 


V 


5 




{t 


}' 


... 


604 


1 




1-52 




2 








... 




















1 


612 


3 




1-26 


4 


3 


3 


4 


3 


2 




3 




3 


4 


3 




3 


3 




617 


1 




1-08 




2 




























... 1 


630 


2 




0-63 




2 


2 




2 


1 
















2 


3 


... 


642 


2 




5860-21 


2 


2 


2 


2 


2 




















3 


... 1 


651 


1 




5859-91 




1 




























E 


656 


8 


10 


9-73 


8 


8 


7 


8 


8 


8 


8 


9 


10 


8 


9 


9 




9 


10 


12 


665 


3 




9-42 




2 


2 


3 


2 








E 






3d 




3 






676 




3 


9-04 














2 






3 


3 






3 


lib 




680 


4 




8-91 


4 


4 


4 


4 


4 


3 




4 




4 


3 






4 




685 


1 




8-75 




2 






























693 


3 




8-48 




3 


3 


2 


3 


















2 






700 


2 




8-24 




2 






2 
























709 


6 




7-92 


6 


6 


6 


"(B 


6 


6 


4 


5 




6 


7 


7 




7 


"7 




718 


9 




7-61 


8 


9 


10 


9 


10 


8 


8 


9 




9 


9 


9 




8 


10 


12 


732 


2 


41 


7-13 




2 


1 


B 


2 






E 












E 


4 




745 


2 




6-69 




2 


1 




1 
























750 


2 




6-52 




2 


















3 












754 


2? 




6-38 




2 


























... 




759 


6 




6-21 


7 


5 


6 




6 


4 


5 






5 


4 


5 






5 




766 


2 




598 




2 


3 




1 
























775 


2 




5-64 




2 


3 




1 
























787 


5 




5-24 


6 


4 


5 




5 


3 








4 


4 


3 






5 




795 


2 


5 


4-97 






2 




2 


3 


5 






4 


4 


3 






4 




808 


2 


4 


4-52 


3 


2 


3 




2 










3 










4 




815 


2 




4-28 




2 


2 




2 
























828 


7 




3-85 


*5 


8 


8 




8 


6 


6 






7 


8 


6 






8 




833 


2 




3-68 




3 


2 




























840 


3 


(4?) 


3-43 


2 


3 


3 
























4 




844 


2 


(4?) 


3-29 




3 






1 


1 








3 


2 


1 






4 




856 


2 




2-88 




2 


2 




2 
























870 


6 




239 


6 


7 


6 




7 


5 


4 






6 


6 


6 










874 


2 




2-27 




3 


2 




























881 


2 




2-01 






2 




















B 




3 




896 


3 


8 


1-52 


3 


2 


3 




3 


3 








4 


5 


5 


8 




5 


8 


901 




3 


1-34 




















3 






b 




t3 




911 


Id 


*{ 


1-05 
0-97 




2 

1 


}> 




2 


3 


5 






3 


5 


4 


8 




5 


6 


921 


1 




0-67 




2 


























B 




930 


2 




0-36 


1 


2 


2 




2 
























170936 


1 




5850-15 




2 































DR L. BECKER ON THE SOLAR SPECTRUM. 



149 





Mean 






















Osc. Freq. 


Intensity. 


A 




High 


Sun. 








Low Sun. 






S . 

■3 9 


luric 
on the 
rizon. 


1 

47 


4 
30 


5 

44 


12a 

47 


l 

48 


3a 
53 


7 
37 


8 
34 


11a 
30 


116 
30 


136 
36 


17 
38 


18a 
40 


78 
37 










1-2 


2-1 


1-3 


2-0 


9 


14 


9 


15 


18 


11 


17 


28 


32 


31 




O 


3 
































170943 


3 


5 


5849-89 


3 


3 


3 


3 


2 


1 


3 


2 


2 








4 




954 


1 




953 








2 






















964 


2 




9-20 


1 


2 


3 


} 2 


{;.. 




3 
















967 


2 




9-07 


1 


2 


3 








2 












975 


1 


5 


8-82 




2 










2 


2 


2 








4 




988 


7 




8-36 


8 


7 


6 


6 


5 


3 


7 


5 


5 








4 




170998 


1 




8-01 




2 


1 
























171003 


2 




7-86 




2 










2 




2 












Oil 


2 




7-57 




2 


2 
























021 


5 




7-22 


6 


4 


5 


5 


4 


2 


5 


4 


3 








4 




039 


1 




6-63 


E 


2 


1 




B 




















048 


2 




6-31 




2 


2 


2 






















054 


2 


(41) 


6-09 




2 




2 








4 








B 






064 


1 


8 


5-76 




2 








3 


5 


4 


3 






8 


7 


5 


071 


3 




5-51 




2 


2 


3 




B 














3 




082 


2 


(41) 


5-15 




2 




2 






1 










4 






091 


2 




4-85 




2 


1 


2 






















104 


1 




4-39 








2 






















116 


2 


3 


4-00 




2 




2 










1 






3b 


3 




134 


2 




3-38 






2 


2 






















149 


2 


6 


2-87 




2 




2 






4 


3 


3 






6 


6 


5 


156 


2 


5 


2-63 




2 












3 












5 


166 


2 


3? 


2-29 








2 
















3 


2 




181 


1 




1-76 








2 






















194 


1 


4 


1-33 




2 


1 








2 


3 








4 




4 


203 


1 


6 


1-02 




2 


1 


2 






3 


3 


3 






6 


6 


4 


220 


o 




5840-43 




2 


1 


2 






















238 


2 


4 


5839-84 




2 


2 








2 


3 








4 






241 


1 




9-73 




2 


























244 


2 


5 


9-61 




2 


2 


2 






2 


3 


3 






5 


5 


4 


256 


2 




9-22 




2 




2 






















265 


3 


4 


8-90 




3 




3 






3 


3 








4 


) 


( 4 


273 


3 


6 


8-64 




3 


1 


5 






3 


3 


3 






6 


[ 5 


\ b 


279 


2 


4 


8-44 




2 


3 


2 










3 






4 


) 


u 


286 


2 




8-20 




2 


3 








2 












2 




296 


4 




7-86 




3 


4 


' 4 










2 






4 






307 


1 


4 


7-46 




1 


1 


1 
















4 


4 




323 


2 




6-93 




1 


2 


2 






















332 


1 


*4 


6-62 




1 




















2 


2 


4 


344 


2 




6-20 




1 


2 


2 
















2 






356 


3 


5 


5-80 




3 


3 


3 






3 


4 


3 






5 


4 


4 


362 


3 




5-60 




3 


3 


3 






3 




2 










& 


372 


4 




5-27 




4 


4 


4 


... 




4 


"i 


3 






4 


3 


4 


386 


2 


4:1 


4-78 




2 


1 


2 
















4 






394 


2 




4-51 


... 




2 














B 


B 








403 


4 


8 


4-20 




5 


4 


5 






6 


7 


6 


6 


6 


*8 


*8 


6 


415 


1 




3-80 






1 
























424 


1 


*4 


3-51 






1 


2 






2 


3 


1 


2 




4 


3 


3& 


437 


1 




3-06 






1 
























449 


2 


4d 


2-64 




2 


2 


2 






2 


3 


2 


2 


3 


"id 


3 


36 


171455 


1 




5832-45 








2 























150 



DR L. BECKER ON THE SOLAR SPECTRUM. 



Osc. Freq. 



171466 
473 
481 
493 
508 
518 
525 
540 
559 
571 

581 
589 
597 
611 
621 
630 
647 
664 



Moan 
Intensity. 






E-.gK 



677 
685 


2 


694 


2 


709 


2 


717 




722 


2 


729 


2 


746 


3 


748 


3 


754 




759 


3 


777 


2 


785 




788 




792 


1 


803 


1 


817 


2 


826 


2 


836 


2 


849 




858 


2 


870 


2 


875 


2 


887 


1 


892 


1 


905 


4 


910 


2 


925 


9 


932 


4 


937 


2 


945 


2 


960 


4 


171972 


5cZ 



4 
4d 

5 
4 
4 
4 
5 



(3?) 

(81) 

4? 

4 

4 

4 
5 

(3t) 
(3?) 

4 



4? 

4 

3 

3? 

3? 

3 

4 

4? 

3 

4 
4 
6 

(3?) 
4 
4 



4 
(5?) 



(51) 



5832-07 
1-81 
1-55 
114 
0-64 
0-28 
5830-06 
5829-56 
8-90 
8-49 

8-16 
7-89 
7-61 
7-13 
6-80 
6-47 
5-90 
5-32 
4-90 
4-61 

4-30 
3-82 
3-53 
3-36 
3-13 
2-56 
2-50 
2-27 
2-10 
1-51 

1-23 
1-12 
0-98 
0-62 
5820-13 
5819-83 
9-51 
9-07 
8-76 
8-34 

8-18 
7-79 
7-59 
7-18 
7-00 
6-50 
627 
6-09 
5-80 
5-30 

4-96 
5814-87 



High Sun. 



4 
30 
2-2 



2 
2 

2 

2 
2 

2 

2 

4 
3 
10 
3 
2 
3 
3 



5 
44 
1-3 



4 

9 
3 

2 
4 



12a 
47 
2-0 



Low Sun. 



7 

37 
9 



1/, 



34 
14 



11a 
30 
17 



116 
30 
11 



I 4 

9 
3 

4 
4 



13a 
36 
21 



136 
36 
17 



17 
38 
24 



2d 



3 

5 

4 

3d 

3 

5 

3 

2 

2 

5 



18a 
40 
29 



476 
36 
30 



56 
2 

56 



78 
37 
28 



E 
9 



3 

4 
4 

3 

4 
4 
5 

3 

It 

10 

4 



DR L. BECKER ON THE SOLAR SPECTRUM. 



151 



Osc. Freq. 


Mean 
Intensity. 


A. 


High Sun. 


Low Sun. 


£ . 

^ CD 

T3 -c) 




4 


5 


12a 


7 


8 


116 


13a 


136 


17 


18a 


20 


476 


76 


78 






'S§.i 

■ — i — 




30 


44 


47 


37 


34 


30 


36 


36 


38 


40 


42 


36 




37 




t«3 

o 


3 




2-2 


1-3 


2-0 


10 


13 


10 


21 


16 


20 


26 


18 


30 


12 


22 


171981 


2 




5814-60 


2 


1 


2 














1 








2 


991 
171996 


2 
2 




4-27 
4-08 


2 
3 


2 


3 


}"' 


1 


3 






3 










4 


172006 


2 


4 


3-74 


2 


2 


2 


2 


2 




3 




3 


2 








4 


025 


2 


4 


3-13 


2 


2 


2 


2 


2 


3 


b 


2 


4 


3 




U 




4 


028 


2 




3-02 


2 


























2 


036 


2 


3 


2-75 






2 




2 




3 




4 


2 










044 


2 




2-46 


2 


2 




2 




2 
















3 


055 


3 




2-11 


2 


4 


3 


3 


3 


3 




2 


4 


i 








2 


062 


2 




1-85 


3 


2 


1 






















3 


070 


1 


3 


1-61 


2 


1 




1 


2 








3 


2 






3 


077 




2? 


1-35 




























2 


088 


3d 


•••{ 


1-04 

0-92 


2 
3 


lid 


3 


1 


2 


2 




2 


3 






2b 




3 


101 


2 




0-54 


2 


2 


1 


2 




















2 


111 


2 




5810-19 


2 


2 


3 




2 








2 










2 


119 




3 


5809-94 


















3 










3 


126 


1 


4 


9-70 


2 




2 




2 


3 




2 


4 


4 


B 


3 




4 


136 


7 




9-35 


7 


"a 


7 


"7 


8 


6 


8 


7 


7 


8 


8 


7 




9 


145 


2 


4 


9-07 


2 


2 


2 


2 


3 


1 






4 










3 


152 




3 


8-84 


















2 




2 


2 




2 


159 


2 




8-58 


2 


1 


2 






















2 


174 


3 




8-08 


2 


3 


3 


3 


3 


3 


3 


3 


3 


3 


3 


2 




2 


180 


2 


4 


7-86 


3 








3 


3 






4 




3 


6 






186 


2 




7-68 


3 






















2 




2 


194 


2 




7-40 


2 






3 




















3 


197 


2 




7-29 


2 


2 


2 






















3 


209 


7 




6-89 


7 


7 


7 


8 


8 


6 


6 


5 


8 


"g 


8 


8 




8 


212 




4? 


6-79 




























4 


223 


1 


4 


6-44 


2 




1 


3 


4 


3 


3 


3 


4 


4 


4 


4 




4 


232 


1 


3 


6-14 


6 






3 










3 




4 






3 


240 


id 


;■■{ 


5-91 
5-77 


V 


5 


4 


3 


4 


4 


3 


3 


4 


4 


5 


4 




{1 


249 


1 




5-56 


2 




























255 


7 




5-34 


6 


7 


7 


7 


"7 


6 


*6 


6 


8 


"i 


8 


8 




8 


261 


2 


3 


5-14 


2 






2 








1 


3 










3 


265 


2 




4-99 


2 


2 


























274 


2 




4-72 


2 




























276 


5 




4-64 


4 


5 


5 


5 


5 


4 


5 


4 


5 


5 


6 


5 




5 


283 


4 




4-41 


3 


4 


4 


4 




2 




b 


3 




3 






4 


290 


5 




4-18 


4 


5 


5 


5 


5 


4 


5 


i 


5 


5 


6 


5 




5 


293 




3? 


4-07 


























E 


3 


302 


2 




3-78 


1 


1 


2 




















2 


2 


308 


1 


5 


3-57 






2 


3 


3 


3 




3 


4 


4 


4 


2 


2 


5 


312 


2 




3-43 


2 
























2 


2 


320 


1 


3 


3-16 




i 






1 








3 


3 


3 




2 


4 


327 
332 


1 
1 


4 
4 


2-91 
2-74 


}■;.. 




2 


3 


3 


3 


26 


3 


4 


4 


4 


2 


{I 


4 
4 


339 


2 


3? 


2-53 


2 


i 
























3 


343 


1 


3 


2-40 


2 
















3 








2 


3 


172354 


2 


3? 


5802-03 


2 


i 


2 














1 


2 


2 


2 


3 



152 



DR L. BECKER ON THE SOLAR SPECTRUM. 



Osc. Freq. 


Mean 

Intensity. 


\ 


Hi, 


^h Sui 


i. 


Low Sun. 


S . 


,2-5(3 

M g O 


4 


5 


12a 


7 


8 


116 


13a 


136 


17 


18a 


186 


20 


476 


76 


77 


78 




s.t: 


pS O «9 




30 


44 


47 


37 


34 


30 


36 


36 


38 


40 


40 


42 


36 




27 


37 




-*^ ^ 


qj O) O 






































c3 <j 


&- 1 cK 




2'3 


1-3 


2-0 


10 


12 


10 


21 


15 


18 


24 


13 


17 


28 


12 


21 


19 


172361 


2 




5801-79 


2 


























2 




3 


373 


2 


4 


1-39 


2 


2 


2 


3 




2 






3 










2 




4 


383 


2 


5 


1-04 


2 




2 


3 


2 




3 


3 


5 


5 




5 


> 


2 




5 


391 


1 


5 


0-78 




2 




4 


2 


3 




3 


5 


5 




5 


2 




5 


398 


2 




0-55 


2 


1 












3 












2 




1 


409 
414 


2 


3 

4 


0-17 

5800-01 


2 


2 


2 


2 
3 


} 2 


3 


3 


3 


f3 

\4 


}} 




{] 


fj 


3 






422 


2 




5799-72 


2 


























3 






429 


1 


5 


9-49 




1 


2 


2 








2 


4 


5 




4 








8 


436 


2 


(3?) 


9-25 


u 


Id 


2 




1 


2 














2 


3 




f 3 

h 


440 


1 




9-11 


\ 






























454 


1 


4dj 


8-66 
8-61 


Y 














2 


4 


4 




3 




{I 




}■ 


463 


6 


9 


8-36 


6 


6 


6 


7 


7 


7 


7 


8 


8 


8 




9 


8 


8 




9 


466 




4 


8-24 














6 










36 










472 


6 


9 


8-03 


6 


6 


6 


7 


7 


6 


7 


8 


8 


8 




8 


8 


7 




9 


480 


2 


4 


7-77 


2 


1 


2 


2 




2 




3 


3 


3 








2 




4 


487 




3 


7-53 
























3 




2 




3 


493 


1 


2 


7-32 


1 


























2 




3 


503 


2 


4 


6-99 


2 


3 


2 




o 


2 


36 


3 


3 


3 








2 




4 


513 




4 


6-65 








3 








3 




4 




3 


~ 2 


2 




4 


522 


4d 


(41){ 


6-42 

6-28 


}' 3 


4 


3 


4 


3 


3 




4 


4 


4 




4 


r 


2 




{1 


530 


1 


4 


6-10 




2 






3 


3 






4 








J 2 


3 




3 


540 


1 


3 


5-77 


2 














2 




2 












3 


547 


1 


2 


5-51 




1 






















2 6 






3 


553 


2 


3 


5-31 


2 




2 






1 




2 


3 








1 




2 


565 


1 


2 


4-93 


2 












2 














1 




3 


571 




2 


4-71 




























1 




3 


577 


2 


4 


4-51 


2 


2 


2 


3 




3 




2 


4 


3 




4 




2 


E 


3 


589 
592 


6 


5 


4-12 
4-02 


7 


7 


5 


}[ 


6 


6 


6 


6 


{I 


I 8 




8 


6 


5 


5 


!i 


597 


1 




3-83 




1 


























• . . 




602 


1 


4 


3-67 


2 


1 




4 


4 


3 




3 


"i 


4 




4 


4 


1 




4 


607 


1 




3-50 




1 








... 
















2 






614 


6 




3-26 


5 


7 


6 


6 


7 


6 


7 


6 


5 


8 




8 


6 


6 


6 


"7 


620 




3 


3-06 








2 




1 




2 


3 








3 






3 


625 


2 




2-89 


1 




2 


























2 


634 


2 




2-60 


2 


2 


2 






















1 




2 


645 


2 


4c*j 


2-30 

2-15 


l 2 




2 


4 


2 


3 


4 


f 3 

u 


\< 


5 




5 


3d 


2 




i_: 


657 


2 


4 


1-84 


2 


2 




2 








3 


3 










2 


4 




662 


3 




1-66 




3 


3 






















3 




3 


667 


1 


3 


1-48 


1 




2 


2 


2 


2 


3 


3 


3 


3 


B 


3 


3 


2 




3 


678 


9 




1-14 


10 


9 


9 


8 


9 


9 


9 


9 


8 


8 


8 


8 


8 


11 


10 


10 


681 




4 


1-01 








3 








2 


4 




5 




3 






3 


686 


2 




0-87 


2 


2 
















3 








3 




2 


702 


3 


5 


0-33 


3 


3 


3 


4 


3 


3 


3 


3 


4 


4 


4 


4 


3 


3 


4 


5 


710 


2 


4 


5790-05 


2 


2 


2 


4 


3 


2 




3 


4 


4 


4 


4 


4 


2 


4 


4 


718 




o 


5789-80 
















1 
















3 


172724 


2 




5789-58 


2 


2 


2 






















2 




3 









DR L. 


BECKER ON THE SOLAR SPECTRUM. 










153 


Osc. Freq. 


Mean 
Intensity. 


A 


High Sun. 


Low Sun. 


a 


~ a o 


4 


5 


12a 


7 


8 


iii 


13a 


136 


17 


18a 


186 


20 


476 


76 


77 


78 






2 o .« 

« 8 ° 




30 


44 


47 


37 


34 


30 


36 


36 


38 


40 


40 


42 


36 




27 


37 




0^ 


3 




2-3 


1-3 


2-0 


11 


11 


10 


20 


14 


16 


22 


13 


16 


27 


10 


20 


16 


172731 




5 


5789-35 








4 


3 





3 


3 


4 


5 


4 


5 


4 


3 


5 


5 


741 


2 


5 


9-03 


2 


2 


2 


3 


3 


r 


6 


!• 


4 


) 




4 


) 


2 


5 


4 


747 


2 


4c? | 


8-87 
8-76 


b 
2 


I 3 


2 


3 


3 


}' 


V 


\m 


4 


}« 


V5d 


2 
2 


}_» 


3 


762 


1 


4 


8-31 


2 














2 


4 


3 


2 


4 


3 


1 




3 


769 


Id 




8-09 


7 


8 


7 


"7 


7 


5 


6 


7 


5 


6 


7 


7 


6 


8 


7d 


7 


778 


1 




7-76 


2 


























1 






782 


1 


21 


7-63 


2 


1 














3 






2 




2 




2 


789 


2 


6 


7-41 


2 


2 


2 


3 


3 


3 


4 


4 


fr 


4 


> 


> 


5 


2 


3 


4 


795 


3 


5 


7-19 


3 


3 


3 


4 


3 


3 










2 


3 


4 


806 

! 


1 


3cZJ 


6-91 
6-76 


l 2 
J 






1 




2 




2 




3 


3 


3 


3 


('2 

12 




} 2 


813 


2 




6-60 


2 


2 


2 














3 








2 


3 


2 


821 


2 




6-34 


2 




2 






















2 




2 


828 


4 




6-09 


4 


3 


3 


4 


3 


3 


4 


3 


4 


5 


3 


4 




3 




3 


834 
837 


5 

4 




5-90 
5-80 


5 

4 


} 5 


I 4 


}' 


5 


5 


6 


5 


5 


7 


5 


5 


4 


{3 


}' 5 


I 6 


849 


6d 


;•;{ 


5-44 
5-38 


5 
5 


}• 


6 


6 


6 


5 


6 


6 


7 


5 


5 


8 


4 


6 


5 


7 


857 


5 




5-12 


5 


5 


5 


5 


5 


4 


5 


5 


5 


I 5 


{! 


6 


3 


5 


5 


6 


866 


5 




4-83 


5 


5 


5 


5 


4 


4 


5 


5 


5 


5 


3 


5 


5 


6 


873 


2 




4-60 


2 




2 






1 


2 














2 




3 


880 


2 




4-35 


2 


2 


2 










2 




1 








2 




3 


885 


2 




4-18 


2 


























2 




2 


890 


7 




4-02 


7 


7 


6 


5 


6 


6 


*6 


6 


7 


7 


6 


"s 


5 


7 


"7 


7 


897 


3 




3-79 


2 


2 








1 










4 






2 




3 


901 


2? 




3-67 


2 
































904 


2 




3-55 


2 




2 


... 












i 




2 




2 




3 


913 


7 




3-25 


7 


6 


5 


5 


6 


6 


6 


6 


'V 


7 


6 


8 


6 


6 


7 


7 


921 


2 




2-98 


2 


2 


2 


... 












2 








2 




2 


925 


2? 




2-85 


2 
































931 


1 


4' 


2-67 


2 




2 






1 


3 


2 


4 


3 


3 


3 


2 


1 


4 


2 


942 


8d 




2-30 


10 


8 


8 


8 


7 


8 


9 


8 


8 


8 


8 


8 


8 


8d 


9 


9 


949 
952 


4 


4 


2-05 
1-94 


4 


5 


4 


V 


4 


3 


5 


{3 


4 

4 


}* 


5 


3d 


5 


4d 


6 


5 


963 


2 




1-59 


2 




















... 


2 


2 


1 




2 


969 


4 




1-38 


4 


4 


4 


4 


4 


3 


2 


3 


4 


4 


4 


4 




4 


... 


4 


974 


1 




1-21 




























1 






981 


5 




0-97 


4 


4 


5 


4 


5 


4 


3 


4 


5 


5 


*6 


4 




4 




5 


989 


M 


: { 


0-78 
0-66 


}' 


5 


6 


5 


5 


4 


4 


4 


5 


5 


6 


5 


36 


I 4 

1 5 


1 66 


6 


172996 


4 




0-47 


4 


4 


5 


4 


4 


3 


4 


3 


4 


I 46 


{^ 


4 




4 




5 


173000 


1 


5 


5780-34 


2 






4 


4 




4 


2 


4 


5 


*4 


•> 


6 


4 


018 
025 


3 

2 


4 


5779-76 
9-50 


2 
2 


I 2d 


(3 


1 
1 


135 


(1 


E 


i 26 


{! 


I 46 


[S 


3 

4 


}. 4 


{_! 


}* 


{^ 


028 


1 




9-42 
































1 


036 


2 




9-16 


1 


2 


2 






















2 




2 


041 


2 




8-96 


















2 










2 




2 


052 


5rf 




8-62 


5 


5 


5 


5 


5 


5 




5 


5 


"5 


5 


5 


3 


5 


5 


5 


058 


1 




8-40 


1 
























3 






1 


173067 


1 


3 


5778-11 


1 




2 




36 


2 




2 


... 




2 




3 


2 




2 











































154 



DR L. BECKER ON THE SOLAR SPECTRUM. 



Osc. Freq. 


Mean 
Intensity. 


A 


H 


gh Sun. 


Low Sun. 


a 


to 

M 

.2 - c ' 

E B o 


4 


5 


12a 


7 


8 


11J 


136 


17 


18a 


186 


20 


m 


49 


76 


77 


78 




*! 


3 O .N 




30 


44 


47 


37 


34 


30 


36 


38 


40 


40 


42 


36 






27 


37 




-»-> -^ 


"5 2.2 








































H.SS 




2-4 


1-8 


1-9 


11 


10 


10 


13 


15 


19 


12 


14 


25 


23 


8 


18 


14 







i-3 




































173075 


1 


3 


5777-83 


1 


1 










2 


36 






2 






2 


2 


2 


085 


2 




7-49 


1 




2 












2 










2 






095 


2 




7-16 


1 


1 
























2 


2 


2 


106 


2 




6-82 


1 


1 


2 


2 




















2 




2 


113 




6 


6-56 








2 


4 


3 


4 


4 


6 


5 


7 


5 




2 


5 


3 


121 


2 


4 


6-31 


1 


2 


2 




6 


6 


6 








■ . . 


b 




2 


6 


3 


124- 




6 


6-19 




2 




2 


4 


3 


4 


6 


6 


5 


7 


6 




2 


5 


3 


136 


1 


3 


5-82 


1 


2 


2 




1 




2 




2 


3 


3 


3 




2 




«■> 


142 




3 


5-60 
















3 












2 


3 


2 


153 


8 




5-24 


9 


8 


7 


"8 


8 


8 


8 


8 


8 


8 


8 


'V 




7 


9 


8 


160 


2 




5-00 


2 


2 
























B 







171 


2 


4 


4-65 


2 




2 


3 


3 


3 


3 


4 




3 


*4 


3 






"3 


3 


179 


3 


4? 


4-38 


2 


3 


3 


2 


| 35 


{3 






4 


4 


b 


3 






b 


3 


186 


3 


4? 


4-15 


3 


3 


3 


3 


3 


4 






4 








3 


3 


190 


1 




4-01 
































) 


196 


2 


3 


3-79 


2 


2 


2 


2 


3 






4 




2 


3 


3 








2 


210 
215 


2 
2 


7 
7 


334 
3-16 


2 

2 


2 


2 


5 

5 


4 
4 


}'• 


{] 


3 

4 


}• 


IS 


7 

7 


7 
7 






}• 


!! 


224 




4? 


2-88 
















4 










E 








227 


2 


8 


2-77 


2 


2 


2 


6 


5 


4 


4 


5 


8 


6 


"7 


8 


4 




6 


5 


232 


2? 




2-59 
































2 


242 


7 




2-28 


8 


7 


7 


"7 


"7 


V 


6 


7 


8 


"7 


6 


5 


7 




7 


8 


246 


4? 




2-15 
















4 






E 












256 


2 


"7 


1-81 


2 


3 


3 


4 


*4 


3 


3 


5 


8 


i 56 


{::: 


5 


4 




5 


5 


259 




5 


1-70 




























1 


264 


2 


6 


1-53 


2 




2 


4 


3 




3 


4 


"7 


4 




5 


4 




5 


1 


270 


2 




1-33 


2 


2 




























1 


277 


1 




1-11 
































2 


283 


1 


2 


0-89 






2 










3 




2 






2 






2 


298 


1 


7 


0-41 


1 




2 


4 


4 


3 


4 


5 


7 


4 




5 


4 




4 


5 


301 


1 


4 


5770-31 


2 


1 


























4 


2 


311 


2 




5769-98 


1 




2 


















2 


2 






2 


322 


1 


7 


9-60 


1 






5 


4 


3 


4 


6 


'7 


5 




5 


4 




5 


5 


329 


2 


6 


9-38 


2 


2 


3 


4 


3 




3 


4 


6 


4 




5 


4 




5 


4 


336 


1 




9-13 


1 




2 


























2 


342 


1 




8-94 






2 





























349 
354 


2 


3 

5 


8-71 
8-55 


2 


2 




"i 


3 


2 


3 


4 


5 


4 




4 


{•36 


(".'.. 
{... 




3 

! 


363 


2 




8-25 


1 




2 

























2 


2 


375 


1 


3 


7-84 




1 


2 










2 




2 




2 


2 






3 


382 


1 




7-60 


1 






























2 


391 


2 


8 


7-32 


2 


1 


2 


"7 


6 


4 


5 


6 


8 


7 




*8 


5 




4 


6 


396 




3 


7-13 








1 








3 








3 


3 






3 


403 


1 




6-90 


1 






























2 


416 


2 


6 


6-47 


2 


*3 


4 


5 


5 


3 


4 


6 


5 


6 




6 


5 




26 


5 


428 


1 


3 


6-08 


1 


1 


2 










3 




3 




3 








3 


434 




2? 


5-88 




























... 




3 


439 


1 


2 


5-70 


1 


1 






















2 






3 


456 


1 


2 


5-14 


1 


1 


2 










2 




2 










*2 


3 1 


465 
173476 


1 
1 


2 
4 


4-84 
5764-48 


1 


1 


2 










3 


4 


2 




2 


2 

2 




I 36 


i: 



DR L. BECKER ON THE SOLAR SPECTRUM. 



155 



Osc. Freq. 


Mean 
Intensity. 


\ 


High Sun. 


Low Sun. 


a . 

T3 t3 


«- H o 


4 


5 


12a 


7 


8 


9 


116 


136 


17 


18a 


186 


23 


476 


49 


77 


78 




£.1 


3 ° .3 




30 


44 


47 


37 


34 


37 


30 


36 


38 


40 


40 


21 


36 




27 


37 




o 






2-4 


1-3 


1-9 


12 


10 


8 


9 


12 


12 


18 


11 


20 


24 


22 


17 


12 


173486 


2 


(3?) 


5764-15 


1 


1 


2 






B 










2 


B 




2 




2 


501 
504 


V 


1 7 


3-64 
3-55 


2 


1 


2 


} 8 


6 


5 


3 


6 


{I 


}« 


6 


7 


M 


{* 


}• 


\l 


516 


9 




3-15 


10 


9 


9 


7 


9 


9 


9 


9 


8 


9 


9 


8 


9 


9 


9 


9 


520 


4 




3-01 


3 


4 


5 


3 








3 


5 






5 




2 




5 


528 


1 


3 


2-76 


1 
















3 








3 


3 


B 


B 


534 


5 




2-55 


4 


5 


5 


4 


5 


5 


*4 


5 


5 


4 


5 


6 


I 36 


fB 






538 


3 




2-41 


3 


3 


4 












3 








13 






550 


2 




2-02 


2 


2 














2 










1 






558 


3 


*8 


1-75 


3 


3 


3 


6 


7 


5 


4 


5 


5 


6 


6 


7 


*8 


5 






570 


2 


3 


1-36 


2 


2 


1 


1 


E 








2 


2 


3 






3 






582 


6 




0-97 


6 


5 


6 


6 




f 




6 


6 


6 


6 


6 


3 


7 






589 


2 




0-74 


2 


3 








f 6 












2 








597 


5 




0-48 


5 


4 


5 


6 




J 


4 


5 


10 


6 


5 


5 


5 






606 


2 




5760-17 


2 


1 


2 












3 








2 


1 






620 


3 


('4'?) 


5759-72 


2 


3 


4 


*4 




3 


2 


3 


4 


1 


4 


3 


3 


4 






626 


3 




9-51 


3 


3 


4 




























630 


1 


5 


9-39 


2 






4 




3 


2 


3 


4 


5 


4 


4 


5 


4 






640 


2 


5 


9-04 


2 


2 


2 


4 




3 




3 


4 


5 


4 


4 


5 


4 






654 


2 


4 


8-59 


1 


2 


2 


3 




2 




2 


3 


3 


3 


3 


4 


3 






669 


2 


3 


8-08 


1 


2 


2 


2 








2 


2 


3 


3 


3 


3 


2 






682 


2 


31 


7-65 


1 


2 


2 


1 




1 






3 


3 


2 






1 






689 




3 


7-41 






















2 


2 


3 








697 


i 


5 


7-16 


2 






3 








3 


4 


6 


4 


4 


3 


3 






704 


6 




6-93 


5 


6 


5 


6 




6 


5 


6 


7 


6 


6 


7 


4 


5 






711 


1 


3 


6-68 


2 






3 












2 




3 










719 


2 




6-43 


2 


2 


2 












3 




2 




2 


1 






729 


1 




6-09 




2 




















2 










735 


1 


5 


5-91 


2 






4 




3 




3 


5 


5 


4 


4 


4 


3 






743 


2 


5 


5-64 


2 




2 


4 




3 




3 


5 


5 


4 


4 


4 


3 






752 


2 




5-34 


2 


3 


1 






1 
















2 






760 


2 




5 07 




• . . 
























2 






767 


8 




4-82 


9 


8 


*8 


9 




*8 


8 


9 


8 


8 


8 


*8 


8 


8 






776 


3 




4-55 


3 


3 


3 


















2 




3 






781 


2 


9 


4-37 


3 


2 


3 


*8 




7 


4 


6 


7 


7 


*7 


6 


9 


6 






788 


2 


5 


4-13 


2 


2 














. > • 




3 


3 


4 


3 






798 


6rf 


...{ 


3-82 
3-77 


7 
7 


} . 6 


5d 


6 




7 


4 


6 


7 


3 


6 


7 


4 


5 






806 


1 


3 


3-55 


2 






















3 




2 






814 


8 




3-29 


8 


8 


8 


"7 




*8 


8 


8 


*8 


Ud 


I 8 

I 6 


8 


8 


7 






818 


3 


8 


3-13 


3 


3 


4 


6 




6 




5 


6 


6 


8 


6 






832 


2 


3 


2-68 


2 


2 


2 


3 






E 


3 


E 


• • • 


2 


3 


3 


3 






839 


1 




2-44 


2 














* . • 


















846 


7 




2-21 


8 


"7 


"7 


6 




8 




7 




W 


{] 


7 


6 


"7 






853 


2 


6 


1-99 


2 


2 




4 




5 




4 




r 


4 


6 


3 






855 


1 




1-91 




2 
























B 






865 


1 




1-59 






2 




























879 


2 




1-13 




i 


2 


2 














2 


2 










891 


2 


4 


0-74 




2 


2 


3 










3 




4 


3 


4 


4 








896 




31 


0-56 


























3 








173910 


2 




5750-09 


2 


1 


2 
















2 


3 











VOL. XXXVI. PART I. (NO. 6). 



2 B 



156 



DR L. BECKER ON THE SOLAR SPECTRUM. 



Osc. Freq. 


Mean 
Intensity. 


X 


High Sun. 


Low Sun. 


a 

2 M 


lluric 
3 on the 
rizon. 


4 
30 


5 

44 


116 

38 


12a 
47 


7 
37 


9 
37 


136 
36 


18a 
4Q 


186 
40 


23 
21 


27 

36 


31 

31 


476 
36 






a) q) o 




2-4 


1-3 


2-6 


1-9 


13 


9 


11 


16 


10 


18 


36 


35 


22 


173929 


2 


4d 


5749-49 


2 


2 




2 


2 


2 


2 


id 


2d 


3 






36 


942 


2 




9-05 


2 


2 




2 










1 










957 


5 




8-56 


5 


5 




5 


6 


6 


6 


5 


7 


6 






4 


970 


5 


'V 


8-12 


5 


5 




5 


7 


7 


6 


8 


7 


7 






6 


979 


5 


7 


7-83 


5 


5 




5 


7 


7 


6 


8 


7 


7 






5 


173990 


1 


3 


7-45 


2 


1 




2 


3 


1 


2 


2 


2 


3 






3 


174003 


1 


3 


7-02 


2 


1 






3 


1 


3 


3 


3 


3 






3 


014 


1 


3 


6-67 


2 


1 




2 




1 


2 


3 


3 


3 






2 


028 


1 




6-20 


1 


















3 


• > • 


B 




037 


2 


10 


5-92 


4 


2 




3 


9 


8 


8 


8 


9 


8 




8 


ii 


046 


1 




5-59 


1 


























051 


1 


4 


5-44 


2 


i 






3 








3 


3 




5 


36 


0G3 


1 


9 


5-05 


3 


1 




3 


8 


66 


7 


"7 


6 


7d 




8 


11 


066 


1 




4-94 




1 
























083 


1 


3 


4-37 


2 


1 




2 












3 






3 


091 




2? 


4-11 


















2 










097 


"i 


5 


3-94 


2 


'2 




2 


5 


3 


3 


} : 


4d 


46 




| 6d 


5 


108 


2 


6d 


3-58 




2 




2 


56 


3 


3 




5 


123 


3 




3-08 


3 


3 




3 




3 


3 




3 


4 








134 


1 


4 


2-72 


2 


1 






4 


3 


3 


4 


3 


4 






4 


146 


1 


10 


2-30 


3 


1 




2 


7 


6 


6 


8 


7 


7 




6 


10 


156 


6 




1-97 


6 


6 




6 


6 


6 


6 


6 


6 


6 




7 


5 


163 


2 




1-74 


2 


2 












E 












171 


2 


4? 


1-49 


2 


2 




2 










2 


2 




4 


• • . 


183 


2 


4 


1-10 


2 


2 




2 




i 


2 




2 


3 




4 


3 


192 


1 




0-80 








2 




















210 


2 


4 


5740-19 


3 


2 




3 




3 


3 




2d 


3 




4 


3 


220 


2 




5739-86 


3 


2 










*.. 












3 


228 


3 


"i? 


9-59 




2 




3 


• ■ . 


3 


2 




2 


4 








242 


1 


4 


9-14 


2 


1 




2 




3 


2 






4 




4 


4 


260 


3 


4 


8-57 


3 


3 




2 


lib 


(3 


2 




3 


4 




Ud 


\l 


268 


2 


5 


8-30 


4 


2 




4 


14 


4 




4 


5 


B 


282 


2 


11 


7-82 


4 






4 


9 


8 


9 




8 


8 


10 


9 


11 


293 


2d 


5 { 


7-53 

7-38 


2 
3 


};• 








1 


2 




2 


3 


5 


4 




302 


2 


5 


7-16 








4 




3 


3 




3 


4 


5 


4 


3 


315 


2 




6-75 


2 


i 




2 




1 






3 


3 








323 


1 


4 


6-49 


2 






2 






2 




3 


3 


4 


4 


3 


327 


1 




6-35 


3 


























339 




3 


5-96 




















2 


3 


3 




346 


2d 


9 


5-74 


2 


3 




3d 


7 


7 


5 




7 


7 


8 


9 


7 


362 


2 


4 


5-20 


3 


2 


• • • 


2 










2 


2 




4 




378 


1 


4 


4-66 


2 






3 




"3 


3 




3 


3 


4 


3 


3 


392 


1 




4-21 


2 


1 




. •• 












2 








404 


1 


7 


3-80 


2 






2 




4 


3 




"i 


4 


7 


6 


"* 


423 


2d 


8 { 


3-27 
311 


} . 2 


2 




2 


6 


5 


[I 


}••• 


6 


6 


8 


8 


7 


436 


1 


4 


2-77 








2 










4 


2 


3 


4 




446 


4 




2-45 


3 


4 




4 




5 


3 




5 


5 


3 


4 




453 


1 




2-20 






E 


2 




















174462 


8 




5731-92 


8 


8 


8 


7 


6 


8 


8 




8 


8 


7 


6 


5 



DR L. BECKER ON THE SOLAR SPECTRUM. 



157 



Osc. Freq. 


Mean 
Intensity. 


A 




High 


Sun. 




Low Sun. 


a 

3 to 


03 


4 


5 


116 


12a 


7 


9 


136 


186 


23 


27 


31 


32 


476 




s.-s 


!§! 




30 


44 


38 


47 


37 


37 


36 


40 


21 


36 


31 


30 


36 




+* r^H 


•75 w o 



































3 




2-5 


1-2 


2-6 


1-9 


14 


9 


10 


9 


15 


34 


32 


36 


20 


174476 


2 


4 


5731-46 


3 


2 




3 




3 


3 


4 


4 


3 


3 




i 36 


489 


2 


4 


1-02 


3 


2 




3 




3 


3 


4 


4 


4 


3 




502 


1 




0-61 




1 




















B 




512 


1 


5 


5730-27 


2 






2 




2 




3 


2 


5 


4 


5 




522 


2 


9 


5729-95 


3 


2 






}'» 


{t 


5 


8 


6 


8 


10 


9 


g 


527 


2 


9 


9-78 


3 


2 




3 


5 


8 


7 


8 


10 


9 


541 


2 


4? 


9-30 


2 


2 




2 












4 








553 


2 


7 


8-92 


3 


2 




2 


6 


5 


4 


5 


5 


7 


'V 


6 


5 


5G3 


2 


7 


8-58 


3 


2 




2 


6 


5 


4 


5 


5 


7 


7 


6 


5 


582 


1 


3 


7-95 


2 


3 






4 






2 


3 


3 


3 


3 




588 


3 


(4?) 


7-76 


3 






3 


4 


4 


3 


4 


4 










596 


2 




7-50 


2 


























606 


7 


10 


7-18 


7 


7 


6 


6 


io 


7 


6 


7 


7 


8 


}' I2 


9 


lid 


612 


3 


9 


6-98 


3 


3 


4 


3 


8 


7 


6 


8 


7 


8 


618 




6 


6-79 










6 


4 


3 




4 






6 




628 


2 




6-45 






2 










3 












637 
642 


1 
1 


3 
3 


616 

6-00 


2 
2 


1 


1 


1 
1 


}• 


2 


2 


3 


[1 


}• 


3 


2 


3 


651 


2 




5-71 


2 




2 


1 




















661 


2 




5-39 


2 


1 


2 


1 


i 


2 


2 


2 


2 


2 








682 


1 


3 


4-70 


2 








2 


3 


3 


3 


3 


3 








687 


3 


(4?) 


4-54 


3 


2 


3 


2 










4 










699 


1 


9 


4-12 


2 




3 




8 




4 


7 


7 


8 


*9 


9 


9 


706 


2 




3-91 


2 


2 


3 


2 




















711 


1 


4 


3-74 




2 




2 


2 




1 


3 


3 


4 


4 


3 


3 


723 


2 




3-34 


2 


1 


2 












3 










734 




2? 


2-98 


















3 


1 








740 


2 




2-79 


2 


1 


2 


2 




















754 


2 


6 


2-34 


3 




3 


3 


6 


5 


3 


4 


4 


*6 


5 


5 


4 


762 


2 


10 


2-07 


3 




3 


3 


9 


7 


5 


7 


7 


9 


10 


10 


10 


766 


1 


4 


1-92 




2 






4 


3 


3 


4 




4 








782 


2 




1-40 


2 




2 


2 




2 








2 








793 


3 


5 


1-05 


3 


3 


4 


4 


5 


5 


4 


5 


5 


5 


4 


5 


4 


800 


3 




0-83 






3 


4 




















810 


2 


8 


5720-51 


3 


2 




2 


8 


6 


5 


6 


6 


8 


8 


7 


"7 


827 


2 


5 


5719-94 


2 


2 


3 


3 






3 


4 


4 


5 






3 


833 


2 


11 


9-75 


3 




4 


3 


10 


8 


6 


8 


7 


9 


11 


9 


10 


851 


2 


8 


9-15 


2 


2 


3 


3 


8 


7 


5 


6 


5 


8 


8 


6 


7 


856 


1 




8-98 


3 


























865 


1 




8-70 


2 


























871 


2 


4 


8-51 


3 


2 


2 


2 


3 


2 


2 


3 


3 


3 


4 


2 


2 


878 


1 




8-26 


1 














• • . 










2 


886 


8 




8-00 


9 


*8 


"7 


8 


8 


8 


8 


8 


8 


"7 


8 


8 


6 


897 


2 


9 


7-65 


3 


2 


4 


2 


9 


7 


7 


7 


7 


9 


9 


8 


8 


904 


2 




7-42 


2 
























3 


913 


2 


4 


7-13 


2 


2 


2 




2 






2 


3 


4 


3 


3 


3 


928 


3 




6-64 


2 


2 


3 


3 


2 


3 


2 


3 


3 


3 






2 


933 


3? 




6-47 




3 
























943 


2 


(3?) 


6-16 


2 


1 


2 


2 










3 


3 




2 


2 


952 


1 


3 


5-87 


2 


2 


1 




2 


2 


2 


2 




3 


3 


2 


2 


174962 


2 




5715-54 


2 






2 


... 










2 









158 



DR L. BECKER ON THE SOLAR SPECTRUM. 



Osc. Freq. 


Mean 
Intensity. 


A. 


Higli Sun. 


Low Sun. 


S . 


ric 
n the 

on. 


4 


5 


116 


12a 


7 


9 


136 


186 


23 


27 


31 


32 


38 


39a 


45 


476 


50 




^ *2 


r- © N 




30 


44 


38 


47 


37 


37 


36 


40 


21 


36 


31 


30 


28 


30 


30 


36 


3. r ; 




4J .— < 


'& a> O 








































O 


H.SS 




2-6 


1-2 


2-5 


1-9 


15 


10 


10 


9 


14 


28 


29 


25 


11 


27 


21 


16 


12 






































E 






174971 


8 




5715-25 


9 


8 


8 


8 


9 


8 


9 


8 


8 


7 


7 


8 






6 


7 




980 


2 




4-93 




2 


3 






























174988 


4 




4-69 


4 


3 


5 


3 




3 


2 


2 


3 


3 


3 


2 




B 




2 




175001 


U 


*{ 


4-27 
4-21 


3 

4 


}* 




5 


9 


8 


6 


7 


7 


9 


9 


8 




9 


6 


8 




008 


2 




4-02 


2 


3 




2 












1 










2 






022 


3 




3-57 


2 


2 


3 


3 




3 






3 


2 








2 


1 


2 




031 


1 




3-28 




2 
































041 


4 




2-94 


3 


4 


4 


4 


4 


2 


}'• 




i' 4 


4 


4 


4 




"i» 


2 


3 




047 


2 


4 


2-76 


2 


3 


3 




4 


4 




t* 


4 


4 


4 




3 


3 




054 


2 




2-52 












3 




















2 


E 


063 


7 




2-24 


i 


7 


6 


6 


8 


7 


8 


}' 8 


f 8 


7 


'7 


7 




6 


5 


6 


5 


071 


8 




1-96 


8 


8 


7 


8 


9 


8 


8 


18 


7 


7 


8 




7 


6 


7 


7 


079 


1 


5 


1-69 


2 














E 






5 






6 




3 




085 


1 


8 


1-50 






2 


2 


"7 


2 


3 




"4 


5 


8 


7 




7 


4 


6 


7 


094 


9 




1-21 


io 


9 


8 


9 


9 


8 


8 




9 


8 


8 


8 




8 


7 


8 


9 


102 


1 


5 


0-97 


i 


2 






4 


2 


2 




3 


3 


5 


4 




5 


3 


4 


4 


113 


2 




0-61 




2 


3 


2 
























1 




122 


3 




0-29 


3 


3 


3 


2 










3 










2 






2 


129 


2 


4 


5710-07 








3 


4 


3 


3 




4 


4 


4 


3 




4 


2 


3 


3 


140 


9 




5709-71 


10 


9 


7 


9 


9 


9 


8 




9 


8 


9 


8 




8 


8 


8 


9 


145 


9 




9-55 


10 


9 


7 


9 


9 


9 


8 




9 


8 


9 


8 




8 


8 


8 


9 


156 


2 


3 


9-18 


2 


2 


2 


2 


3 


1 


2 




3 


3 




3 




3 


1 


3 


3 


161 


2 




9-03 
































2 


2 


171 


2 




8-72 








2 






















2 






175 


7 


• • • 


8-59 


8 


6 


7 


7 


8 


8 


7 




7 


7 


8 


7 




8 


7 


7 


"7 


184 


6 




8-30 


5 


5 


6 


6 


7 


6 


6 




6 


6 


7 


6 




6 


4 


5 


6 


195 


2 




7-93 


2 


2 


2 


2 










3 


1 




3 






1 




2 


205 


2 




7-59 






2 


2 




















2 


2 


2 


... 


215 




7 


7-26 










}' 










i 5 

I 5 


}* 










I'. 


7 ; 


















8 


6 




M 


7 




7d 


5d 




218 


5 




7-17 


5 


5 


6 


5 


















7 


225 


3 




6-94 


3 


4 


3 


3 




3 


4 




4 


2 














3 


233 


1 


4 


6-69 






2 














3 


4 


3 




3 


3 


2 




243 


3 




6-35 






4 


3 










4 


3 












2 


... 


247 


M 




6-23 


8 


9 


8 


9 


8 


9 


8 




8 


8 


8 


8 




7 


"7 


8 


Id 


260 


21 




5-79 




















2 














... 


263 


6 




5-70 


5 


6 


6 


6 


6 


'V 


6 




7 


5 


6 


5 




6 


5 


5 


5 


269 


1 




5-51 


1 






























1 




277 


2 


(SI) 


5-24 






3 


1 










3 


2 


2 


• »^ 






2 


2 


2 


287 


5 




4-92 


4 


5 


5 


5 


5 


5 


4 




4 


4 


4 


4 




4 


4 


4 


3 


295 




4 


4-67 










4 










3 


4 




B 


4 




3 


2 


303 


2 


7 


4-42 


3 


1 


3 


3 


6 


5 


4 




4 


5 


7 


5 


4 


6 


4 


4 




314 




3 


4-05 




























3 




2 


... 


322 


5 




3-79 


5 


6 


5 


6 


4 


6 


5 




5 


5 


4 


4 


4d 


5 


4 


4 


3 


333 


1 


6 


3-44 


2 


1 


3 


2 


5 


4 


3 




4 


5 


5 


4 


3 


6 


3 


4 


< 


343 


2 




3-10 


2 


2 




2 


























' 


348 


3 


5 


2-95 


2 


3 


3 


3 


5 


"i 


3 




4 


5 


5 


"i 


3 


"5 


3 


"i 


4 


354 


2 




2-76 


2 










3 






















J 


362 


4 




2-48 


4 


5 


4 


5 


5 


5 


4 




5 


5 


4 




4 


4 


3 


4 




373 


1 


3 


2-12 






2 


2 










3 


2 


3 


4 


2 


2 


2 


2 


■ 


175386 


8 




5701-71 


9 


9 


8 


8 


9 


9 


8 




8 


9 


9 


8 


5 


9 


8 


7 


N 



DR L. BECKER ON THE SOLAR SPECTRUM. 



159 



Osc. Freq. 


Mean 
Intensity. 


\ 


High Sun. 


Low Sun. 


a . 

■J* a 




4 


5 


116 


12a 


7 


9 


136 


23 


27 


31 


32 


38 


39a 


396 


45 


476 


50 




»2 2 


i— < CO o 




30 


44 


38 


47 


37 


37 


36 


21 


36 


31 


30 


28 


30 


30 


30 


36 


35 




+3 ^-1 


0> CD M 




2-7 


1-2 


2-4 


1-9 


16 


11 


9 


13 


20 


25 


23 


11 


26 


23 


18 


16 


12 




O 


3 






































175399 


5 




5701-30 


6 


5 


5 


5 


5 


6 


5 


5 


5 


4 


5 


4 


5 




4 


5 


4 


411 


2 


9 


0-90 


5 


2 


4 


3 


9 


8 


6 


6 


8 


8 


8 


5 


10 




8 


9 


9 


415 




3? 


0-78 






























3 






424 
426 


4 
4 




0-48 
0-39 


4 

4 


} 5 


4c? 


id 


4 


(i 


Urf 


5 


4 


3 


3 


4c? 


3 




3 


3 


3 


433 


1 


21 


5700-17 








2 






















2 


2 


2 


446 


3 




569974 


2 


{•36 


(J 






3 




3 


3 


2 


3 


2 


3 


B 


4 


3 


2 


453 


4 


10 


9-52 


4 


4 


9 


8 


"7 


7 


8 


9 


8 


6 


10 


10 


8 


9 


10 


465 


1 


3 


9-14 






1 










1 








3 




3 




3 




471 




6 


8-93 










*7 


5 


3 


4 


*6 


6 


5 




"7 


6 


4 


6 


5 


477 
482 


}'» 


(5*){ 


8-75 
8-60 


}* 


6 


4 


5 


6 


5 


3 


11 


}* 


5 


5 


4 


5 


5 


4 


5 


U 


486 


5 




8-46 


4 


6 


4 


5 




8 


4 


5 


3 












4 


5 


4 


491 


2 


io 


8-31 


3 








9 


8 


4 


5 


8 


9 


9 


5 


10 


9 


8 


8 


9 


495 


4 




8-16 


3 


4 


4 


3 




4 


2 


4 


4 


3 




3 






3 


3 


3 


504 




idi 


7-92 
7-79 












} 3 




/3 

13 


I 3 


4 


3 




3 


4 




3 


2 


515 


1 


4 


7-51 


2 


i 


2 


"id 


3 


3 


2 


3 


4 


4 


4 


3 


E 


4 


3 


3 


3 


521 


2 


(31) 


7-31 












2 




3 


















2 


527 


1 




7-14 




i 




\m 


f ... 
17 


























532 


1 


8 


6-96 


3 


i 




6 


4 


5 


5 


8 


7 


4 




7 


5 


6 


7 


544 


1 


4 


6-58 






2 




3 






3 


3 


4^ 








3 


3 


2 


3 


555 


4 




6-22 


3 


4 


3 


4 




5 


4 


5 


3 












4 


3 




560 


3 


"*8d 


606 


3 




3 


3 


"7 


5 


4 


5 


6 


8 


"i 


5 




8d 


6 


7 


8 


572 


1 


3 


5-65 


1 




2 




3 






2 


3 


3 


2 


2 




3 


2 


2 


2 


582 


2 




5-35 


1 






"i 
























2 


2 


588 


6 




5-13 


7 


6 


6 


6 


5 


'V 


6 


6 


"7 


6 


5 


5 




5 


5 


5 


5 


595 


4 




4-92 


4 


4 


5 


5 


4 


6 


3 


5 


5 


4 


4 


4 




4 


4 


4 


4 


606 


1 




4-56 
































1 




613 


1 


6 


4-34 


3 


1 


2 


3 


6 


5 


3 


4 


5 


6 


5 


3 




5 


4 


5 


4 


627 
631 


8 


8 


3-89 
3-76 


8 


7 


8 


8 


6 
6 


} 9 


8 


7 


8 


{? 


Ud 


5 




{? 


h 


(? 


5 
5 


635 


1 




3-64 




i 
































643 


2 


4 


3-38 


2 




2 


2 


3 


2 




3 


4 


4 


3 


3 




4 


2 


3 


3 


654 


1 




3-02 


1 






2 




























657 


2 


8 


2-91 


2 


2 


3 


2 


*7 


5 


4 


5 


*6 


"s 


6 


4 




8 


5 


5 


"5 


668 


2 


10 


2-57 


5 


2 


4 


5 


9 


8 


8 


7 


8 


9 


9 


6 




9 


9 


9 


10 


674 


1 


4 


2-35 






2 












3 






2 






3 


4 




692 


3 




1-79 


2 




3 


3 








2 


3 












3 


3 


2 


697 


6 




1-63 


6 


6 


5 


6 


"7 


6 


"7 


6 


7 


5 


5 


6 




5 


6 


6 


5 


707 
714 


2 
2 




1-29 
1-05 


2 
2 


2 
2 


2 


2 
2 










} 3 




2 


3 






(2 
18 


{-3d 


i 


722 




4 


0-81 
















3 














4 


3 


4 


728 


6 


10 


0-62 


6 


6 


6 


'V 


9 


9 


8 


9 


8 


9 


8 


8 




9 


9 


8 


10 


734 




8 


0-42 




... 




1 


8 


5 


3 


4 


6 


8 


6 


4 




7 


5 


6 


7 


745 




5 


5690-07 






*2 




4 


4 


2 


3 


4 


4 


4 


2 




5 


3 


3 


4 


755 


3 


9 


5689-74 


3 


}« 


{* 


\id 


f 8 


7 


5 


6 


7 


4 


7 


5 




8 


5 


7 


9 


760 


3 




9-58 


3 


{... 




3 


3 


3 






4 




2 


3 


4 




772 


1 


4 


9-20 


2 


1 


2 


1 


4 


3 


2 


3 


4 




"i 


3 




4 


3 


4 


3 


786 


2 


6 


8-74 


3 


2 


3 


3 


6 


5 


4 


4 


6 


5 


6 


4 




6 


4 


5 


5 


175797 


9 




5688-38 


10 


9 


9 


9 


9 


9 


9 


9 


9 


9 


9 


8 




9 


8 


8 


9 













































160 



DR L. BECKER ON THE SOLAR SPECTRUM. 



Osc. Freq. 


Mean 

Intensity. 


X 




High 


Sun. 


Low Sun. 


a . 

D 00 

T3 t3 


09 

.2** a 


4 


5 


116 


12a 


7 


9 


136 


23 


27 


31 


32 


38 


396 


45 


476 


50 




Q> £ 


>- (3 O 






































3 -t2 


3 ° .2 




30 


44 


38 


47 


37 


37 


36 


21 


36 


31 


30 


28 


30 


30 


36 


35 




«^ 


» » o 

H .sw 




2-7 


1-2 


2-4 


1-9 


18 


12 


8 


11 


13 


11 


21 


10 


20 


16 


15 


10 




O 


ij 




































175800 


31 




5688-28 
























3 










815 


2 


5 


7-80 






3 






4 


3 


3 


3 






4 


6 


4 


5 


5 


819 


3 


10 


7-66 


5 


3 


4 


"4 


9 


8 


6 


7 


7 


8 


9 


7 


9 


8 


9 


10 


828 


1 




7-38 


























1 








833 


2 




7-21 


2 




2 




1 






2 


2 


2 






3 






3 


839 


3 




7-03 


2 


3 


3 


3 




3 




3 


3 


2 


3 


3 


2 


3 


2 


3 


848 


7 




6-72 


8 


7 


7 


7 


i 6 


8 


8 


8 


8 


7 


7 


7 


7 


8 


8 


7 


855 

859 


3 
4 


5 
(5i) 


6-49 
6-38 


3 
3 


3 
4 


}' 


4 


5 


4 


13 


4 
4 


4 
4 


4 
4 


}* 


4rf 


{1 


}* 


id 


{I 


871 


1 


5 


5-97 


2 


] 


2 




4 


4 


3 


3 


4 


4 


4 


3 


5 


4 


3 


4 


878 


1 




5-76 






























1 




883 


2 


*8 


5-61 


3 




3 


2 


8 


6 


5 


5 


5 


6 


6 


6 


7 


6 


7 


8 


885 




4? 


5 - 55 


























4 








893 


2 


5 


5-28 


2 


2 


2 


2 


5 


4 


3 


4 


*4 


4 


4 


3 


4 


4 


3 


5 


903 


2 




4-96 


1 




2 


2 






















2 


2 


912 


7 




4-66 


8 


*7 


6 


7 


*7 


8 


8 


7 


7 


8 


6 


8 


"7 


'V 


6 


8 


921 


6 




4-37 


6 


6 


5 


6 


5 


7 


6 


6 


6 


6 


5 


6 


5 


5 


5 


5 


931 


3 


9 


4-05 


4 


2 


4d 


3 


9 


8 


7 


7 


7 


8 


8 


8 


8 


8 


8 


10 


942 


3 




3-69 


2 


2 


3 


3 


3 


2 


2 


3 


3 


3 


3 


3 


3 


2 


3 


3 


955 


2 




3-26 


2 


2 


2 


3 




2 




... 


2 


3 




3 


2 


2 


2 


3 


964 




6 


2-98 










6 


3 






3 




5 


3 


5 


4 


5 


5 


968 


8d 




2-84 


9 


8 


id 


*8 


8 


9 


9 


9 


8 


9 


8 


9 


8 


8 


8 


9 


971 


3 




2-74 


3 




4 


4 


























982 


7 




2-41 


7 


6 


6 


6 


8 


7 


8 


7 


7 


7 


"7 


6 


7 


7 


"7 


9 


175995 


2 


8 


1-97 


3 




3 


2 


8 


5 


6 


5 


6 


6 


6 


5 


8 


7 


7 


9 


176002 




3 


1-74 










2 


2 






1 










2 


2 


3 


014 


2 




1-36 


2 


2 


2 


2 








3 


2 


2 


2 




2 


1 


1 


2 


020 


2 




1-16 


2 


2 






















2 


2 




3 


026 


1 


5 


0-98 






2 


2 


5 


4 


2 


3 


"4 


3 


4 


3 


4 


3 


4 


5 


035 


2 




0-68 






3 








1 
















2 


2 


042 


3 




0-45 


3 


3 


3 


3 




4 


3 


4 


4 


4 


3 




3 


2 


3 


4 


053 


2 


5 


5680-10 


2 


2 


2 


3 


5 


4 


3 


3 


4 


4 


4 


"2 


4 


3 


4 


5 


063 


2 


5 


5679-79 


2 


2 






5 


4 


3 


4 


4 


4 


4 


2 


4 


4 


4 


5 


073 


2 




9-48 






2 




















3 




2 




081 


8 




9-21 


8 


8 


7 


7 


*7 


8 


9 


8 


8 


8 


8 


8 


7 


8 


7 


"s" 


094 


2 




8-79 


1 




2 






3 






2 


2 




3 






1 




101 


3 




8-56 


2 


2 


3 


3 




3 


2 


3 


3 


3 


2 




2 


3 


2 


3 


110 


2 




8-27 




3 


1 




























124 


3 




7-83 


2 


3 


3 


3 


2 




3 


4 


3 


3 




3 


3 


"4 


3 


"3 


127 


1 




7-71 
































2 


138 


2 




7-36 




2 


1 






















1 


2 


2 


147 


1 




7-07 


















2 
















151 


2 


8 


6-94 


2 


2 


3 


2 


8 


5 


4 


4 


5 


5 


7 


4 


6 


6 


5 


7 


163 


2 




6-56 




2 


2 


2 


1 




3 


3 


2 




3 


2 


2 


2 


2 


2 


183 


2 




5-90 


2 


2 


2 


1 






2 


3 


3 


2 


2 




2 


2 


3 


2 


193 


8 




5-59 


7 


8 


7 


7 


"7 


8 


7 


8 


7 


8 


8 


8 


8 


8 


7 


8 


202 


2 




5-32 


1 






B 






E 


3 


3 


2 






1 








218 


1 


4 


4-79 


1 


1 


2 




3 


3 






3 


3 


4 


3 


4 




2 


3 


227 
229 


i 


4 
4 


4-49 
4-42 


1 




2 


|: 


3 


{* 


r 


2 


4 


4 


4Z> 


3 


{1 


} 3 


4 


f 4 


176238 


l 


5 


5674-15 




1 


2 


... 


5 


3 




2 


3 


3 


3 




4 


3 


4 


4 



DR L. BECKER ON THE SOLAR SPECTRUM. 



161 



Osc. Freq. 


Mean 
Intensity. 


\ 


H 


gh Sun. 


Low Sun. 


a 


•a . 
h fl S 


4 


5 


116 


7 


9 


23 


27 


28 


31 


32 


38 


396 


45 


476 


50 




*.-§ 


3 o .2 




30 


44 


38 


37 


37 


21 


36 


38 


31 


30 


28 


30 


30 


36 


35 




+3 -M 

A3 


» S ° 




2-8 


1-2 


2-3 


20 


13 


11 


12 


21 


10 


11 


9 


17 


14 


13 


10 







J 


































176257 


2 




5673-54 


1 


1 


2 




1 


2 


1 




2 




3 


2 


1 


1 


2 


264 


2 




3-30 


1 




2 








1 








3 


2 






2 


275 


2 




2-95 


1 


2 








2 














2 


2 




282 


2 




2-71 




2 








2 










2 


2 




2 


2 


294 


2 




2-34 


i 




2 






3 




















302 




4 


2-07 










3 


}* 


4 




4 




3 


fi 


3 


3 


3 


307 


3 




1-93 


3 


3 


4 




3 






4 


3 


3 


318 


2 


4 


1-58 


2 


2 


3 


3 


3 


4 


3 




3 


4 


3 


4 


3 


2 


3 


337 


5 




0-97 


4 


5 


5 


4 


4 


5 


5 




5 


4 


4 


4 


5 


4 


4 


351 


2 


5 


0-50 


2 


1 


3 


4 


3 


3 


3 




3 




3 


4 


3 


3 


4 


358 


1 




0-27 






























2 


365 


4 




5670-06 


4 


4 


4 


4 


4 


5 


4 




4 


5 


5 


4 


4 


3 


5 


372 


4 




5669-84 


4 


4 


4 


4 


4 


5 


4 




4 


5 


5 


4 


4 


3 


5 


380 


2 




9-56 






2 






















2 


2 


393 


6 




915 


6 


6 


5 


6 


7 


6 


6 




5 


5 


5 


6 


*7 


5 


7 


407 




3 


8-70 














2 






3 




3 




1 




414 


3 




8-49 


2 


3 


3 




2 


3 


3 




3 


3 


3 


2 


3 


Ll 


3 


422 


2 




8-22 


1 


2 


2 
























3 


431 


1 


3 


7-94 




1 




3 


2 












2 


2 


2 


3 


2 


440 


7 




7-63 


8 


8 


'V 


7 


7 


"7 


"7 




7 


6 


6 


6 


7 


5 


6 


451 


5 




7-29 


5 


5 


5 


5 


6 


5 


6 




6 


5 


5 


5 


6 


4 


5 


457 


2 




7-10 
























3 






2 


466 


5d 


••{ 


6-84 
6-79 


4 
4 


}'• 


5 


5 


5 


5 


6 




4 


5 


5 


5 


6 


4 


5 


479 


2 




6-39 


2 


2 










2 




2 




2 




1 


1 


2 


490 


2 


4 


6-03 


2 


2 


3 


4 


3 


3 


3 




3 


4 


3 


4 


3 


3 


4 


501 


6 




5-68 


5 


6 


6 


6 


7 


6 


7 




8 


6 


7 


6 


6 


5 


7 


515 


2 




5-25 


2 


2 


2 






3 


3 




O 

£1 


3 


3 


2 


1 


2 


2 


532 


3 




4-69 


2 


3 


3 




2 


3 


3 




3 


3 


3 


2 


3 


2 


3 


539 


2 




4-48 


























2 




3 


549 


7 




4-15 


7 


7 


6 


6 


7 


7 


7 




8 


7 


7 


6 


6 


5 


7 


556 


2 




3-93 


2 












3 








3 










565 


2 




3-63 


2 


1 














3 




3 


1 


2 


3 


2 


573 


2 




3-38 


1 




2 
















2 




2 




2 


582 


7 




3-09 


6 


7 


6 


7 


8 


"7 


7 




8 


8 


6 


6 


6 


5 


6 


585 


2? 




2-99 
















B 














2 


595 


9 




2-68 


9 


9 


8 


8 


9 


9 


8 


8 


9 


9 


8 


8 


8 


8 


8 


607 


4 




2-31 


4 


4 


4 


4 


4 


4 


4 


4 


5 


4 


4 


5 


4 


4 


4 


610 


1 




2-21 






























2 


619 


2 




1-92 


2 




2 
















3 




1 


3 


2 


631 


5 




1-53 


4 


5 


5 


4 


5 


5 


5 


5 


5 




4 


5 


4 


4 


4 


641 


2 




1-22 


1 




2 








2 




4 








1 


2 


2 


648 


4 




0-96 


3 


4 


4 


4 


4 


5 


4 


4 


4 




"i 


4 


4 


5 


4 


654 
659 


4 
4 




0-78 
0-61 


3 
3 


4 
4 


4 

4 


V 


{* 


4 
4 


4 
3 


4 
4 


}« 




4 


4 


4 


5 


4 


673 


3 




5660-17 


2 


2 


2 






3 


2 


3 


2 




2 


2 


2 


2 


3 


687 


5 




5659-73 


4 


4 


5 


"4 


5 


5 


4 


5 


5 




4 


4 


5 


4 


4 


700 


2 




933 


2 




2 










1 










2 


2 


3 


708 


9 




9-04 


10 


9 


8 


i' 


}6& 


9 


8 


8 


8 


}• 


f*8 


8 


7 


7 


7 


715 


5 




8-82 


3 


6 


5 


5 


5 


5 


5 


U 


U 


4 


4 


5 


176721 


6 




5658-65 


5 


6 


6 


6 


5 


5 


6 


5 


5 


7 


5 


5 


6 


5 


6 



162 



DR L. BECKER ON THE SOLAR SPECTRUM. 



Osc. Freq. 


Mean 
Intensity. 


\ 


High Sun. 


Low Sun. 


E 

r3 o 




4 


5 


lift 


7 


9 


23 


27 


28 


31 


32 


38 


39ft 


45 


47ft 


50 




o-a 


' E i=i 3 




































W| 


3 o .2 




30 


44 


38 


37 


37 


21 


36 


38 


31 


30 


28 


30 


30 


36 


35 






►3 




2-8 


1-2 


2-2 


22 


14 


10 


10 


21 


10 


9 


8 


15 


14 


12 


9 


176727 


4 




5658-46 


4 


5 


5 


5 


4 


5 


4 


4 


4 


5 


5 


4 


4 


4 


4 


733 


1 




8-27 
















2 
















741 


8 




7-99 


8 


"i 


8 


"7 


8 


8 


8 


7 


8 


*8 


8 


8 


8 




8 


"7 


754 


3 




7-58 


E 


2 


3 


2 


1 


3 


3 


2 


2 


E 


E 


3 


2 




:b 


3 


766 


2 




7-20 
























2 


2 






2 


776 


2 




6-89 




2 


2 








2 


2 










6 






16 


792 


2 




637 




2 


2 






1 


2 










1 










799 


1 




6-13 






2 




















2 






1 


813 


7 




5-70 




8 


7 


7 


8 


*8 


6 


7 


7 






7 


8 






7 


823 


6 




5-38 




6 


6 


6 


7 


7 


6 


5 


6 






6 


7 






7 


829 


4 




5-18 




4 


4 




4 


4 


4 


3 


4 






4 


3 






4 


841 
844 


4 
4 




4-79 
4-70 




1 46 


{1 


}• 


46 


{1 


4 
4 


h 


4d 






46 


{1 






4 
4 


851 


1 




4-47 
































1 


864 


6 




4-08 




6 


6 


6 


"7 


6 


'V 


5 


6 






6 


6 






6 


872 


3 




3-82 




2 








3 


3 










3 










884 


2 




3-42 






2 










2 


2 








2 






2 


892 


2 




3-16 




2 










3 


1 
















2 


899 


2 




2-94 






2 






2 












2 


2 






2 


912 


6 




2-54 




5 


5 


6 


"7 


6 


5 


5 


5 






6 


6 






5 


922 


2 




2-23 




2 


1 


























3 


928 


2 


(sV) 


2-01 














3 


1 
















2 


938 


5 




1-71 




5 


5 


4 


6 


6 


5 


5 


5 






5 


5 






5 


943 


2 




1-55 
































2 


953 


2 




1-21 




2 












2 










2 






2 


962 


6 




0-93 




6 


6 


6 


7 


*7 


5 


5 


*7 






6 


6 






6 


970 


2 




0-67 




3 


1 








3 


2 










2 






2 


977 


2? 




0-45 
































2 


986 


5 




5650-18 




5 


6 


5 


6 


5 


5 


4 


6 






5 


6 






6 


176994 


5 




5649-91 




5 


6 


5 


6 


5 


5 


4 


6 






5 


6 






6 


177004 


3 




9-60 




3 


3 


4 


3 


4 


4 


2 


4 






3 


2 






3 


013 


4 




9-29 




3 


4 




3 


4 


4 


3 


3 






3 


3 






3 


029 


4 




8-78 




3 


4 




3 


4 


4 


3 


4 






3 


3 






4 


039 


3 




8-48 




3 


3 




1 


3 


4 


2 


2 






3 


2 






3 


053 


3 




8-02 




2 


2 




1 


2 


3 


3 


2 






2 


3 






3 


066 


2 




7-61 






2 








3 










2 










074 


4 




7-37 




"i 


4 




4 


5 


4 


4 


4 






4 


4 






4 


084 


1 




7-03 
































2 


090 


4 




6-85 




3 


4 




3 


4 


4 


3 


3 






*4 


3 






4 


103 


2 




6-42 


\- 






























(i 










2 


3 




2 


2 


2 


2 


2 






2 


2 






107 


2 




6-30 


i 






























118 


4 




5-95 




4 


4 




3 


4 


4 


2 


3 






3 


3 






4 


124 


6 




5-76 




6 


6 


66 


6 


6 


6 


5 


6 






5 


6 






6 


139 
145 


3 
3 




5-30 
5-10 


}■•• 


2 


3 




2 


{1 


} 1 


3 


3 






3d 


3 






{1 


157 


2 




4-71 




1 


3 


























2 


165 


2 




4-47 






2 






3 














2 








170 


6 




4-31 




~7 


5 


I 6 


{] 


6 


6 


5 


6 


|: 




Qd 


{I 






5 


175 


5 




413 




5 


5 


4 


5 


4 


5 








5 


191 


3 




3-62 




2 


3 






3 


2 


3 


2 






2 


2 






3 


177197 


2? 




5643-44 
































2 



DR L. BECKER ON THE SOLAR SPECTRUM. 



163 



Osc. Freq. 


Mean 
Intensity. 


A. 


High Sun. 


Low Sun. 


S . 

■j-t <D 


Uuric 
on the 
rizon. 


5 

U 


116 

38 


7 
37 


9 
37 


23 
21 


27 
36 


28 
38 


31 
31 


396 
3 


42 
39 


45 
30 


50 
35 




-^ "^ 


<D M o 






























A^ 


H gffi 




1-2 


2-1 


25 


15 


9 


10 


19 


9 


13 


23 


14 


8 







3 




























177204 


4 




5643-22 


4 


5 




4 


5 


5 


4 


4 


4 




4 


3 


214 


3 




2-91 


3 


4 




3 


4 


4 


3 


3 


3 




3 


3 


225 


3 




2-55 


2 


3 




3 


3 


3 


2 


2 


3 




2 


3 


227 


2 % 




2-49 












2 








E 






242 


5 




2-01 


5 


5 


4 


6 


5 


6 


4 


5 


5 


5 


5 


4 


255 


8 




1-58 


8 


7 


7 


8 


8 


8 


7 


8 


8 


8 


8 


8 


270 


M 




111 


6 


6 


5 


7 


6 


7 


5cZ 


6tf 


6 


5 


5 


6 


279 


2 




0-82 




1 








2 






2 




3 


2 


292 


5 




0-43 


4 


5 




5 


5 


5 


5 


4 


5 


3 


4 


5 


297 


3? 




5640-27 






















3 




308 


2 




5639-90 


1 


2 






1 






2 


... 


2 




2 


313 


1 




9-74 
























2 


322 


3 




9-47 


3 


3 






3 


4 


2 


3 


3 


3 


3 


2 


336 


2 




9-01 














2 










3 


341 


3 




8-86 


3 


3 




4 


4 


4 


3 


3 


3 


3 


3 


2 


356 


8 




8-39 


9 


8 




9 


8 


9 


8 


8 


8 


8 


7 


8 


360 


2 




8-26 






















4 


1 


366 


1 




8-07 
















2 










373 


3 




7-85 




2 






3 


3 




2 


2 


2 


3 


3 


382 


7 




7-55 


6 


7 




6 


7 


7 


5 


6 


5 


5 


6 


6 


390 


6 




7-30 


6 


6 




6 


6 


6 


5 1 


5 


5 


5 


5 


5 


405 


5 




6-82 


5 


5 




5 


6 


5 


4 ! 


5 


5 


4 


4 


4 


420 


3 




6-36 


3 


3 




3 


3 


3 




3 


3 


3 


3 


3 


433 


6 




5-93 


6 


6 




7 


6 


6 


5 


6 


6 


5 


6 


5 


447 


2 




5-48 


1 


3 






2 


3 






3 


2 




2 


455 


3d 




5-22 


•2d 


3 




1 


2 


3 




2 


3 


2 


2 


2 


474 


2 




4-62 


2 


2 






6 






6 


2 


2 


2 


2 


482 


2 


(2'?) 


4-37 










2 


2 




1 




2 




2 


493 


8 




4-02 


7 


8 




8 


8 


8 


8 


8 


8 


8 


7 


7 


496 


3? 




3-93 






















3 


B 


512 


2 




3-43 


2 


3 
















2 






518 


2 


(3*) 


3-23 










2 


2 




1 


2 


2 


2 




538 


2 




2-59 


2 


2 






2 


2 




2 


2 


2 


2 




559 
562 


3 
3 




1-94 

1-84 


I 3d 


4cZ 




3 


M 
U 


} 3 




2 


13 
13 


} 3 


3 




576 


2 




1-38 


2 


i 3 








2 




E 




2d 






580 


2 




1-27 


2 


J 






















588 


2 


(2"l) 


1-02 










2 








2 


2 


2 




608 


2 




0-39 


2 


2 






2 


2 






2 


2 






618 


1 




5630-06 


1 










1 






2 


2 


lb 




636 


1 




5629-49 


1 


3 








1 














645 


2 




9-22 




3 






3 


2 






1 


2 


1 




659 


4 




8-77 


4 


4 




4 


5 


4 






4 


4 


4 




667 


4 




8-50 


4 


4 




4 


5 


4 






4 


4 


4 




679 


2 




8-12 


2 


2 






3 


3 










3 




689 


5 




7-80 


4 


5 




5 


5 


5 






5 


\5d 


( 4 




693 


4 




7-67 


3 


4 




4 


3 


3 






3 


1 4 




709 


2 




7-17 


2 


2 






2 


3 






2 


2 


3 




718 


2 




6-88 


2 


3 






2 


3 






2 


2 


2 




740 


2 




6-19 


2 


3 






2 


2 






1 


2 


o 




177752 


id 


:.{ 


5-87 
5625-77 


\* 


u 




f' 


5 


5 






5 


4 


4 





VOL. XXXVI. PART I. (NO. 6). 



2 c 



104 



DR L. BECKER ON THE SOLAR SPECTRUM. 



Osc. Frcq. 


Mean 

Intensity. 


X 




High Sun 






Low Sun. 


E 

•^ a; 




3 

58 


5 
44 


8b 
58 


9 

40 


rift 

38 


9 
37 


10 

39 


23 

21 


27 
36 


28 
38 


396 
30 


42 
39 


45 
30 




9* 






1-3 


1-2 : 


L-3 


1-7 


2-0 


„ 


9 


9 


9 


16 


12 


20 


14 


177763 


6 




5625-46 




6 






6 


6 




6 


6 




6 


5 


6 


771 


2 




5-20 




1 






















3 


777 


2 




5-01 




1 






2 






3 


2 




3 




2 


787 


9 




4-70 




9 






9 


10 




9 


10 


9 


9 


9 


8 


790 


il 




4-61 


























4 


804 


7 




4-18 




6 






7 


8 




6 


7 




6 


6 


6 


818 


2 




3-72 




2 






3 






3 


1 




2 


2 


2 


837 


3 




3-12 




3 






4 


2 




3 


3 




3 


3 


3 


842 


3 




2-96 










3 














3 


3 


859 


3 




2-42 




2 






3 


2 




3 


3 




3 


2 


3 


879 


3 




1-80 




2 






4 


3 




3 


4 




3 


3 


3 


889 


3 




1-47 




2 






3 


2 




3 


3 




3 


3 


2 


899 


1 




1-18 










2 


















916 


M 




064 




5 






5d 


6 




6 


6 


5 


6 


5 


u 


930 


3 




5620-20 




3 






3 


2 




4 


4 




4 


3 


3 


943 


6 




5619-77 




5 






6 


6 




6 


6 


5 


6 


5 


5 


952 


2 




9-48 




2 






3 






3 


3 




3 






957 


2 




9-33 










2 














3 


2 


973 


7 




8-82 




6 






7 


7 




6 


"7 


6 


"7 


6 


6 


982 


1 




8-55 




1 
























177994 


3 




8-16 




2 






•3 


3 




3 


3 




V 36 


ii 




178001 


3 




7-96 




2 






3 


3 














019 
021 


5 
5 




7-38 
7-31 


}» 


5 






(5 
(5 


}' 




M 


6 


5 


5 


M 


5 


036 


2 




6-83 




1 






2 






2 


2 




2 


2 


2 


050 


2 




6-41 




1 


E 




2 








2 




2 


2 


2 


062 


3 




6-01 


B 




5 


B 


2 




B 










4 


2 


068 


lltZ 




5-82 


10 


11 


12 


11 


10 


12 


10 


10 


10 


10 


11 


9 


104 


072 


4 




5-69 






5 


2t 
















4 




080 


7 




5-44 


8 


"i 


8 


8 


"7 


8 


"7 


7 


7 


6 


6 


7 


7 


088 


2 




5-20 








2 


2 
















2 


098 


6 




4-89 


"l 


6 


6 


6 


6 


"7 


7 


6 


6 


5 


5 


5 


5 


113 


4 




4-41 


5 


3 


5 


3 


4 


4 


4 


4 


4 


E 


4 


4 


4 


121 


1 




4-15 








2 


















B 


131 


3 




3-83 


2 


2 


3 


3 


3 






2 


3 




2 


2 




146 


2 




3-37 




2 




2 










3 






2 




157 


2 




3-04 




2 


3 


2 


3 


















170 


2 




2-62 


2 






2 


3 


















175 


3 




2-45 


3 


2 


3d 


3 




2 


2 


3 


3 




2 


2 




189 


2 




2-00 








2 


3 


















196 


3 




1-79 


3 


2 


3 


3 


3 


3 




3 


3 










205 


4 




150 


4 


3 


4 


4 


4 


3 


3 


4 


3 




3 


3 




218 


1 




110 








1 




















224 


2 




0-90 


2 


i 


2 


2 


3 


2 






2 










242 


3 




0-36 


3 


2 


3 


3 


3 


2 




3 


3 




2 


3 




252 


3 




5610-04 


3 


2 


3 


3 








3 


3 










261 


2 




5609-74 






3 


2 


3 


2 




1 








2 




275 


1 




9-32 








2 










2 










281 


4 




9 11 


4 


3 


4 


4 


4 


3 


4 


4 


4 




3 


3 




295 


1 




8-67 








2 




















178305 


3rf{ 




8-42 

5608-30 


f' 


2 


3 


1 3 
t 3 


}' 3 






3 


3 




2 


2 





DR L. BECKER ON THE SOLAR SPECTRUM. 



165 



Osc. Freq. 


Mean 
Intensity. 


A. 


High Sun. 


Low Sun. 


a 

.3 M 


|§.2 


3 

58 


5 

44 


86 
58 


9 

40 


116 

38 


7 
37 


9 
37 


10 
39 


23 
21 


27 
36 


396 
30 


42 
39 


43 
34 




■+J +3 


^ SlS 
































68 Za 


3 




1-3 


1-2 


1-3 


1-7 


2-0 


26 


17 


9 


8 


8 


11 


18 


37 


178322 


4 




5607-82 


4 


3 


4 


5 


4 




3 


4 


4 


4 


4 


4 




329 


2 




7-60 








2 




















341 


3 




7-24 


3 


2d 


2 


3 


3 




1 




3 


3 


3 


2 




347 


2 




7-06 








2 




















359 


2 




6 67 






2 


2 


2 














2 




374 


3 




6-19 


3 


2 


3 


3 


3 








3 


3 


2 






380 


3 




6-02 




2 




3 


3 


















393 


2 




5-60 




1 




2 


3 










2 








408 


3 




5-14 


2 


2 


3 


3 


2 








3 


2 


2 


2 




422 


2 




4-70 




2 


2 


2 


2 


















432 


2 




4-38 


2 






2 


2 










2 




1 




446 


4 




3-93 


5 


4 


4 


4 


4 




4 


5 


5 


5 


4 


4 




454 


1 




3-68 








2 




















462 


2 




3-42 








2 


2 
















B 


472 


9 




3-12 


9 


9 


10 


10 


9 


}H 


(l 


9 


9 


9 


9 


9 


j-lOd 


478 


9 




2-94 


9 


9 


10 


10 


9 


9 


9 


9 


9 


9 


485 


2 




270 


3 


E 




2 


B 








E 


E 


2 






494 


1 




2-44 






1 


1 




















501 


2 




2-22 






2 


2 
















2 




509 


3 




1-96 


4 




3 


4 






3 


3 






3 


3 


3 


525 


9 




1-46 


9 




9 


9 




9 


9 


9 






9 


9 


6 


532 


3 




1-23 


1 




2 


4 




















541 


2 




0-95 


1 






3 














i 36 


2 




545 


2 




0-84 








3 
















558 


5 




0-44 


5 




5 


6 




}'• 


{S 


6 






5 


5 


Ud 


565 


5 




5600-20 


5 




5 


6 




6 






5 


5 


576 


2 




5599-86 


" 




' 2 


2 














3 






578 


2 




9-78 


- 2b 




* "2 


2 




















590 


2 




9-42 




2 














3 


2 


3 


602 


2 




9-05 1 








2 














3 


2 




614 


9 




8-67 


8 




9 


9 




}» 


9 


8 






9 


8 


j-8d 


621 


8 




8-45 


7 




8 


8 




8 


7 






8 


8 


635 


2 




8-00 


3 




2 


2 














2 






641 


2 




7-81 


3 


























647 


2 




7-63 


2 




2 


2 
















2 




659 


2 




7-24 


2 




2 


2 














2 


2 


1 


675 


1 




6-74 








2 




















686 


2 




6-42 


2 




2 


2 














2 


2 




692 


1 




6-21 


1 






2 
















2 




707 


1 




5-75 


1 






2 
















1 




724 


2 




5-22 


3 




2 


3 








1 






2 


3 




735 


7 




4-87 


7 




7 


7 




}» 


8 


6 






7 


7 


}* 


742 


9 




4-66 


9 




9 


10 




9 


8 






9 


9 


754 


2 




4-27 






2 
















2 


3 




765 


6 




3-94 


6 




6 


6 




6 


7 


6 






5 


5 


5 


775 


1 




3-62 








1 




















780 


2 




3-46 


3 




2 


2 














2 


2 


... 


791 


2 




3-12 i 








2 


















3 


800 


3 




2-84 


3 




2 


2 






3 


1 




... 


3 


3 




813 

178816 


7 
6 




2-45 
5592-36 


7 
6 




6 
6 


7 
6 




M 


\l 


8 
5 






7 
5 


7 
7 


}' 



166 



DR L. BECKER ON THE SOLAR SPECTRUM. 



Osc. Freq. 


Mean 
Intensity. 


X 


High Sun. 


Low Sun. 


2 en 

r3 ~& 

o 


Telluric 

Lines on the 

Horizon. 


3 

58 
1-3 


8& 
58 
1-3 


9 

40 
1-7 


7 

37 
27 


9 

37 
18 


10 

39 

9 


35 
33 
24 


39 & 
30 
10 


42 
39 
16 


43 

34 
35 


178825 


2 




5592-05 


2 




2 
















840 


3 




1-60 


3 


2 


3 






3 




3 


2 


3 


848 


2 




1-36 i 




3 


2 
















860 
863 


3 
3 




0-96 

0-88 


1 3d 


3d 


U 


>::: 


3 


4 




{'} 


f 3 


3 


873 


1 




0-56 






1 
















882 


8 




0-27 


8 


8 


8 


9 


9 


9 




8 


8 


8 


890 


4 




5590-02 


4 


4 


4 




3 


3 




4 


4 




898 


1 




5589-79 






2 
















905 


5 




9-56 


5 


5 


5 




4 


5 




5 


5 


4 


919 


2 




9-12 






2 












2 




925 


10 




8-92 


9 


10 


11 


10 


10 


10 




10 


10 


9 


936 


2 




8-60 






2 
















945 


1 




8-31 


2 


1 


2 












1 




955 


6 




8-01 


6 


6 


5 


6 


"7 


6 




6 


6 


5 


964 


5 




7-71 


5 


6 


5 


6 


6 


5 




5 


5 


4 


973 


1 




7-44 






2 










2 






982 


3 




7-16 






2 












4 




178990 


11 




6 90 


11 


12 


12 


11 


12 


10 




11 


11 


11 


179003 


2 




6-49 


3 


3 


2 










2 


2 




014 


1 




6-15 






2 






1 










022 


2 




5-90 


2 


3 


2 










2 


2 


2 


043 


3 




5-25 


2 


3 


2 


4 









3 


2 


3 


055 


6 




4-89 


6 


6 


5 


5 


6 


6 




6 


5 


5 


062 


2 




4-65 






2 












2 




078 


3 




4-17 


3 


3 


3 






2 




3 


3 


2 


092 


2 




3-71 


2 


2 


2 




1 




.. 


2 


2 




101 


1 




3-44 






2 
















111 


2 




3-12 


3 


2 


2 




1 


1 




2 


2 


2 


118 


2 




2-92 


3 


2 


2 
















135 


2 




2-38 


2 


2 


2 








B 




2 




144 


9 




2-12 


8 


8 


10 


9 


9 


9 


8 


9 


10 


9 


146 


2 




2-05 






2 
















1 160 


1 




1-59 
















2 


2 




171 


2 




1-26 


2 


2 


2 








1 






2 


190 


2 




0-68 


2 


2 


2 








2 


2 


2 




198 


2 




5580-42 




2 


2 
















212 


2 




5579-99 




2 


2 












2 


2 


229 


3 




9-47 


4 


3 


3 




3 


3 


3 


3 


3 


2 


234 


1 




9-29 






2 
















249 


7 




8-82 


8 


7 


7 


7 


8 


7 


6 


7 


7 


7 


257 


2 




8-58 


2 




2 




3 






1 






267 


2 




8-26 




2d 


2 








2 




2d 




285 


1 




7-72 


1 


2 














2 




294 


3 




7-42 


2 


2 


2 






2 


3 


2 


3 




303 


4 




7-14 


3 


3 


4 




4 


3 




4 


4 


"i 


313 


2 




6-83 




2 


2 
















319 


1 




6-64 






2 
















333 


9 




6-22 


"9 


9 


10 


11 


10 


9 


9 


9 


10 


9 


344 


2 




5-88 


1 


2 


2 




4 




1 








L 79355 




3 


5575-53 














2 




2 


3 



DR L. BECKER ON THE SOLAR SPECTRUM. 



167 



Osc. Freq. 


Mean 
Intensity. 


* 


High Sun. 


Low Sun. 


a 

.2 « 




Telluric 

Lines on the 

Horizon. 


3 

58 
1-3 


86 
58 
1-3 


9 
40 
1-7 


7 

37 
30 


9 

37 
19 


10 
39 

10 


35 

• 33 

24 


395 

30 
9 


42 
39 
15 


43 
34 
33 


179365 


2 




5575-21 


2 


2 


2 










2 






370 


2 




5-07 




2 


2 












2 




388 


3 




4-50 


2 


3 


2 




2 


2 


2 


2 


2 


2 


405 


1 




3-98 






2d 
















412 


3 




3-75 


2 


3 


2 




2 


3 


3 


2 


2 


3 


427 


6 




3-29 


6 


6 


6 


"7 


7 


5 


7 


6 


7 


6 


437 


10 




2-98 


10 


10 


12 


12 


10 


9 


10 


9 


11 


10 


444 


4 




2-78 










5 




2 


4 






459 


2 




231 


2 


3 


2 






i 




2 


2 




466 


2 




2-09 


2 




2 
















474 


2 




1-83 


2 




2 








2 








486 


2 




1-48 




2 


2 






1 




2 


2 


2 


492 


1 




1-29 




2 














2 




506 


2 




0-85 


2 




2 






2 




2 






514 


3 




0-58 


2 


2 


2 






2 


3 


2 


2 


3 


524 


2 




0-30 




2 


3 












2 




530 


1 




5570-11 






2 
















541 


10 




5569-76 


10 


10 


11 


10 


10 


9 


9 


io 


10 


10 


556 


1 




9-29 






1 










2 


2 




564 


3 




9-06 


3 


3 


4 




2 


3 


3 


3 


3 


3 


574 


2 




8-75 






3 










2 






585 


2 




8-40 


3 


2 


2 






2 




2 






591 


2 




8-22 






3 




2 






2 


3 




600 


3 




7-92 


3 


2 


3 




3 


2 


3 


2 


3 


2 


612 


7 




7-56 


7 


7 


7 


6 


8 


8 


7 


5 


7 


7 


615 


4 




7-46 


4 


4 


4 










4 


4 




627 


2 




7-08 






3 
















633 


3 




6-92 


3 


3 


4 




2 


3 


3 


3 


4 


3 


648 


2? 




6-43 






3 
















656 


4 




6-20 


4 


4 


5 


4 


4 


4 


4 


4 


5 




668 


8 




5-83 


8 


8 


7 


8 


9 


8 


8 


8 


9 


9 


674 


4 




5-62 


4 


4 


4 




4 


4 


3 


4 


4 




685 


1 




5-30 






2 
















693 


2 




5 06 


1 


2 


2 






2 


2 


2 


2 


2 


707 


2 




4-61 




2 


2 






2 


1 


2 


2 


2 


715 


2cZ 


: { 


4-40 
4-35 


2 
2 


}••• 


2 








2 


2 






722 


2 




4-15 


2 


2 


1 












1 




735 


8 




3-73 


9 


8 


9 


8 


9 


9 


8 


8 


9 


"7 


744 


2 




3-48 


2 




2 








2 


3 




... 


753 


2 




3-20 






2 










2 


2 


2 


758 


2? 




3-04 


















2 


... 


764 


7 




2-84 


"i 


"7 


V 


7 


*7 


"7 


"7 


6 


8 


6 


777 


2 




2-45 


2 


3 


2 






• « . 




E 






782 


2 




2-28 


3 




3 






2 


3 




2 




797 


2 




1-83 


2 


2 


3 




2 


2 






2 


2 


812 


3 




1-37 


3 


3 


3 




2 


3 


3 




3 


2 


823 


1 




102 






2 
















828 


2 




0-87 


2 


2 


2 








2 




2 




845 


7 




036 


7 


7 


7 


6 


7 


7 


6 




8 


6 


179856 


2 




5560-02 


2 


2 


3 

















168 



DR L. BECKER ON THE SOLAR SPECTRUM. 



Osc. Freq. 


Mean 
Intensity. 


X 


High Sun. 




] 


jow Sun. 








a . 

•2 3 

o 


O 

Pom 

H .sw 
►J 


3 

58 
1-3 


8& 
58 
1-3 


9 
40 
1-6 


7 
37 
32 


9 

37 

20 


10 
39 
10 


12 

46 

9 


35 
33 
22 


42 
39 
13 


43 
34 
31 


179862 


3 




5559-83 


3 


3 


4 




4 


3 




3 


3 


2 


879 


3 




9-29 


2 


3 


3 




4 


2 




2 


2 




889 


2 




8-99 


2 


2 


3 






2 




3 


2 


2 


905 


1 




8-49 




1 


2 












2 




918 


7 




8-09 


8 


7 


7 


8 


9 


8 




7 


7 


6 


934 


3 




7-60 


3 


3 


3 






2 




2 


2 




947 


Sd 




7-18 


3 


3d 


4 




3 


3 




3 


3 


3 


957 


1 




6-89 






2 
















969 
975 


2 
2 




6-50 
6-32 


"!} 


9 


{S 


>::: 




2 




2 


2 


3 


179990 


3 




5-86 


3 


3 


3 




3 


3 




3 


3 


3 


180005 


1 




5-41 






2 








B 








016 


9 




505 


9 


9 


9 


9 


10 


9 


9 


9 


9 


9 


033 


2 




4-53 


2 


2 


2 






1 


2 


2 




3 


041 


2 




4-29 


b 


2 


2 












2 




044 


2 




4-20 


2 




2 
















056 
059 


5 

6 




3-82 
3-74, 


6 
6 


5 
6 


5 
5 


l'" 

(•■• 


8 


Id 


{"S 


j- 7d 


{"J 


\] 


072 


3 




3-33 


3 


3 


3 






2 


2 


3 


3 




081 


2 




3-06 






3 














2 


089 


3 




2-81 


3 


3 


4 






3 


3 


3 


3 




102 


2 




2-41 ! 


2 


2 


3 














2 


110 


3 




2-17 


3 


3 


3 




1 




"zb 


3 




b 


117 


2 




1-94 




3 


2 




1 


2 






3 




124 


2 




1-73 


2 




2 






2 




3 


3 


2 


144 


2 




1-12 


2d 


2 


2 










26 


2 




153 


1 




0-84 




1 


2 
















161 


2 




0-60 






2 










• . • 


2 




177 


4 




5550-10 


4 


4 


4 




3 


3 


3 


4 


4 


3 


187 


4 




5549-80 


4 


4 


4 




3 


3 


3 


4 


4 


3 


202 


2 




9-33 


2 


2 


2 










2 


3 




222 


2 


3 


8-72 , 






2 






1 


2 

? 


3 




26 


232 


2 




8-41 


3 


2d 


2 






1 


3 


3 




251 


2 




7-83 


3 


2 


2 












3 


2 


262 


1 




7-47 




1 


2 
















274 


5 




7-11 


6 


5 


5 


6 


5 


5 


5 


6 


5 


6 


291 


7 




6-60 


7 


6 


7 


7 


7 


7 


7 


7 


8 


7 


303 


2 




6-23 






2 
















307 


3 




6-10 


3 


3d 


3 




3 


4 


3 


4 


4 


4 


320 


1 




5-69 






2 
















328 


2 




5-46 


2 




2 






2 


2 


3 




3 


337 


1 




5-181 




1 


2 
















351 


3 




4-74 


3 


2 


3 




3 


4 


3 


4 


3 


3 


365 


1 




4-32 




1 


1 
















373 


7 




4-07 


8 


6 


7 


8 


8 


8 


'V 


8 


*7 


7 


385 


2 




3-70 














1 




3 




397 


7 




3-34 


7 


6 


V 


8 


8 


8 


7 


"7 


7 


"7 


401 


4 




3-19 


3 


4 


4 




3 


4 


3 


4 


5 




423 


2 




2-52 


2 


2 


2 










3* 


2 


2 


445 


2 




1-85 


2 




2 




1 






2 


2 


180456 


1 




5541-51 




2 



















DR L. BECKER ON THE SOLAR SPECTRUM. 



169 



Osr. Freq. 


Mean 
Intensity. 


A 


High Sun. 


Low Sun. 


S . 

3 CO 

S.-B 

+J « — 1 

O 


CD 

|gj 

rn m o 

3 


3 

58 
1-3 


8S 
58 
1-3 


9 
40 
1-6 i 


10 
50 
2-0 


7 
37 
35 


9 
37 
22 


10 
39 
11 


12 

46 
10 


35 
33 

20 


376 
32 
26 


40& 
40 
21 


42 
39 
11 


43 

34 
30 


180475 


3 




5540-94 


3 


3 


2 






1 


M 


1 


3 






3 


3 


487 


2 






0-57 


2 


3 


2 












3 






2 


3 


504 


2 






5540-03 


2 




2 






















509 


3 






5539-89 


4 


3 


3 






3 


4 


2 


4 






3 


3 


526 


5 






9-38 


5 


4 


5 






4 


5 


4 


5 






5 


4 


535 


1 






9-09 


2 




1 








> • > 




2 










548 


6 






8-68 


8 


6 


6 




6 


6 


6 


5 


7 






6 


6 


556 


1 






8-45 


2 




1 












2 










571 

574 


5 
5 






7-99 
7-89 


}* 


{1 


}* 




6 


5 


5d 


U 


hd 






5d 


6 


584 


1 






7-60 






1 






















596 


3 






7-23 


4 


2 


3 








2 


2 


3 






3 


2 


611 


3 






6-75 


4 


3 


3 








2 


3 


4 






3 




621 


2 






6-44 






3 








2 




3 








3 


629 


3 






6-21 


3 


2 


3 








2 


3 


4 


E 




2 


3 


645 
650 


5 

8 






5-72 

5-58 


5 

7 


5 

8 


5 

8 




}S 


9 


8d 


9 


{! 


i 8d 




(5 
18 


Ud 


658 


3 






5-33 


3 




3 












3 










669 


7 






4-98 


7 


7 


6 




"7 


V 


'V 


7 


7 


5 




'V 


"7 


675 


4 






4-80 


3 


3 


4 












4 






4 




688 


3 






4-41 


3 


3 


2 








1 


3 


3 


3 


... 


2 


3 


692 


3? 






4-29 






3 






















711 


3 






3-71 


2 


3 


2 






3 


1 


3 


3 


3 




4 


3 


716 


2 






3-53 


2 




2 


















6 




734 
738 


4 
6 






300 
2-86 


4 
5 


4 
6 


1 5d 




7 


7 


7d 


8 


{I 


\m 




{^ 


[' 


756 
761 


3 

4 






2-32 
2-15 


2 
4 


3 

4 


2 
4 




} : 


46 


2b 


U 


il 


j>36 




i ... 
15 


4 


772 


2 






1-82 


1 




2 












3 










783 


2 






1-49 


2 


2 


2 












2 











798 


4 






1-02 


4 


4 


3 






3 


3 


4 


4 


3 b 




4 


Ud 


808 


4 






0-73 


4 


4 


4 






3 


3 


4 


3 




4 


816 


2? 






0-47 






3 






















823 


2 






5530-28 


3 


3 


2 








1 


3 








3 




834 


2 


: 


3? 


5529-92 






3 






2 






3 






3 


2 


843 


2 






9-65 






2 


B 




3 






1 










854 


3 






9-32 


3 


4 


4 


3 




3 


3 


3 


3 






3 




862 


3 






9-07 


3 


4 


4 


3 






3 




3 


3 


E 


3 


2 


879 


12 






8-56 


12 


11 


12 


LI 


14 


12 


11 


11 


12 


12 


12 


12 


12 


892 


1 






8-15 


E 






1 


E 


















898 


2 






7-97 




26 


2 


2 










1 










910 


2 






7-61 






26 


1 










2 


'4' 


2 


1 


1 


920 


1 






7-30 






2 


1 










2 










929 


8 






7-02 




8 


8 


8 




9 


8 


8 


8 


9 


8 


8 


8 


938 


2 






6-76 






3 


2 




















949 


3 






6-41 




2 


3 


2 






i 


2 


3 




2 


3 


2 


956 


1 






6-19 






















1 






970 


3 






5-77 






4 


2 




















973 


7 






5-69 




7 


7 


7 




"i 


"7 


'V 


"i 


8 


*7 


"7 


7 


180986 


4 






5-29 




4 


4 


4 




4 


4 


3 


4 


4 


3 


4 


4 


181000 


1 






5524-87 






E 


2 














... 







170 



DR L. BECKER ON THE SOLAR SPECTRUM. 



Osc. Freq. 


Mean 
Intensity. 


A 


High 


Sun. 


Low Sun. 


S 


0> 

o +> p 


86 


10 


9 


10 


12 


35 


376 


4 Oa. 


406 


42 


43 




o 


3 




58 
1-3 


50 
2-0 


37 
23 


39 
12 


46 
10 


33 

18 


32 

21 


40 
13 


40 
20 


39 
11 


34 

28 


181005 


2 




5524-71 


2 


2 




2 




3 






3 


2 


3 


018 


2 




4-30 




2 
















3 


2 




025 


3 




4-11 


3 


3 


3 


3 


4 


"4 


4 






2 


3 


3 


034 


1 




3-82 




2 








2 














041 


3 




3-60 




2 
















3 




3 


048 


3 




3-40 


*3 


3 


3 


3 


3 


4 


4 






2 


3 


3 


061 


1 


3 


3-03 




2 






4 














3 


074 


7 




2-61 


"7 


7 


7 


7 


7 


"7 


6 






6 


6 


6 


082 


2 




2-36 




2 








2 


2 










3 


103 


3 




1-73 


3 


2 


4 


2 


3 


3 


3 






2 


3 


3 


114 


3 




1-38 


3 


3 


f: 


( 3 
I 3 


3 


3 


3 






2 


3 


3 


124 


3 




1-07 


3 


3 


3 


3 


3 






3 


3 


3 


138 


3 




0-66 


3 


3 




4 


3 






3 


3 


3 


152 


1 


3 


5520-23 




2 








3 








2 


b 


2 


161 


2 


(3?) 


5519-95 


2 








2 


2 










3 




169 


5 




9-71 


5 


5 


4 


5 


5 


5 


4 






5 


5 


6 


179 


1 


"i 


9-41 




2 










3 










4 


196 


2 




8-89 


2 


2 


2 


1 


2 


2 


1 






2 


2 




207 


2 




8-55 


2 






b 


6 


2 


6 








2 


3 


217 


2 




8-24 


3 


2 




1 


2 


2 


1 






2 


2 


3 


237 


4c? 




7-63 


4 


4c? 


4 


4 


4 


5 


4 






4 


4 


3 


252 


4 




7-17 


4 


4 


5 


5 


4 


5 


4 






4 


4 


3 


260 
263 


5 
5 




6-93 
6-84 


4 

4 


5 
5 


V 


6 


6 


6 


6 






5 


6 


5 


275 


2 


3 


6-49 


2 


2 






2 


4 


3 






3 


1 




288 


1 


3 


6-09 




2 




1 




4 


3 






3 


2 


2 


297 


3 




5-80 


3 


3 




2 


3 


4 


3 






3 


2 


4 


307 


1 


4 


5-52 




1 




3 
















4 


315 


1 




5-26 




2 






















322 


3 




5-04 


2 


2 




2 


3 


3c? 


3 






3 


3 


3 


326 


2 




4-94 




2 






















335 


6 




4-67 


"(B 


6 


8 


6 


"7 


7 


7 






5 


*6 


6 


341 


6 




4-47 


6 


6 


8 


6 


7 


7 


7 






5 


6 


6 


360 


2 


4 


3-91 


2 


2 


4 


3 


2 


4 


3 






3 




4c? 


366 


2 




3-70 


2 


2 










3 






1 






375 


2 




3-44 




2 


















2 




386 


8 




3-12 


5 


8 


9 


9 


9 


9 


8 






"s 


7 


7 


388 


4 




3-04 


4 












3 








4 




401 


6 




2-66 


6 


6 


8 


7 


"7 


6 


5 






5 


6 


6 


405 


3 




2-53 


4 


2i 










3 






4 






410 


6 




2-38 


6 


5 


7 


7 


7 


6 


5 






5 


6 


6 


416 


2 




2-19 




3 






















426 


3 




1-90 


3 


3 


2 


1 


2 


3 


3 






4 


1 


4 


436 


2 




1-59 


3 


2 






















443 


2 


5 


1-37 


2 


3 


4 


3 


2 


4 


4 






"4 


9 


5 


462 
465 


5 
5 




0-81 
0-72 


4 
4 


5 
5 


}' 


5c? 


5c? 


W 


1 5c? 






5c? 


!? 


5 
5 


477 


1 




0-35 


1 


1 










2 


E 








484 
487 


6 
6 




013 
5510-03 


5 
5 


6 
6 


}» 


7 


6 


{I 


5 

5 


1' 


i" 5 
15 


5 
5 


}' 


181500 


2 


4 


5509-64 




3 


2 


3 


3 


4c? 


3 


2 


3 


2 


4 





DB L. BECKEE ON THE SOLAE SPECTEUM. 



171 



Osc. Freq. 


Mean 
Intensity. 


A 


High 


Sun. 


Low Sun. 


a 
•§-8 




86 


10 


9 


10 


12 


35 


37a 


376 


40a 4 


06 


41 


42 


43 




S.I 


flO.H 




58 


50 


37 


39 


46 


33 


32 


32 


40 


40 


32 


39 


34 




O 


3 




1-3 


2-1 


25 


13 


12 


15 


15 


18 


13 


17 


30 


10 


24 


181510 


2 




5509-34 


3 


2 
























517 




2 


9-11 










1 


3 




2 


2 


2 










530 


4 




8-73 


4 


5 


4 


4 


5 


5 




4 


4 


4 






4 


\m 


537 


4 




8-53 


4 


5 


4 


4 


5 


5 




4 


4 


4 






4 


557 


3 




7-91 


2 


2 




1 


3 


3 




3 




3 






3 & 




565 


2 


(sV) 


7-67 


16 


2 








3 




3 


1 


3 






3 


584 


31 




7-08 














E 


3 














590 


10 




6-92 


9 


10 


10 


10 


10 


10 


12 


9 


16 i 









10 


10 


601 


2 


(s«) 


6-57 




2 








3 




3 




2 






B 


3 


611 


1 




6-28 




2 


























619 


7 




6-03 


7 


7 


7 


7 


n 


8 


8 


6 


7 


6 










8 


623 


3? 




5-91 




3 




























633 


2 




5-60 


2 


2 








2 




2 
















641 


2 


4 


5-37 


2 


2 






3 


3 


3 


2 


2 


3 










4 


655 


1 




4-90 


















2 


2 












668 


4 




4-55 


4 


4 




3 


3 


4 


3 


3 


3 


3 










4 


675 


3 




4-33 


3 


3 




2 




3 






3 


3 












683 


4 




4-08 


4 


4 


3 


3 


3 


4 


3 


3 


3 


3 










4 


691 


2? 




3-84 












2 




















697 


3 




3-66 


2 


3 




2 




3 


2 


3 


2 


3 










3 


707 


4 




3-37 


4 










3 








4 












712 


7 




3-21 


6 


7 


"7 


7 


*8& 


7 


5 


"e 


6 


6 










8 


717 . 


5 




3-05 


4 


5 




2 






4 


5 


4 


5 












729 


1 




2-68 
















2 
















733 


2 




2-58 


1 


2 








3 




2 


1 


2 










2 


745 


4 




2-20 


3 


5 


4 


4 


3 


5 


4 


4 


4 


4 










4 


752 




"3? 


2-00 










2 


3 




3 


1 


2 












766 


9 




1-58 


9 


10 


10 


10 


9 


10 


9 


8 


9 : 


L0 










io 


780 


1 




1-14 




2 












B 
















790 


2 




0-85 


2 


2 








3 


2 




2 


2 










3 


804 


2 


3 


0-44 


2 


2 


1 






4 


2 






2 


2 










3 


818 


1 




5500-00 








2 


























828 


1 


3 


5499-70 




2 


3 


3 




3 










2 










3 


838 




3 


9-39 






b 






3 


2 






2 


3 










3 


850 


2 


4 


9-05 


2 


2 


3 


3 




4 


2 






3 


3 










4 


866 




3 


8-56 












3 


2 








2 












876 


2 




8-27 


2 


2 
















2 


2 










3 


887 


2 1 ? 




7-93 




2 




















B 








895 


10 




7-68 


9 


10 


10 


11 


i'i 


11 


10 






10 ■ 


L0 


9 






11 


899 


4? 




7-56 


4 




















B 










909 


1 




7-27 




1 




























918 


2 


5 


6-98 




3 


4 


3 


3 


5 


3 






4 




4 






4 


929 


4 




6-65 


4 


4 




2 


2 


4 


3 






3 










3 


940 




3 


6-33 












3 


2 
















3 


947 


i 




6-13 




2 








1 




















958 


2 




5-78 


2 


2 




3 


2 


2 


















2 


962 
967 


3 


4 


5-65 
5-51 


2 


2 


}" 3 


4 




{I 


2 
3 






2 
3 




lid 






3d 


975 


1 




5-25 




















1 












984 


4 




4-99 


4 


5 


4 




3 


4 


4 






4 










4 


181997 


5 




5494-60 


5 


5 


5 


5 


4 


6 


5 






6 




5 






6 



VOL. XXXVI. PART I. (NO. 6). 



2 D 



172 



DR L. BECKER ON THE SOLAR SPECTRUM. 





Moan 


















Osc. Freq. 


Inte 


usity. 


A 


High Sun. 








Low Sun. 






s 

3 . 

■H rr. 

T$ CD 


CD 

3 o .H 


8b 
58 


10 
50 


9 
37 


10 
39 


12 
46 


35 
33 


37a 
32 


40a 
40 


41 
32 


43 
34 




<3 H 


£ atH 


























Q< 


3 




1-3 


2-2 


27 


14 


12 


14 


15 


12 


30 


22 


182008 


3 




5494-28 












3 




3 




2 


017 


4 




3-99 


id 


4 


4 


4 


4 


4 


4 


4 


4 


4 


029 


5 




3-62 


6 


5 


5 


5 




6 


5 


5 


4 


5 


037 
040 


3 
3 




3-39 
3-29 


}* 


4 


4 


2 


4 


{i 


I 3 


{3 


}' 


4 


049 


4 




3-04 


4 


4 


4 






3 


3 


3 




4 


060 


2 




269 




2 












2 


... 


2 


072 


3d 




2-32 


3 


3 


26 


3 


3 


3d 


2 


2 




2 


085 


4 




1-93 


4 


4 




3 


3 


4 


3 


3 


3 


2 


093 


2 


3 


1-70 




2 








3 


2 


2 


3 




109 


2 


4 


1-22 


2 


2 


3 


2 




4 


2 


3 


3 


3 


115 




(4?) 


1-04 
















4 






123 


5 




0-79 


5 


5 


4 


4 


4 


5 


4 


5 


3 


5 


131 


1 




0-55 


1 














... 


... 




140 


5 




0-27 


5 


5 


4 


4 


3 


5 


4 


4 


3 


4 


149 


3 




5490-02 


3 


4 


4 


j- 3d 


{3 


4 


3 


3 


}_■ 


{3 


156 


3 




5489-81 


3 


4 


4 


4 


1 


3 


172 


1 




9-31 


2 


1 


















178 
184 


4 
4 




9-14 
8-95 


}* 


46 


36 


4d 


36 





3 

4 


} 4d 


4d 


4d 


191 


1 




8-76 


2 


1 


















196 


1 




8-59 




1 
















1 


206 


4 




8-31 


4 


5 


4 


3 


3 


4 


4 


4 


'4' 


4 


220 


8 




7-88 


8 


9 


9 


9 


9 


9 


7 


8 


8 


8 


227 


5 




7-66 


4 


5 


5 


4 


4 


5 


4 


4 


5 


5 


239 


5 




7-29 


}• 


{I 


5 


5 


5 


5 


4 


5 


5 


5 


244 


4 




7-14 


5 


4 


3 


4 


4 


4 


5 


4 


253 


1 




6-88 




1 












... 


... 


. . • 


260 


2 




6-67 


2 


2 








3 


2 


2 


3 


2 


274 


2 




6-26 




2 








3 




... 






287 
292 


3 

2 




5-86 
5-71 


3 
3 


2 
2 




3 
3 


I 26 


{. 3 


2 
2 


i 2d 


u 


2 


309 


2 


3 


5-20 


1 


2 






2 


3 


2 


3 


3 


3 


329 


3 




4-60 


3 


2 




2 




4 




3 


3 




339 


1 


3 


4-28 




1 








3 


2 






J 3d 


346 


3 




4-07 


3 


3d 




3 


2 


3 


2 


2 


3 


363 


7 




3-56 


6 


7 


6 


7 


8 


8 


6 


6 


7 


7 


373 


7 




3-28 


6 


7 


6 


7 


8 


8 


6 


6 


7 


7 


381 


1 




3-02 




1 












1 






390 


2 


4 


2-76 


2 


3 


4 


3 


3 


3 


3 


3 


2 


4 


399 


2 




2-48 


2 


2 


















412 


4d 


6d 


2-09 


3 


id 


5 


4 


4d 


6 


4 


4d 


6 


5 


428 


8 




1-62 


7 


8 


6 


8 


8 


8 


7 


7 


7 


8 


434 


8 




1-43 


7 


8 


6 


8 


8 


8 


7 


7 


7 


8 


448 


8 




1-02 


7 


8 


8 


8 


8 


8 


7 


8 


7 


8 


460 


4 




0-65 


4 


3 


4 


2 


2 


4 


3 


3 


3 


4 


464 




(if) 


0-52 










... 


4 










474 


2 




5480-22 


2 


2 








1 




2 






490 


2 




5479-76 




2 








2 




1 






498 


2 


3 


9-51 


2 


2 




1 


2 


3 


2 


2 


2 


3 


182507 


2 




5479-25 


2 


2 



















DR L. BECKER ON THE SOLAR SPECTRUM. 



173 



Osc. Freq. 


Mean 
Intensity. 


A 


High Sun. 


Low Sun. 


a . 


ij 

.2- a ' 

S a o 


8fi 


10 


9 


10 


12 


14 


15 


35 


37a 


40a 


41 


43 




*s 


3 O ,N 




58 


50 


37 


39 


46 


40 


32 


33 


32 


40 


32 


34 




-M I-* 


"a3 52 o 






























o 


H.Sffi 




1-3 


2-3 


31 


15 


14 


13 


9 


13 


13 


11 


28 


19 


182517 


2 


4 


5478-93 


2 


2 


4 


2 


1 






4 


3 


2 


2 


3 


529 


7d 


: 


8-58 


5a 


7 


5 


6 


6 






8 


5 


5 


6 


7 


538 


2 


*7 


8-32 




2 


5 


4 


4 






6 


4 


4 


6 


7 


553 


6 




7-87 


5 


6 


5 


5 


6 






7 


5 


5 


6 


7d 


559 


3 




7-69 


2 


3 






3 






4 


3 


3 




3 


577 


4 r 




7-14 












B 


B 




4 








580 


10 




7-05 


9 


10 


9 


11 


i'6 


9 


10 


ii 


9 


8 


9 


10 


592 


8 




6-69 


8 


9 


8 


9 


9 


8 


8 


9 


8 


8 


8 


8 


603 


7 




6-37 


6 


8 


8 


9 


9 


8 


8 


8 


8 


7 


8 


8 


606 


5 


... 


6-28 


5 


5 
















B 






617 


2 




5-93 


3 


2 












3 






2 




626 


2 




5-68 


3 


2 




2 


2 






3 


2 




2 


2 


635 




2 


5-41 








. b 


3 












2 


2 


646 


2 




5-08 


2 


2 




2 


3 






2 










654 


2 




4-82 




2 


















"2 


3 


663 


2 




4-55 




2 










3 










3 


672 


3 




4-30 


3 


3 




3 


3 




3 


3 


2 




2 


2 


682 


8 




4-01 


8 


9 


8 


9 


8 


8 


8 


8 


8 




8 


7 


697 


3 


5 


3-54 


3 


3 


5 


3 


4 


3 


3 


4 


4 




4 


4 


707 


5 




3-25 


4 


5 


5 


4 


5 


4 


5 


5 


5 




4 


5 


722 


6 


... 


2-79 


6 


7 


5 


5 


6 


6 


7 


6 


6 




4 


6 


733 


2 


. * . 


2-46 


3 


1 






2 






3 






3 


3 


745 


3 




2-12 


3 


2 








1 


2 


3 


3 




3 


3 


758 


1 




1-72 




1 




2 


2 




2 












772 


3 




1-31 


3 


3 




2 


3 


3 


2 


4 


3 




3 


3 


777 


1 




1-16 




1 










3 












788 
791 


6 
6 




0-82 
0-72 


5 
5 


}' 


6 


8 


8 


8 


66 


8 


6 




6 


7 


804 


2 


8 


0-35 




3 


} 9 


Id 


{? 


6 


5 


7 


5 




7 


7 


808 


5 




5470-22 


5 


5 


6 


5 


6 


5 




4 


2 


819 


2 




5469-90 


1 


2 










2 


3 


2 




1 




830 
836 


2 
3 




9-56 
9-38 


3 

4 


2 
3 


f. 


Id 


(1 


}" 2 


3 


4 


3 




2 


3cZ 


847 


2 




9-06 


2 


2 








2 


2 


3 


2 




2 




861 


1 




8-63 
















2 










869 


3 




8-40 


3 


3 


lb 


2d 


3 


2 


3 


4 






3 




876 


4 




8-18 


4 


4 










4 


3 


3 




3 


3 


888 


3 




7-83 


3 


2 






3 


2 


2 


3 






3 


3 


899 


2 




7-49 


3 


2 








2 


2 


3 


2 






2 


911 


6 




7-13 


6 


7 


f« 


{": 


6 


6 


7 


6 


4 




5 


Uri 


919 


2 


6 


6-90 




3 


4 


4 


4 


5 


3 




5 


932 


9 




6-51 


*9 


9 


8 


8 


8 


8 


8 


8 


8 




8 


12 


944 


2 


3 


6-17 


2 


1 




2 




1 


2 


3 


2 


... 


3 


3 


953 


2 




5-88 


2 


2 












2 










967 


2 


5 


5-47 


3 


2 


5 


3 


4 


5 


3 


4 


4 




4 


4 


976 


3 


6 


5-21 


3 


3 


5 


4 


4 


5 


4 


5 


5 




5 


5 


988 


2 


(SI) 


4-84 


2 


2 




1 






2 


3 


2 




3 


2 


182996 


2 




4-59 




2 






















183001 


6 




4-46 


6 


6 


5 


6 


6 


6 


6 


7 


6 




5 


6 


013 


4 




4-11 


3 


4 




2 


3 


2 


4 


4 


3 




3 


3 


183018 


3 




5463-93 




4 












3 


... 




2 


. 



174 



DR L. BECKER ON THE SOLAR SPECTRUM. 





Mean 




Hisrh Sun. 






Low Sun. 








Osc. Freq. 


Intensity. 


\ 
























1c 


86 


10 


9 


10 


12 


14 


15 


35 


37a 


41 


43 




^ :2 


3 0.N 




55 


58 


50 


37 


39 


46 


40 


32 


33 


32 


32 


34 










1-3 


1-3 


2-3 


34 


17 


15 


14 


9 


12 


12 


25 


17 




o 


>J 




























183035 


9 




5463-44 




8 


9 


8 


8 


9 


9 


9 


10 


8 


9 


8 


046 


8 




3-11 




8 


9 


8 


8 


9 


8 


8 


9 


8 


8 


8 


063 


7 


(V?) 


2-59 




6 


7 




8 


8 


8 


7 


8 


7 


8 


8 


077 


2 


5 


2-18 




2 


3 




3 


3 


3 


4 


5 


4 


4 


5 


084 


2 




1-98 




2 


2 




















094 


6 




1-68 




6 


6 




4 


4 


4 


5 


5 


5 


4 


5 


105 


1 




1-35 




1 












... 


2 




1 




117 


4 




1-00 




4 


4 




3 


3 


4 


1 


4 


3 


3 


4 


126 


4 




0-71 




4 


4 




3 


5 




3 


46 


3 


3 


4 


132 


4 




0-53 




4 


4 






3 


4 


3 


2 


3 


3 




144 


1 




5460-20 














• • ■ 




1 








155 


3 




5459-86 




3 


2 






2 


2 


3 


3 




2 


2 


166 
169 


4 


7 


9-54 
9-44 




4 


4 




6 


6 


7 


6 


8 


\\ 


}' 


7 


182 


2 


(&fj 


9-05 






2 






1 




2 


3 




2 


3 


195 


2 


5 


8-65 




3 


2 




4 


4 


5 


4 


5 


3 


5 


5 


208 


2 




8-26 




2 


2 












3 


2 


2 


2 


230 


4 


"7 


7-62 




4 


4 




9 


5 


6 


5 


7 


4 


6 


6 


239 


2 


4 


7-34 




3 


2 




4 


3 


3 


3 


4 


3 


3 


4 


265 


4 


8 


6-58 


E 


4 


4 




5 


6 


8 


6 


7 


4 


8 


7 


270 


4 




6-42 


2 


4 


4 








4 




3 


3 


3 


t | 


292 
298 


10 
9 




5-76 
5-59 


10 
10 


11 

9 


10 
10 


}« 


12 


{'! 


}» 


ri 


10 
10 


8 
8 


10 
10 


}„ 


309 


2 


4 


5-28 




2 


2 


E 


1 


3 


2 


3 


4 


4 


3 


4 


328 


4 




4-70 


3 


4 


5 




3 


3 






4 


4 


4 


3 


4 


345 

347 


3 
3 




4-21 
4-13 


I s 


4c£ 


{^ 


£ 


3 


2 


2 


4 


3 


3 


3 


4 


356 


3 




3-87 


2 


3 


3 










• * . 


3 


2 


2 


3 


374 


4 




3-33 


3 


3 


4 




4 


4 


3 


4 


4 


4 


4 


4 


386 


4 




2-98 


4 


3 


4 




3 


4 


3 


4 


4 


4 


3 


4 


401 


1 


3 


2-54 






2 






3 






3 




3 


3 


410 


4 




2-26 


4 




4 




3 


6 


I 3d 


{] 


3 


3 6 


} 3 


\t 


418 


3 




2-02 


2 


3 


3 




3 


3 


3 


430 


1 




1-67 






2 












1 




1 




444 


2 


4 


1-26 


2 


2 


3 




3 


3 


3 


4 


4 


3 


3 


4 


455 


3 




0-94 


3 


3 


4 






3 




4 


4 


3 


3 


4 


472 


1 


4 


0-43 






2 






2 


3 


4 


3 


2 


3 


4 


484 


2 




5450-07 


2 


Id 






2 








1 


• . • 




3 


501 


1 


5 


5449-57 






3 




4 


5 


"i 


5 


5 


4 


5 


5 


515 

518 


} 2 


11 


9-16 
9-07 


U 


2 


2 




4 


4 


5 


ii 


I U 


4 


4J 


5 


535 


4 




8-54 


4 


4 


4 




4 


4 


3 


5 


4 


5 


4 


4 


546 


2 


6 


8-22 


2 


2 


3 




6 


5 


7 


6 


6 


4 


5 


6 


564 


2 




7-70 


1 


2 


2 










4 


2 




2 




586 


11 




7-04 


10 


11 


11 




10 


10 


10 


12 


11 


9 


11 


11 


597 


8 




6-72 


8 


8 


8 




7 


8 


8 


9 


8 


7 


7 


8 


613 


1 


3 


6-25 






2 






2 


1 


3 


3 


2 


2 


3 


621 


2 




6-00 


2 


2 b 


2 












3 






2 


629 


2 




5-75 






2 










2 




2 


2 




638 


1 




5-49 


Id 














1 










183649 


9 




5445-17 


8 


9 


9 




10 


9 


9 


10 


10 


8 


9 


9 



DR L. BECKER ON THE SOLAR SPECTRUM. 



17* 



Osc. Freq. 


Mean 

Intensity. 


A 


High Sun. 








Low 


Sun. 










S . 

T3 r& 




2c 


8& 


10 


10 


12 


14 


15 


34 


35 


36 


37a 


41 


43 


44 


46 






|S| 




55 


58 


50 


39 


46 


40 


32 


39 


33 


36 


32 


32 


34 


32 


30 




,-, -^ 






































-4-5 . 1 




3 




1-3 


1-3 


2-4 


20 


17 


15 


13 


30 


11 


20 


11 


22 


15 


32 


19 


183654 


3 




5445-01 






2 
















4 










664 


4 




4-72 


4 


4 


3 




3 


3 


"i 




3 




3 


3 


"4 










681 


2 


4 


4-23 


2 


2 


2 


36 






4 




Q 




3 


2 


4 










699 
703 


3 
3 




3-68 
3-56 


3 
3 


3 
3 


3 




V 


3 


{* 




}> 




3 


3 


4 










720 


3d 




3-06 


2 


3 


3 








3 




2d 






2 


3 










735 


3? 




2-61 














3 






















739 
743 


4 
4 


7 


2-51 
2-39 


}'* 


{] 


4 
4 


}• 


5d 


6 


it 




6 




5 


6cZ 


7 










756 


2 




2-01 


2 




2 








3 




2 




2 


2 


2 










773 


6 




1-51 


5 


6 


7 


5 


6 


6 


6 




6 




5 


5 


6 










780 


2 




1-30 






2 








3 




2 




3 














797 


3 




0-79 


3 


3 


2 






1 


3 




3 




2 


2 


3 










816 


2 




5440-22 


2 


3 






















2 










827 


1 


3 


5439-91 






2 




2 


2 


3 




3 




3 


2 


3 










836 


2 




9-62 






2 








2 




2 


E 






2 










856 


2 


5d{ 


9-06 
8-99 


["' 


3 


2 


4 


4 


5 


5 




5 


4 


fi 


}* 


5 










877 


2 


4 


8-43 


2 


3 


2 




3 


3 


3 




4 




2 


3 


4 










886 


2 


4 


8-16 


1 


3 


2 


3 


3 


3 


3 




4 


4 


b 


3 


4 










893 


1 




7-93 






2 
















2 














909 


2 




7-46 












1 


2 






















913 

917 


4 
4 


6 
6 


7-36 
7-23 


"i 

4 


4 
4 


5 
4 


}' ; 


5 


7 


{ 5 5 




}' 8 


6 


(3 


ie» 


7 










933 


6 




6-76 


5 


5 


6 


7 


7 


7 


6 




7 


6 


4 


5 


6 










943 


6 




6-47 


5 


5 


6 


7 


7 


7 


6 




7 


6 


4 


5 


6 










958 


7 




6-03 


6 


6 


8 


7 


7 


7 


7 




8 


6 


5 


6 


7 










967 


2 


*7 


5*76 


2 


1 


3 


7 


7 


7 


6 




7 


6 


4 


5 


6 










976 




3? 


5-49 














3 












3 










982 


3 




5-31 


3 


3 


3 








4 






2 






2 






B 


183995 


1 


6 


4-92 






2 


6 


4 


5 


4 




4 


5 


3 


4 


4 






4 


184005 


10 




4-65 


9 


10 


10 


10 


10 


10 


10 




10 


9 


10 


10 


11 






8 


015 


2 




4-33 




2 


2 








3 




E 








2 






3 


025 


2 


4 


4-04 


}' 


{^ 


2 


4 


"S8 


3 


4 






3 


2 


3 


3 








031 


2 




3-87 


2 








3 




















040 


2 




3-61 


3 


2 








2 


2 






3 


2 


2 


3 








057 


8d 


::< 


3-14 

3-06 


I 8 


8 


7 


7 


7 


8 


8 






8 


{3 


}' 


7 






6 


072 


U 


...{ 


2-67 
2-63 


}» 


6 


6 


5 


6 


6 


7 






8 


(4 
15 


}* 


6 






5 


077 


1 




2-52 






2 




























087 


2 




2-20 




2 


2 








3 






3 




2 


2 








100 


3 


5 


1-82 


3 


2 


3 


5 


J 
























108 


3 


5 


1-60 


3 


3& 


3 


b 


6 


5 






5 


4 


5 


5 






5d 


120 


1 


3 


1-25 






2 


5 






2 






2 




2 


4 








133 


2 




0-87 


i 


2 


2 














3 






3 








147 


3 


4 


0-46 


3 


3 


3 


4 


2 


3 


4 






3 


"i 


4 


4 






3 


162 


6 




5430-00 


5 


5 


6 








7 


E 




6 


6 






B 




167 


10 




5429-86 


10 


11 


10 


12 


12 


10 


10 


11 




9 


9 


11 


11 


10 


12 


175 


7 




9-61 


6 


7 


7 




8 


8 


7 






8 


7 


9 


7 


5 




184187 


3 




5429-26 


3 


3 


3 








4 






1 


2 


2 


4 

















































176 



DR L. BECKER ON THE SOLAR SPECTRUM. 



Osc. Freq. 


Mean 
Intensity. 


A 




High 


Sun. 












Low Sun. 










£ . 

- 02 

■§•3 


.B . 
o -^ B 


26 
55 


2c 
55 


8& 
58 


10 
50 


10 
39 


12 
46 


14 

40 


15 
32 


34 
39 


36 I 

36 


57a 
32 


41 
32 


43 
34 


44 
32 


46 
30 




xj ZZ 1 •—* CO o 

1 3 




1-3 


1-3 


1-3 


2-5 


22 


19 


16 


15 


30 


til } 


10 


19 


15 


32 


18 


184200 
204 


3 
3 


M 


5428-88 
8-78 






3 


3 
3 


2 
3 


}* 


4 


5 


{i 


I 5 


5 


5 


4 


5 


7 


3 


210 


2 




8-59 






*2 


2 


2 
























227 
234 


3 
3 


Ud| 


8-09 
7-89 






3 

2 


3 

2 


2 
3 


}•■• 


3 


2 


{l 


H 


4 


3 


3 


3 


3 


3 


247 


2 




7-49 






2 


2 


















3 








258 


2 


5cZ 


7-17 






3 




2 


4 


4 


4d 


4b 


) 


f 4 
(3 


3d 


3 


3d 


) 


3d 


269 


3 


(3?) 


6-85 








3 


3 


b 








\4b 




2 


3 


}4b 




284 


3 


(3?) 


6-42 






3 


2 


3 




1 


3 


) 


2 


2 


2 


J 




299 


2 


3 


5-96 






2 




2 


4 


3 


2 


3 




3 


2 


2 


3 


2 


2 


318 


6 




5-41 






6 


6 


6 


5 


5 


6 


7 




6 


7 


6 


7 


4 


4 


329 


1 


4 


5-09 


E 






1 








4 




3 


2 




3 






339 


M 




4-78 


6 


6 


5 


6 


5 


5 


6 


7 


4 


5 


6 


6 


7 


4d 


4 


345 


2? 




4-63 








2 
























359 


10 




4-21 


10 


11 


10 


11 


10 


10 


9 


10 


10 


10 


10 


10 


10 


11 


10 


364 


4 




4-06 






B 


4 






5 


4 








4 






3 


377 




3 


3-66 
















3 


2 


4 


3 




3 


i 




383 


3 




3-48 


3 


3 




2 




4 










2 


2 


3 






399 


3 


9di 


3-06 
2-98 


} 3 


3 




4 


8 


6 


f: 


i' 


9 


6 


5 


7 


6 


8 


6 


410 


2 




2-70 


3 






2 








2 




3 






2 






416 


2 




2-51 


3 


3 


















2 




2 




3 


427 


4 




2-21 


6 


4 




4 


2 


H 


3d 


(i 




3 


3 


3 


4 


3 




435 


4 




1-95 


4 


4 




4 




3 


3 


3 


3 


4 




4 


450 


2 




1-52 


2 


3 




2 












1 


1 










457 


5 


Id 


1-31 


5 


5 




5 


66 


7 


'V 


8 


*7 


6 


M 


"e 


7 


7 


7 


467 


4 




1-01 


4 


4 




5 








4 




4 


3 


4 


4 






478 


2 


7 


0-71 


2 


3 




4 




6 


5 


5 


"7 


4 


4 


4 


4 


"7 


3 


485 
488 


6 
6 


}m{ 


0-49 
5420-41 


6 
6 


6 
6 




6 
6 


}' 


8 


7 


8d 


8 


'{ 


5 

5 


Wd 


8 


7 


7 


502 
507 


3 
3 




5419-99 
9-84 


} 3 


3 




4 








2 




1 


B 


{3 


2 
3 


I 3 


2 


519 


3 


8 


9-49 


3 


2 




4 


8 


7 


7 


6 


8 


4 




5 


6 


7 


5 


526 


3 




9-29 


3 


2 




4 








2 




3 




1 


2 






533 


31 




9-08 








3 
























540 


7 




8-89 


7 


6 




8 




7 


6 


6 


4 


6 




6 


"7 


5 


5 


542 


41 




8-83 




B 
















4 












555 


2 


5 


8-43 








3 


!« 


5 


5 


4 


"i 


4 




4 


"4 


5 


5 


562 


3 




8-23 


} 3d 






3 




E 


2 










3 






568 


3 


5 


8-07 






5 




4 


4 


3 




3 


4 


5 


4 


577 


2 




7-80 


3 


















1 






2 






591 

600 


1 
6 


5 


7-39 
7-13 


5 






2 
6 


!• 


U 




{1 


1 4ft 


«{ 




2 
4 


3 
6 


5 
6 


Ud 


615 


2 


4 


6-68 


2 






2 








2 




3 






3 


3 




622 




4 


6-47 


















4 






3 








630 


2 


6 


6-25 


2b 






2 


6 


4 




5 


4 


5 




4 


4 


6 


3 


650 


1 


4 


5-66 








2 




5 




3 




3 




3 


3 


4 




661 


10 




5-32 


10 






10 


io 


10 




10 


9 


9 




10 


11 


10 


"9 


666 




4 


5-18 
















5 


4 






4 








677 


1 


4 


4-86 








2 








4 








2 


2 


3 




184689 


3 


8 


5414-50 


3 






4 


8 


7 




8 


7 


4 




5 


5 


8 


5 



DR L. BECKER ON THE SOLAR SPECTRUM. 



177 



Osc. Freq. 


Mean 
Intensity. 


\ 


High Sun. 


Low Sun. 


a 

2 « 


h d o 


lb 


10 


10 


12 


15 


34 


36 


41 


43 


44 


46 




M| 


J3 ° -3 




55 


50 


39 


46 


32 


39 


36 


32 


34 


32 


30 




0^ 


i3 




1-3 


2-6 


24 


22 


17 


28 


12 


16 


13 


28 


ir 


184698 


5 


7 


5414-23 


5 


5 


7 


7 


7 


6 


4 


5 


5 


7 


4 


711 


4 




3-87 




4 






4 




3 


4 


4 


4 


3 


730 


4 


8d 


3-30 


"i 


4 


'V 


8 


8 


Vd 


4 


5 


5 


7 


5 


736 


1 




3-14 


.i. 
















1 






740 


4 


7 


3-00 


4 


4 




'V 


6 




4 


4 


4 


5 


4 


751 


1 




2-69 




1 




















763 


2 


7 


2-34 


3d 


2 


"7 


5 


5 




4 


5 


4 


5 


4 


772 


2 




2-07 




2 














2 


1 




777 


1 


5 


1-92 




2 






5 


4 


4 


4 


3 


5 


"4 


795 


5 




1-40 


5 


5 






5 




5 


5 


4 


4 


4 


806 


9 




1-09 


9 


10 


10 


9 


10 


8 


9 


10 


10 


9 


9 


822 


3 


(31) 


0-61 


2 


2 






3 


3 


2 


3 


3 


1 


2 


841 


10 




5410-06 


9 


10 


11 


10 


10 


10 


9 


10 


10 


9 


10 


850 


3 


5 


5409-80 


3 


4 


5 




5 




3 


5 


5 


4& 


4 


867 


7 


* • ■ 


9-30 


6 


7 






6 


4 


8 


6 


7 


6 


4 


873 


3 




9-13 


2 


3 
















4 




878 




5 


8-98 










5 




2 


4 


4 


4 


3 


898 
904 


2 
2 


6 
6 


8-40 
8-20 


2 
2 


3 
3 


}" 6 




{! 


1 6d 


{3 


4 
4 


5 
5 


5 
5 


I 5d 


920 
927 


5 

6d 




7-75 
7-55 


4 
bd 


5 
6 


}* 




i: 


} 6 


\: 


4 
5 


5 

5 


4 
5 


I 5d 
J 


937 


1 


4 


7-25 




2 






3 


4 


2 


2 


3 


3 




946 


6d 




6-97 


5 


6 


6 




7 


6d 


5 


5 


5 


6 


5 


956 


1 




6-68 










1 














964 


4 




6-47 


3 


3 


3 




4 


4 


3 


"i 


4 


4 


3 


983 


11 




5-91 


10 


11 


11 


11 


11 


10 


9 


11 


12 


10 


11 


987 


6? 




5-78 














6 










184995 


5 




5-54 


6 


5 


7 




6 


"4 


5 


6 


6 


4 


4 


185006 


4 




5-22 


4 


4 






4 


3 


2 


4 


3 


4 


4 


021 


4 




4-79 


3 


4 






4 




2 


4 


4 


4 


3 


037 


lOd 


;;;{ 


4-35 
4-32 


}!0 


11 


10 


11 


11 


9 


{I 


}" 


11 


10 


9 


048 


7 




4-01 


7 


7 






8 


5 


8 


8 


8 


7 


7 


059 


3 




3-67 


2 


3 






3 






2 


2 


3 




075 


3 




3-22 


2 


3 






3 




2 


2 


2 


3 




086 


4 




2-90 


4 


4 






3 


3 


3 


3 


3 


3 


3 


102 


2 


4 


2-43 




3 






3 


4 




3 




3 


3 


110 


5 




2-19 


4 


5 






5 


5 


4 


4 


5 


5 


4 


119 


2 




1-94 




2 












2 




3 




126 


1 




1-72 




















2 




137 


5 




1-40 


5 


5 


6 




5 


4 


4 


5 


5 


4 


4 


145 


1 




1-17 




2 












• • • 








160 
165 


5 
9 




0-75 
0-60 


6 

8 


5 
11 


}I ° 


9 


10 


8 


8 


{i 


}; 


10 


9 


174 


1 




0-32 




2 










B 






2 




183 


1 


3 


5400-07 


i 








3 






2 


8 


3 


2 


199 


6 




5399-60 


6 


6 


'V 




6 


4 






5 


4 


5 


212 


1 




9-21 




2 
















2 




218 


2 




9-03 


3 


2 






2 








3 


2 


2 


231 




4 


8-66 










4 






3 


3 


4 




185236 


2? 




5398-50 






... 












2 




... 



178 



DR L. BECKER ON THE SOLAR SPECTRUM. 





Mean 




High Sun. 


Low Sun. 






Osc. Freq. 


Intensity. 


\ 










S . 

O 


:- a o 


26 


10 


lla 


10 


12 


15 


16 


30 


33 


34 


41 


43 


44 


46 




s •£> 


^ ° .2 




55 


50 


42 


39 


46 


32 


42 


37 


27 


39 


32 


34 


32 


30 




o 


s 3 o 




1-8 


2-6 


1-8 


26 


23 


19 


10 


28 


20 


f 28 
117 


} u 


12 


24 


15 


185240 


7 




5398-41 


7 


8 




8 


8 


8 








5 


6 


6 


8 


6 


250 


1 


'7 


8-12 




2 








3 








6 


3 


3 


4 




2G2 


4 




7-76 


4 


5 








4 


B 




E 


3 


4 


4 


4 


3 


279 


11 




7-26 


11 


12 




11 


11 


10 


10 




12 


9 


11 


11 


12 


10 


284 


4 




7-10 






















4 






4 


298 


2 




6-70 


2 


3 










2 








3 


*2 


2 




309 


3 




6-39 


3 


4 








3 


3 




3 




3 


2 


2 


2 


315 


2 




6-20 














3 














2 


327 


3 




5-86 


3 


2 








3 






2 




3 


2 


3 


1 


341 


2 




5-47 


2 





























346 


5 




5-32 


4 


5 








5 


5 




5 




5 


5 


4 


3 


364 


8 




4-79 


9 


9 




8 


8 


8 


8 




8 


6 


8 


7 


8 


8 


374 


2 




4-50 






















2 




2 




381 


3 




4-31 


2 


2 








2 


1 




3 




2 


2 


3 


2 


394 


2d 




3-93 


3d 


2 










1 










2 


1 




411 


3? 




3-42 


3 




























416 


10 




3-27 


11 


10 




10 


11 


io 


9 




10 


8 


10 


8 


10 


9 


429 


2 




2-91 


2 


2 








3 


2 








2 




2 


2 


431 


1 




2-83 


2 




























444 


4 




2-46 


3 


3 








4 


4 




4 


4 


"i 


4 


4 


3 


453 


2 




2-21 


2 


3 








2 


2 








3 


2 


2 




468 


6 




1-76 


6 


5 




}• 


8 


{? 


6 




5 


6c7 


5 


5 


5 


[' 


474 


7 




1-60 


7 


6 




7 




8 




6 


7 


6 


484 


2 


(in) 


1-31 




1 


















2 


2 


3 




497 


2 


(3?) 


0-93 


1 


1 








2 






3 


1 36 


jr 

u 


3 






505 
510 


5 

4 




0-70 
0-54 


4 
3 


5 

4 




[ 8 


6 


{3 


[« 




5 


5 
3 


4 

4 


\m 


523 


2 




5390-16 




3 








2 


















529 


4 




5389-99 


3 


3 








3 


3 




4 


3 


4 


3 


3 


3 


542 


8 




9-62 


8 


8 




8 


8 


9 


8 




8 


8 


9 


9 


8 


8 


553 


3 




9-30 


2 


2 








2 


2 




2 


3 


3 


3 


2 




567 


2 




8-89 


2 


2 


























576 
581 


3 

4 




8-62 
8-47 


3 

4 


3 

4 








l3d 


{i 




5 




3 

4 


3 

4 


2 
3 


Uf? 


596 


2 




8-05 


1 


2 










2 






3 


2 


2 


2 




610 


5d 




7-63 


5 


5 








4r/ 


5 




5 


3 


5 


5 


4 


"4 


629 


5 




7-10 


5 


5 








4 


5 




5 


4 


5 


5 


4 


4 


642 


1 




6-72 




2 


















... 








650 


6 


::'. 


6-48 


6 


6 








5 


5 




6 


"4 


5 


5 


6 


4 


666 


1 


5 


6-02 




2 


... 






3 


3 






4 


2 


3 


4 


3 


676 


3 




5-73 


3 


2 


... 








2 




2 


3 


2 


3 


3 




692 


2 




5-25 


2 


2 














2 


2 




2 






708 


2 




4-81 


2 


2 










2 




2 


2 




2 




•j 


727 


2 




4-26 


2 


2 


















2 


2 


2 


2 


737 


2 




3-97 






B 










E 


2 


2 






2 


1 


753 


10 




3-49 


9 


10 


10 


12 


12 


10 


16 


12 


10 


10 


11 


11 


10 


12 


770 


3 


(in) 


3-01 








E 




2 






3 


3 


2 


2 


3 


n 


77!) 


1 




2-74 


2 


2 


























792 


5 




2-35 


4 


5 


5 




5 


4 


5 


4 




5 


5 


"5 


5 


1 


809 


4 




1-87 


3 


4 


2 






2 


3 




3 


4 


4 


4 


3 


3 


185820 


3 


.... 


5381-54 


2 


3 














2 


3 


3 


3 







DR L. BECKER ON THE SOLAR SPECTRUM. 



179 



Osc. Freq. 


Mean 
Intensity. 


A. 


High Sun. 


Low Sun. 


6 . 
.5 g 


o 
Jg.S 


26 
55 


10 
50 


11a 
42 


12 
46 


15 
32 


16 

42 


30 
37 


33 

27 


34 
39 


41 
32 


43 

34 


44 
32 


46 
30 




03 <J 






1-8 


27 


1-8 


25 


21 


10 


27 


16 


12 


13 


11 


21 


13 




o 


3 






























185836 


7 




5381-10 


6 


7 


7 


6 


7 


7 


8 


7 


7 


8 


8 


7 


7 


845 


3 




0-83 


3 


3 














3 


3 


2 


2 


1 


859 


id 




5380-41 


4 


5 


4 




"5 


4a 


5 


4 


4 


M 


5 


5 


3 


875 


2 




5379-95 


2 
















3 




3 






884 


8 




9-71 


7 


8 


8 


6 


"7 


8 


8 


*7 


6 


8 


7 


7 


6 


900 


M 


•■•{ 


9-30 
9-20 


} 2 


2 


3 




1 


1 








2 


(J 


I 2 


3 


914 


2 




8-83 


2 


2 


2 










2 


1 


2 




1 




931 


3 




8-34 


2 


2 


3 




i 


2 




3 


2 


2 


2 


2 


3 


947 


2 




7-88 


2 






















2 


3 


953 


7 




7-70 


6 


7 


7 


6 


7 


6 


7 


7 


5 


7 


7 


7 


6 


969 


2 




7-25 


3 


2 


2 




E 










2 


3 


2 




978 


4 




6-98 


4 


4 


5 


4 




4 


4 


"i 


4 


4 


4 


3 




185991 


2 




6-59 


2 


3 








2 








2 


2 


2 




186006 


3 




6-16 


2 


3 


2 










2 


2 


2 


2 


2 


2 


016 


1 




5-88 




2 
















. .^ 








032 


3 




5-43 


2 


2 












2 


2 


2 


2 


2 


2 


043 


2 




509 




















2 


2 


2 




052 


2 




4-85 


2 


2 




















1 


2 


062 


2 




4-55 


2 














2 


1 


2 




2 




072 


2 




4-25 


2 


2 


2 












1 


2 




1 




084 


2? 




3-92 


























2 


087 


8 




3-84 


'*7 


8 


8 


*8 




8 


6 


7 


5 


8 


8 


8 


8 


103 


2 




3-38 








E 












2 


2 


1 


2 


114 


3 




3-05 


3 


1 


i 








'2 


2 


2 


2 


2 




26 


132 


2 




2-52 


3 


1 


1 










2 








2 


2 


150 


2 




2-02 


2 


I 


2 






3 










2 


2 


3 


163 


11 




1-63 


9 


12 


12 






11 


12 


12 


10 


13 


11 


12 


12 


170 


6 




1-44 


5 


7 


5 






7 




5 


4 


7 


6 


5 


6 


186 


2 




0-98 


2 


E 


2 






3 


2 






2 


2 


2 


3 


195 


1 




0-71 






















2 


1 




205 


3 




0-41 


3 




3 






3 


2 


2 




3 


3 


3 


3 


217 


9 




5370-09 


9 




10 






9 


9 


10 


8 


9 


9 


9 


10 


231 


6 




5369-67 


6 




6 






6 


5 


5 


5 


5 


6 


6 


6 


243 


2 




9-33 






2 












2 


2 


2 






253 


2 




9-04 






3 








• . . 






2 


3 


3 


3 


264 


3 




8-73 


2 




3 






2 


3 


2 


2 


2 


3 


3 


3 


272 


3 




8-50 


3 




2 










3 


2 


3 


3 


2 




280 


2 




8-27 


3 






... 






3 




2 






2 


2 


294 


3 


(ii'D 


7-85 


















4 


2 




2 




302 


9 




7-62 


9 




10 






9 


10 


10 


8 


10 


9 


6 


9 


306 


3? 




7-52 


















3 










326 


2 


(3?) 


6-95 






2 






3 


2 


2 


2 


2 


3 


"26 


2 


337 


2 




6-63 


3 




2 










2 




2 


3 






344 


3 




6-42 


3 










3 




2 


2 


2 


3 


2 


3 


360 


2 




5-97 






2 








2 








3 


1 


2 


376 


8 




5-51 


"7 




8 






*8 


8 


8 


7 


6 


8 


8 


7 


385 


2? 




5-23 


















• • • 








2 


393 


9 


. • • 


5-01 


9 




"9 






9 


9 


"9 


8 


"9 


"*9 


9 


9 


410 


2 




4-53 


2 




2 






2 


2 






2 


3 


2 


2 


186425 


2 


(3?) 


5364-09 


2 


... 


2 




... 




3 


2 


2 


2 


3 


2 


2 



VOL. XXXVI. PART I. (NO. 6). 



2 E 



180 



DR L. BECKER ON THE SOLAR SPECTRUM. 



Osc. Freq. 


Mean 
Intensity. 


X 


High Sun. 








Low Sun. 








a 

.2 « 
"9,3 


'<- a S 
J °'S 


26 
55 


11a 

42 


16 

42 


30 
37 


33 

27 


34 
39 


41 
32 


43 
34 


44 
32 


46 
30 




r 5 


Eh gW 
3 




1-3 


1-8 


11 


25 


15 


11 


12 


11 


19 


12 


186428 


i 




5363-99 












2 










444 
449 


2 
2 




3-53 
3-40 


}" 2 


3 


26 


3 


2 


1 


2d 





}" 2 




459 


2 




3-10 


1 










4 










463 
468 


8 
6 




2-99 
2-86 


7 
7 


"i 

6 


}" 8 


9 


8d 


8 


(i 


9 

5 


}'» 


9 


486 


3 


4 


2-32 


2 


3 


2 


id 


3 


2 


3 


3 


2 


3 


506 


6 




1-76 


6 


6 


5 


6 


6 


5 


6 


6 


6 


6 


512 


4 




1-60 


4 


4 








3 


3 


4 






530 


2 


3 


1-08 


1 


2 


2 


2 


1 


1 


2 


3 


*2 


2 


549 




2? 


5360-51 














2 


3 


2 




569 




2? 


5359-95 








2 




i 




. . . 


2 


*2 


580 


2 


... 


9-62 


2 


2 










3 


3 






593 


3 




9-26 


3 


3 


3 


3 


3 


3 


3 


3 


3 


3 


605 


2 


■ • • 


8-92 


2 


... 


. . • 


• • • 






2 


2 


2 




617 


1 




8-58 




2 












1 






629 


3 




8-22 


4 


3 , 


3 


3 


3 


3 


3 


3 


3 


3 


651 


2 




7-60 




2 i 


2 








2 


■ . - 






664 


3 




7-21 


3 


3 






2 


2 


3 


2 


2 


2 


671 


2 




7-01 


3 


... 




... 




1 






... 




686 


1 




6-58 




2 










... 




... 


2 


695 


2 




6-32 




2 










2 


2 






713 


3 




5-81 


3 


3 


2 


2 


1 


2 


2 


2 


3 


3 


725 


1 


. .* 


5-46 




2 










2 




. . • 




744 


2 




4-93 


2 


2 












2 




3 


759 


1 




4-50 


• ■ • 


2 




• * • 




"i 






... 




773 


2 


"id 


4-10 


2 


2 




3 






2 


*2d 




"3 


788 


4 


. I • 


3-66 


4 


4 


*4 






"4 


6 


4 


4 


5 


793 


8 




3-52 


8 


9 


8 


9 


10 


7 


7 


8 


8 


8 


809 


2 


(»U 


3-07 




2 








B 


3 


2 


2 


3 


820 


2 


• • » 


2-75 


1 


2 










2 


2 


. • • 


2 


839 


5 




2-20 


5 


5 


"s 


*5 


5 




5 


5 


5 


5 


852 


1 


3 


1-82 




1 








• . • 


3 


3 


2 


3 


871 




4 


1-28 














3 


4 


3 


3 


879 


4 




1-06 


4 


4 


"i 


4 


3 




2 


3 


4 


4 


889 


2 




0-76 




1 














3 


■ . * 


898 


3 


"ii 


0-52 


3 


3 


3 


4 


3 




3 


4 


4 


2 


907 


1 




5350-25 




2 
















■ • . 


917 


6 




5349-96 


*6 


5 


'.7 


"7 


*7 




6 


*6 


5 


5 


928 


8 




9-64 


8 


8 


8 


8 


8 




8 


9 


8 


8 


943 


1 


4 


9-23 


1 


2 


2 








3 


2 


4 


3 


953 


3 


4? 


8-93 


2 


3 


2 


4 


2 




3 


2 


4 


3 


969 


9 




8-48 


9 


9 


8 


9 


9 




9 


9 


9 


9 


978 


2 




8-21 




2 










3 


2 






989 


3 




7-91 


2 


3 


2 


2 






3 


2 


3 


2 


186999 


2 


(s'l) 


7-62 


2 


2 




3 


"2 








3 


2 


187012 


2 




7-25 




2 










2 


2 


2 


2 


025 


3 




6-89 


3 


3 




3 


3 




2 








031 


4 




6-71 


4 


5 


"4 


4 


4 




4 


'4' 


4 


4 


049 


3 


... 


6-20 


3 


3 


3 


3 


3 




3 


3 


4 


3 


187056 


9 




5345-99 


10 


9 


9 


9 


8 




9 


9 


9 


9 



DR L. BECKER ON THE SOLAR SPECTRUM. 



181 



Osc. Freq. 


Mean 
Intensity. 


A. 


High 


Sun. 


Low Sun. 


a . 


09 

3 §.a 


26 
55 


11a 

42 


16 

42 


30 
37 


33 

27 


41 
32 


43 
34 


44 
32 


46 
30 




-4J i — ( 


S no 
























C3 <J 




3 




1-2 


1-8 


12 


23 


14 


11 


10 


17 


11 


187066 


3 




5345-72 






3 




3 


2 


2 






077 


2 






5-40 


1 


2 






• . • 




2 




"2 


093 


3 






4-93 


3 


3 


"3 


3 


3 


3 


3 


3 


3 


103 


3 






4-66 


3 


3 


3 


3 


3 


3 


3 


3 


2 


112 


1 






4-39 




'> 


• . . 








... 






123 


3 






4-08 


2 


2 




2 


3 


"a 


2 


a 


'2 


138 


8 






3-66 


8 


8 


7 


7 


7 


8 


7 


7 


8 


147 


2 






3-38 












2 


2 


2 


2 


164 


5 






2-91 


5 


"5 


6 


5 


5 


6 


5 


6 


6 


180 


3 






2-45 


3 


3 


3 


... 


... 


3 


2 


3 


3 


188 


3 


(3?) 


2-21 


2 


... 




3 


3 


2 


3 


3 




207 


3 




1-68 


4 


3 




2 




2 


. * . 


3 




223 


11 






1-22 


10 


12 


ii 


10 


lid 


11 


10 


11 


11 


242 


4 






0-67 


3 


4 


4 


4 


3 


3 


4 


4 


3 


251 


2 


( 


3?) 


0-42 




... 




3 




... 


• . . 


3 




258 


2 






0-22 


2 




... 








• . . 


2 


• e . 


262 


10 






5340-11 


10 


16 


9 


10 


ii 


9 


9 


9 


9 


281 


3 






5339-56 


3 


3 


3 


3 


. , , 


3 


3 


3 




288 


3 






9-38 


3 




... 


, , . 


2 


2 


3 


2 


"s 


294 


1 






9-20 


... 


... 


... 


... 


... 




... 


2 




300 


1 






9-04 


... 


2 


... 








... 


2 


... 


307 


2 






8-82 


• • » 






. . • 


. . . 


a 


3 


2 


2 


320 


U 






8-46 


4 


"4 


4 


4 


3 


4 


4 


3d 


4 


339 


6 






7-93 


5 


6 


5 


6 


7 


6 


5 


5 


6 


344 


21 






7-79 






• . . 


... 


• . . 




... 


2 




356 


3 






7-44 


3 


3 


2 




1 


3 


3 


2 


3 


371 


8 






7-00 


8 


8 


8 


8 


8 


8 


7 


8 


8 


389 


3 






6-48 


3 




2 


3 


2 


2 


3 


2 


3 


398 


2 






6-23 


3 


"2 




... 


... 


2 


3 




• . . 


410 


2 






5-90 


3 


... 


... 


... 


... 


2 


... 




2 


422 


3 






5-55 


3 


2 


2 


2 


2 


2 


3 


2 


2 


441 


6 






5-01 


6 


6 


6 


5 


6 


7 


6 


5 


6 


463 


3 






4-38 


3 


3 


3 


3 


2 


3 


3 


3 


3 


478 


2 






3 95 








3 






... 






484 


3 






3-79 


3 


3 


3 


3 


3 


3 


3 


3 


3 


496 


2 






3-44 


2 


2 


2 


3 


3 


2 




. , . 


2 


510 


8 






3 04 


7 


8 


8 


8 


7 


8 


"s 


8 


8 


520 


6 






2-76 


6 


6 


6 


5 


6 


6 


6 


6 


6 


534 


2 






2-37 




2 




... 


1 


3 


3 


3 


2 


542 


1 






2-13 




... 




1 


... 


3 


... 


... 


... 


554 


2 






1-80 




2 


2 






3 


3 






562 


4 






1-57 





5 


4 


"4 


"i 


4 


4 


*4 


4 


583 


2 






0-97 




2 


2 


... 


... 


3 


3 


... 


2 


594 
602 


3 

2 






0-67 
0-45 


*2 


3 

2 


i 26 


U 


2 


2 


3 


2 


u 


614 


6 






0-11 


6 


6 


7 


6 


5 


7 


6 


6 


7 


617 


3 






5330-01 


















36 


621 


5 






5329-89 


"i 


"5 


*6 


5 


5 


6 


5 


5 


5 


630 


2 






9-65 




2 


2 




3 








3 


646 


7 






9-18 


"7 


8 ! 


8 


*7 


7 


"7 


'V 


7 


7 


187656 


3? 






5328-91 




... 


3 




... 




... 




... 































182 



DR L. BECKER ON THE SOLAR SPECTRUM. 



Osc. Freq. 


Mean 
Intensity. 


A 


B 


igh Sun. 










Low Sun. 




a . 

T3 r$ 




2b 


11a 


135 


16 


19 


30 


33 


41 


43 


44 


46 




l2 P 


3 g.S 




55 


42 


62 


42 


48 


37 


27 


32 


34 


32 


30 






3 




1-2 


1-8 


2-4 


13 


10 


21 


12 


10 


10 


15 


10 














E 




B 














187666 


8 




5328-61 


8 


9 


8 


9 


9 


9 


8 


8 


8 


8 


8 


676 


7 




8-34 


7 


7 


7 


8 


7 


8 


7 


7 


7 


5 


5 


686 


11 




8-06 


11 


12 


12 


11 


11 


10 


11 


9 


7 


9 


9 


691 


4 




7-91 




5 




5 


4 






5 


E 


4 


4 


713 


3 




7-29 


3 


3 


3 


3 


3 


3 




• . * 




3 


4 


727 


4 




6-89 


4 


4 


4 


4 


4 


4 


3 


tkb 






4 


4 


738 


2 




6-57 




1 


1 


3 








• . • 








2 


751 


6 




6-22 


"5 


6 


6 


6 


*6 


5 


*6 


. . . 






6 


6 


758 


3 




6-01 




3 




3 














2 


E 


771 


6 




5-65 


6 


6 


6 


7 


7 


5 


Q 


... 






6 




780 


3 




5-39 


3 


3 


3 


2 


3 


1 


2 


... 






3 




789 


1 




5-14 




• • • 


2 


• . • 


• . . 


... 


• • • 


... 










795 


2 




4-97 


1 


2 


2 


2 






2 


• . . 






2 


. . . 


818 


11 




4-32 


11 


12 


12 


7 


10 


12 


11 


11 






10 




824 


4 




4-15 








4 














3 




842 


3 




3-64 




3 


2 


3 




2 


3 


• ■ * 






3 




853 


1 




331 




2 


2 




• . . 






. , t 










866 


2 




2-96 


i 


3 


2 


3 


2 






. • * 






3 




877 


2 


(s'ij 


2-64 


1 


1 




3 




2 


3 


• . . 






2 




895 


7 




2-13 


7 


7 


*8 


8 


8 


7 


7 


7 






8 




904 


3 




1-87 


... 


3 




2 


2 




3 


... 






3 




919 


1 




1-44 




1 












• • . 










928 


6 




1-18 


"i 


6 


6 


7 


5 


7 


5 


6 






6 


* . ■ 


939 


3 




0-88 


3 


3 


2 


2 


2 












3 




951 


2 




0-54 


■ • » 


2 


1 


2 














3 




966 


5 




5320-11 


4 


5 


5 


4 


*5 


"4 


"3 








4 




974 


4 




5319-88 


3 


4 


4 


3 


4 




3 








3 




991 
187995 


3 
3 




9-41 
9-30 


3 
3 


4 
3 


3 

2 


} 3 


2 


{"3 


} 3 


{::. 






3 
3 


... 


188010 


4 




8-87 


4 


4 


3 


4 


4 


4 


3 








4 




026 


4 




8-43 


4 


3 


3 


4 


4 


3 


3 








4 




037 


1 




8-11 




1 


1 
















2 




055 


4 




7-60 


4 


4 


3 


"4 


3 


3 


3 








3 




067 


2 




7-25 




2 


1 
















3 




080 


8 




6-88 


"8 


8 


8 


10 


9 


*8 


9 


"9 






8 


. . . 


087 


8 




6-70 


8 


8 


9 


10 


9 


8 


9 


9 






8 




096 


2 




6-44 










2 




• • • 


E 






3 




105 


1 


3? 


6-19 




*2 




2 




3 










3 


* . . 


116 


3 




5-88 


3 


3 


3 


3 


3 


3 


3 








3 




125 


2 




5-62 


3 


2 


3 






... 














139 


6 




5-21 


6 


6 


5 


6 


7 


5 


5 








6 




146 


3 




5-03 


2 


3 


4 








4 












159 


1 




4-66 




2 


1 




















170 


1 




4-35 


■ •• 




2 
















3 




173 


1 




4-27 






1 




















182 


1 


3? 


4-02 




2 


1 


3 




2 










3 




194 


6 




367 


6 


6 


5 


6 


V 


6 


5 


... 






7 




205 


2 




3-36 


2 


2 


1 
















2 




217 


5 




301 


5 


5 


5 


4 


5 


4 


4 








5 




226 


4 




2-77 


4 


3 


4 


3 


4 


2 










4 




188244 


1 




5312-25 




2 


1 










... 











DR L. BECKER ON THE SOLAR SPECTRUM. 



183 



— " 

Osc. Freq. 


Mean 
Intensity. 


X 


High Sun. 


Low Sun. 


a . 
.2 s 


■aSd 

^ fi o 


lb 


Ha 


136 


16 


19 


21 


30 


33 


44 






,2 °.a 




55 


42 


62 


42 


48 


50 


37 


27 


32 






» l) O 
























o 


H .sw 

t-3 




1-2 


1-9 


2-4 


14 


11 


18 


19 


11 


13 


188257 
263 


3 
3 






5311-88 
1-71 


3 
3 


3 

2 


3 


1 2d 


.: { 




2 

2 


3 


} 2 


281 


1 






1-20 




1 


2 












2 


296 


4 






0-80 


4 


3 


4 


3 


} m i 




3 


3 


3 


306 


3 






5310-50 


3 


1 


3 


2 




2 




3 


326 


2 






5309-95 


3 


2 


2 




2 




16 


1 




346 


2 






9-38 


2 


3 


3 


*2 












366 


2 






8-80 


2 


2 


2 


3 


... , 




3 




2 


377 


5 






8-50 


5 


6 


5 


5 


5 




5 


5 


5 


390 


1 






8-14 






2 














396 


3 






7-97 


1 


2 


2 


3 


2 




2 


1 


3 


413 


8 






7-49 


8 


9 


9 


8 


9 




8 


8 


8 


418 


4 






7-34 


4 


4 


5 










3 




437 


2 






6-82 




2 


2 














447 


3 






6-52 


2 


2 


2 


2 






2 


2 


2 


468 


6 






5-95 


5 


6 


6 


5 


"V 




5 


4 


5 


481 


2 






5-59 




2 


1 


3 






2 




3 


493 


2 






5-24 


2 


3 


2 




1 








2 


502 


1 






4-98 






2 














509 


2 






4-78 


1 


3 


2 


3 


1 




2 




2 


526 


4 






4-30 


4 


5 


4 


3 


5 




3 


3 


4 


538 


3 






3-98 


3 


3 


3 


2 


3 




2 




3 


550 


2 






3-62 




2 


2 














558 


3 






3-40 


2 


3 


3 


2 


3 




*2 


3 


3 


572 


2 






3-02 




1 


3 


2 








... 


3 


584 


21 






2-67 


2 


















593 


10 






2-43 


9 


10 


10 


9 


io 




9 


io 


9 


609 


3 






1-98 


3 


3 


3 


2 


2 




3 


3 


3 


625 


2 






1-51 




2 


3 


2 


2 






3 




639 


4 






1-12 


4 


4 


4 


4 


4 




4 


4 


4 


649 


7 






0-86 


8 


8 


7 


6 


8 




6 


8 


7 


661 


3 






0-52 


3 


2 


1 


2 


2 






4 


3 


676 


5d 






5300-09 


5 


5 


6 


5 


U 




"i 


7 


5 


695 


3 






5299-56 


3 


2 


2 


2 


2 




3 


4 


3 


709 


2 






9-16 




3 


1 






B 








718 


6d 




»{ 


8-95 
8-85 


}"* 


6cZ 


5 


5 


7 


6 


5 


J 4? 
1 5 


}"< 


730 


6 






8-57 


7 


6 


5 


6 


8 


7 


6 


6 


7 


738 


8 






8-34 


8 


8 


8 


8 


9 


9 


8 


8 


8 


748 


7 






8-06 


8 


7 


7 


7 


7 


8 


7 


7 


7 


757 


2 






7-81 






2 


3 










2 


770 


7 






7-44 


7 


*7 


7 


7 


8 


8 


"i 


V 


7 


775 


4 






7-32 


3 


4 


4 




3 




4 


3 


3 


786 


2 






6-99 




1 




2 


... 






4 




795 


8 






6-76 


8 


9 


9 


8 


8 


8 


8 


8 


8 


803 


2 






6-53 




2 






2 


1 




1 


3 


815 


3 






6-18 


2 


3 


3 


2 


2 




3 




3 


827 


4 






5-84 


4 


4 


4 l 


3 


4 


4 


4 


3 


4 


843 


6 






5-40 


5 


6 


6 


4 


5 


5 


5 


5 


5 


855 


2 






5-06 


1 


2 


2 


... 


2 


2 






3 


188872 


4 






5294-60 


4 


5 


5 


3 


4 


4 


4 


4 


4 



184 



DR L. BECKER ON THE SOLAR, SPECTRUM. 



Osc. Freq. 


Mean 
Intensity. 


A 




High 


Sun. 




Low Sun. 


E 

.3 A 




2 


% 2b 


11a 


136 


16 


li 


> 21 


30 


33 


44 


52 




S| 


3 O.S 




5 


5 55 


42 


62 


42 


41 


3 50 


37 


27 


32 


29 






5) Sl£ 

3 




1- 


2 1-2 


1-9 


2-3 


16 


1! 


I 18 


17 


10 


11 


10 


188883 


1 




5294-28 






2 














1 




892 


6c? 




403 




5 


6 


*6 


4 


1 


ci "V 


*5 


5 


5 






908 


2 




3-58 






3 


2 


2 


s 








2 






921 
926 


4 

4 




3-23 
3-08 


}"■■ 


4c? 


u 


4 
4 


} 3 


4 


; {1 


1 3d 


3 


4 






940 


6 




2-68 




5 


6 


6 


4fc 


e 


7 


5 


4 


7 




, , 


956 


2 




2-24 




2 


2 


2 






2 


1 




2 






967 


1 




1-93 








2 












• .. 




, , 


983 


2 




1-47 




3 


3 


2 


3 










• . . 






188993 


1 




1-20 






2 












... 


2 




•• 


189005 


3 




0-88 




3 


3 


3 


36 




3 


2 


... 


2c? 






017 


2 


4 


0-52 






2 


2 


3 


, . 


4 


2 










031 


1 




5290-15 






2 










.. . 




• . . 






038 


3 




5289-93 




2 


2 


2 


"2 




3 


2 


2 


2 






053 
060 


2 

2 




9-51 
9-32 


}■■ 


2 


3 


{J 


} 2 




3 


... 




2c? 




•' 


073 


2 




8-95 






2 




3 




2 






2 






083 


8 




8-68 




7 


8 


"8 


8 


C 


9 


'f 


"i 


8 






088 


3 




8-53 


, . 






3 






• . . 




3 








105 


1 




8-06 


.. 




i 


... 










... 








107 


3 


5 


8-00 




2 


3 


3 


4 




5 


3 




3 






118 


2 




7-69 




2 


2 


3 






... 




2 


2 






131 


4 




7-34 




3 


5 


3 


3 




4 


3 


3 


4 






151 


3 




6-77 




2 


3 


2 


3 






1 


2 


3 






168 


2 




6-32 




2 


2 


2 


3 










2 






177 


2 




6-05 






2 




3 










• . . 




, , 


188 


3c7 




5-74 




3 


2 


3 


2 




2 


2d 


*2 


3 






207 


6 




5-23 




5 


6 


5 


5 




7 


5 


5 


5 




,, 


215 


1 




4-99 


# 


2 


1 


2 












1 






223 


5 




4-76 




4 


4 


5 


5 




6 


4 


4 


5 




.. 


232 


4 




4-53 




4 


4 


5 


4 




5 


4 


4 


5 






244 


7 




4-19 




6 


7 


7 


6 




8 


6 


7 


7 


B 


260 


10 




3-75 




9 


10 


10 


9 


lie 

J 


'{'° 


9 


9 


9 


I 9 


266 


5 


(V?) 


3-58 


i 


: 4 


4 


6 


7 


5 


5 


7 


281 


3 




3-16 


5 


! 3 


2 


4 


3 






2 




2 


5 


293 


2 




2-82 






2 


4 












2 




304 


4 




2-51 


"4 


5 


4 


5 


4 


. . 


5 


"i 


4 


4 


4 


311 


2 




2-32 






3 














• . . 




326 
330 


9 
5 




1-89 
1-78 


}"' 


1 9 


H 


10 
5 


}"* 


c 


1 9 


9 


9 


9 


{": 


341 
344 


3 
3 




1-49 
1-40 


h 


.c? 3 c? 


3 


{.! 


} .. S 




3 


3 


3 


3 


3 


353 


1 




1-13 






2 


1 




, , 










2 


369 


4 




0-69 




1 "4 


5 


4 


3 




4 


4 


4 


'4 


4 


378 


7 




0-45 


\ 


7 


7 


6c? 


6 




8 


7 


7 


7 


»7 
/ 


388 


3 




5280-17 




{ 3 


3 


3 


3 




4 


3 


3 


3 


3 


397 


4 




5279-92 


4 


t 4 


4 


4 


3 




4 


4 


4 


3 


4 


401 


2 




9-80 


] 


L 2 


2 








• . . 


• . . 








416 


2 




9-40 


6 


J 


3 














"2 


1 


428 


3 




9-06 


6 


} 2 


3 


2 


2 




\ 3 


f 3 




I 3 

I 3 


2 


189437 


3 




5278-79 




J 3 


3 


3 






4 


3 


3 



DR L. BECKER ON THE SOLAR SPECTRUM. 



185 



Osc. Freq. 


Mean 
Intensity. 


X 


High 


Sun. 




Low Sun. 


a . 

3 CO 

•3 a; 

S.-e 


b a ° 


2a 
55 


26 
55 


11a 
42 


136 
62 


16 
42 


19 

48 


21 

50 


30 
37 


33 

27 


4' 
3! 


t 5] 


I 52 
29 




+»;£ 


<D aj o 

































EH g W 

3 




1-2 


1-2 


1-9 


2-3 


18 


12 


19 


16 


9 


1( 


) 1] 


I 10 


189455 


3 




5278-30 


1} 


3 


u 


3 


2 




4 


3 


3 


2 




2 


462 


3 




8-10 


2 






3 






S 




3 


486 


3 




7-45 


3 


3 


3 


2 






4 




2 


2 




2 


495 


1 


3 


7-19 






2 




3 




3 


2 




2 




3 


501 


3 




7-01 


3 


2 


2 


2 








1 


"26 


j 




2 


514 


1 




6-66 








2 
















2 


527 


3 




6-29 














5 




2 








530 


9 




6-20 


8 


8 


9 


"9 


*9 


9 


10 


9 


8 


c 


1 


9 


542 


7 




5-89 


7 


6 


7 


7 


8 


8 


8 


7 


7 


f 


5 


7 


549 


2 




5-69 






1 












... 




; 


1 


559 

564 


6 
5 


(7?) 


5-40 

5-28 


7 
7 


5 
4 


6 

4 


5 

5 


\» 


8 


7 


8 


u 


4 


.. 


6 
4 


570 


6 


(f?) 


5-11 


7 


5 


6 


5 


8 


7 


7 


8 


7 


i 




6 


585 


3 




4-67 


3 


3 


4 


3 


4 




3 


3 


3 


4 


'.. 


3 


594 


3 




4-43 


3 




4 


3 






3 


3 


3 


4 


[ 


3 


602 


31 




4-20 




















4 


t 




610 


2 




3-98 


2 


3 


2 


2 






3 


2 




e 


! 




614 


1 




3-86 
























1 


628 


9 




3-48 


9 


8 


8 


9 


10 


illd 


{": 


9 


*9 


j 


j " 


9 


636 


9 




3-26 


9 


9 


8 


9 


10 


9 


9 


J 


5 


9 


649 


2 




2-90 


1 




2 


2 






2 






< 


5 


1 


664 
669 


4 
4 




2-48 
2-35 


}.• 


i 
4 


3 
3 


4 

4 


h 




4 


{"i 


}"* 


{1 




3 

4 


678 


5 




2-10 


4 


5 


5 


5 


4 




5 


4 


4 


1 




4 


691 


2 




1-74 


1 




3 


2 






3 


1 


2 


£ 


! 


2 


705 


4 




1-34 


4 


4 


5 


4 


"4 




5 


4 


4 


4 


1 


5 


713 


5 




113 


4 




5 


4 


4 




6 


4 


4 


f 




5 


722 


2? 




0-86 




















c 


! I 


■ 


737 


10 




0-46 


10 


9 


11 


10 


}» 


9 


12 


/io 


8 


1( 


) J 


) i"6 


739 


10 




0-39 


10 


9 


11 


10 


{10 


8 


1( 


) i 


i 10 


753 


3 




5270-00 






2 




4 




5 










2 


766 


12 




5269-66 


12 


11 


12 


12 


11 


12 


12 


12 


ii 


is 


! 15 


! 11 


775 


3 




9-40 




B 


2 






E 


5 






1 


4 *. 


I 3 


791 


2 




8-95 






3 


2 














f 


2 


803 


5 




8-62 


5 




5 


5 


1 4rf 




(6 


5 


5 




4 


4 


811 


5 




8-39 


5 




5 


5 




1 6 


5 


5 




4 


: 5 


825 


2 




8-00 






2 


2 














5 


! 2 


834 


2 




7-76 


3 




3 


2 






• • ■ 


1 


2 




2 




849 


4 




7-35 


4 




5 


4 


3 




5 


4 


4 




4 


5 


856 


2 




7-15 


2 




3 
















S 


! 2 


874 


10 




6-66 


10 




10 


10 


10 




10 


11 


10 




1C 


1 10 


881 


4 




6-46 


4 




5 








6 








2 


3 


896 


5 




6-05 


5 




5 


5 






4 


5 


5 




4 


5 


904 


8 




5-81 


8 




8 


8 


}" 9 


{::: 


8 


8 


8 




J 


8 


910 


8 




5-66 


8 




8 


8 


8 


8 


8 




£ 


8 


926 


4 




5-22 


4 




5 


4 






4 


4 


B 




4 


5 


937 


5 




4-91 


5 




6 


5 


3 




6 


5 






e 


6 


947 


2 




4-62 






3 


1 














s 


2 


956 
958 


8 

8 




4-37 
4-31 


K{ 




8 
8 


7 
9 


}" 9 




9 


10 






8 


8 
8 


189970 


5 




5263-98 


5 




5 


5 






5 


5 




- 


4 


5 



































186 



DR L. BECKER ON THE SOLAR SPECTRUM. 



Osc. Frcq. 


Mean 
Intensity. 


A 


High Sun. 


Low Sun. 


a 

3 oj 


o *> a 
1g| 

3 


2a 
55 
1-2 


11a 
42 
1-9 


13& 
62 
2 - 2 


16 

: 42 
; 20 


21 
50 
22 


30 
37 
15 


51 
12 


52; 

29 

11 


189975 


3 




5263-84 




3 


4 












984 


3 




361 




• • • 


3 










3 


189988 


9 




3-48 


9 


9 


9 


9 


9 


10 


"8 


8 


190004 


4 




3-05 


4 


4 


4 


4 


3 


4 


3 


4 


012 


3 




2-83 


3 


3 


3 




2 


3 


2 


3 


029 
032 


8 
6 




2-36 

2-28 


9 
5 


9 

5 


7 
7 


}" 9 


8 


10 


{! 


8 
6 


041 


3? 




2-02 




3 








• ■ • 






048 


8 




1-82 


9 


8 


*8 


9 


8 


9 


*8 


8 


053 


2 


... 


1-68 












... 


2 


3 


066 


2 




1-33 




2 


2 




2 




2 


2 


074 


1 




1-12 














2 




082 
086 


3 
3 




0-90 
0-79 


3 
3 


I' 3 


3 




3 


Zd 


U 


}" 2 


095 


5 




0-54 


6 


5 


6 


4b 


5 


5 


4 


5 


111 


3 




5260-09 


2 


3 


3 




2 


3 


3 


3 


129 


3 




5259-60 


3 


3 


3 




3 


4 


3 


3 


150 


3 




9-00 


3 


3 


3 


... 


3 


4 


3 


3 


170 


2 




8-46 


2 


2 


3 




2 


3 


2 


2 


181 


1 




8-16 










... 




2 


1 


193 


5 




7-81 


5 


5 


5 


4 


5 


5 


5 


5 


203 


2 




7-53 


3 


2 










3 


2 


218 


5 




7-13 


5 


5 


5 


4 


5 


5 


5 


5 


231 


2 




6-76 


3 


1 






2 




1 


2 


241 


2 




6-50 






2 




... 


... 


2 


2 


249 


2 




6-26 


2 


2 


2 










2 


262 
265 


5 
5 




5-92 

5-82 


}' 


Ad 


{a 


5 
5 


1 5d 


{} 


}"« 


{! 


273 


3 




5-60 




3 


2 










5 


279 


5 


... 


5-45 


5 


5 


6 


... 


5 


4 


5 


6 


288 


5 




5-19 


5 


4 


5 




4 


4 


5 


5 


295 


9 




5-01 


8 


9 


8 


10 


9 


9 


8 


9 


307 


2 




4-66 




2 


2 




3 




2 


2 


323 


1 




4-23 




2 


... | 










2 


330 


3 




4-04 


3 


3 


3 




3 


3 


3 


3 


337 


2 




3-84 




2 


2 












346 


8 




3-58 


8 


8 


8 


8 


8 


8 


"s 


O 



355 


2 




3-35 




1 






\ 2 




3 




362 


5 




314 


5 


5 


5 


"7 


4 


4 


4 


5 


375 


2 


... 


2-80 


... 


2 


2 






... 


2 


2 


387 


2 




2-46 


3 


2 






3 


2 


2 


2 


396 


5 




2-21 


5 


5 


5 




4 


5 


5 


5 


401 


6 




2-06 


6 


6 


7 


7 


6 


6 


6, 


6 


416 


2 


"it 


1-66 


2 


2 


3 




4 


2 


2 


3 


421 


1 


3 


1-52 






2 


3 


3 




2 


2 


442 


3 


... 


0-94 


2 


2 


2 




3 


2 


3 


2 


449 


8 




0-75 


9 


9 


8 


9 


8 


8 


8 


9 


458 


3? 




0-51 










3 






... 


464 


7 




0-33 


8 


"i 


'V 


8 


7 


8 


7 


"7 


472 


1 




5250-11 




2 












2 


190483 


4 




5249-81 


3 


4 


3 


3 


4 


4 


4 


4 



DR L. BECKER ON THE SOLAR SPECTRUM. 



187 





Mean 






















Osc. Freq. 


Intensity. 


\ 






High Sun. 








Low Sun. 






a . 

r- CD 


o +» a 




2a 


11a 


13* 


16 


21 


22 


30 


51 


52 




S-| 


is °-s 






55 


42 


62 


42 


50 


25 


37 




29 






^ m O 


























c8 <3 


1> © L_d 






1-2 


1-9 


2-2 


22 


24 


17 


14 


14 


13 




O 


3 
























190490 


4 




5249-61 




3 


4 


3 




4 




4 


4 


4 


503 
508 


5 
4 




9-27 
9-12 


} 


U 


{ 5 


6 

4 


}■"« 


5 




5 


U 


6 
5 


521 


1 




8-76 






l 


2 












2 


531 


4 




8-49 




3 


3 


3 


4 


4 




4 


4 


3 


548 


4 




8-03 




4 


4 


3 


3 


4 




4 


4 


4 


559 


8 




7-71 




8 


8 


8 


9 


8 




8 


8 


8 


569 


3 




7-44 




3 


3 


3 




3 






4 


3 


577 


8 




7-21 




8 


7 


7 


9 


7 




8 


7 


7 


588 


4 




6-93 




3 


3 


4 


6 


3 




3 


3 


4 


594 


3? 




6-74 




3 


... 
















612 


2 




6-26 






2 


2 










. • . 


3 


623 


3 




5-95 




2 


3 




3 


\ 3d 


{::: 


2 


3 


3 


630 


3 




5-77 




3 


3 


2 


• . . 


3 


2 


3 


648 


3 




5-28 






3 


2 


3 


3 




3 


2 


2 


666 
672 


2 
2 




4-76 
4-62 


} 


3 


3 






3 




2d 


2 


r 2 

1 2 


681 


2 




4-35 






2 


2 














693 


2 




4-04 






. . . 




. . . 


3 






i 




697 


7 




3-92 




7 


7 


V 


6 


8 




8 


7 


8 


711 


4 




3-55 




4 


4 


4 




5 




4 


4 


4 


719 


4 




3-32 




4 


4 


4 


5 


4 




4 


4 


4 


734 


2 




2-90 






2 


1 






E 




2 


1 


745 


9d 


;;•{ 


2-68 
2-52 


} 


9 


9 


9 


9 


9 


9 


{:! 


I 9 


9 


759 
763 


4 
3 




2-21 
2-10 




4 
4 


4 
.3 


4 

2 


V 


4 


4 


4 


3 


{3 


780 


3 




1-64 




3 


3 


3 




4 




3 


3 


2 


803 


3 




1-02 




3 


3 


3 




4 




3 


3 


2 


817 


3 




0-61 


I 
















11 


2 










4 


3 


4 


6 


4 


4 


3 




823 


3 




5240-47 
















2 


841 


8d 




5239-97 




8 


7 


8 


Id 


7 


8 


7 


7 


8 


853 


2 




9-64 




1 


2 


2 




2 


3 




2 


1 


873 


4 




9-09 




4 


4 


4 


3 


3 


5 


"4 


4 


4 


884 


4 




8-77 




4 


4 


4 




4 


5 


3 


4 


4 


896 


2 




8-45 




1 


2 


2 






3 




2 


2 


906 


1 




8-18 


















2 




914 


3 




7-95 




2 


3 


2 


3 


3 


3 


2 


3 


2 


931 


8 




7-48 




7 


7 


8 


8 


8 


7 


7 


8 


8 


941 


2 




7-21 




1 


1 


2 






2 


1 


2 


2 


949 


2 




7-00 














3 




2 




957 


3 




6-73 




3 


3 


2 


3 


2 


3 




3 


1 


968 


4 




6-48 




3 




4 






4 


2 




5 


974 


6 




6-32 




6 


6 


6 


5 


6 


6 


5 


7 


6 


983 


2 




6-08 






2 


2 






4 


• • • 




2 


190998 


4 




5-67 






5 


5 










3 




191003 


8 




5-53 




' 1 


8 


8 


9 


8 


7 


7 


9 


8 


Oil 


5 




5-30 




4 


5 


4 




6 


6 


5 


4 


4 


021 


1 


• . . 


5-04 






2 
















032 


8 




4-72 




7 


8 


"8 


8 


8 


"7 


7 


9 


*7 


191046 


3 


5234-35 




3 


3 


3 




3 


3 


2 


3 


2 



VOL. XXXVI. PART I. (NO. 6). 



2 F 



188 



DR L. BECKER ON THE SOLAR SPECTRUM. 



Osc. Freq. 


Mean 
Intensity. 


X 


High Sun. 






Low 


Sun. 






a 

.2 A 




Telluric 

Lines on the 

Horizon. 


2a 
55 
1-2 


11a 
42 
2-0 


186 

62 
2-2 


16 
42 
25 


21 
50 
26 


22 
25 
16 


30 
37 
13 


51 
16 


52 
29 

14 


191059 


1 




5233-98 














1 




2 


069 


2 






3-71 


"i 


2 


2 




3 






2 


2 


076 


1 






351 


















2 


094 


11 






3-02 


11 


12 


12 


11 


io 


io 


i"i 


12 


11 


100 


4 






2-85 




4 














5 


109 


3 






2-61 


2 


4 


3 


3 


"4 


3 


3 


2 


3 


125 


2 






2-17 


... 


3 


2 












2 


139 


3 7 

3 ? ' 






1-80 


2 7 

3 b 


3 


2 




I 36 


{} 


3 


3 


2 


149 






1-51 


3 


3 




3 


3 


3 


163 


1 






1-14 


... 


2 














2 


171 


2 






0-91 




3 


2 






3 




2 


3 


182 


3 






0-63 


3 


2 


3 








3 


3 




194 


5 






5230-30 


4 


5 


5 




4 


6 


5 


3 


5 


205 


9 






5229-98 


8 


10 


9 


8 


9 


8 


8 


7 


8 


209 


3? 






9-89 






... 


. - . 










3 


225 


1 






9-45 




1 


2 










2 


1 


231 
239 


2 

2 






9-29 
9 05 


3 
3 


2 

2 


} 2 


... 


3 


3 


2 


2 


2d 


250 


1 






8-77 


... 


2 


2 












1 


260 


7 






8-48 


6 


7 


7 


66 


"7 


7 


"e 


"7 


7 


269 


4 






8-24 


4 


4 


4 




4 


4 


4 


4 


5 


283 


3 






7-87 


2 


3 


3 


... 


3 


... 




3 


3 


293 


2 






7-59 










2 






3 




303 


10 






7-31 


10 


io 


io 


14 


10 


io 


16 


10 


ii 


315 


9 






6-98 


8 


9 


9 


8 


9 


9 


9 


9 


10 


326 


8 






6-67 


8 


8 


8 


E 


8 


8 


8 


8 


9 


338 


2 






6-36 


2 








... 


2 




3 


... 


343 


3 






6-21 


2 


3 


3 


• • . 


3 


3 


3 


3 


3 


354 


3 


. . 




5-91 


2 


3 


3 




3 


3 


3 


2 


3 


365 


7 






5-62 


7 


8 


8 




5 


7 


7 


7 


8 


375 


1 






5-34 












• . . 






1 


384 

387 


6 

7 






5-11 
5-02 


} ' 


(i 


6 

8 




h 


u 


}« 


U 


6 
6 


398 


5 






4-71 


4 


5 


5 




6 


5 


4 


4 


5 


407 


6 






4-48 


5 


6 


6 




6 


6 


5 


5 


6 


417 


3 






4-19 


3 


4 


3 




2 


3 


3 


2 


3 


422 


1 






4-06 


2 


• ■ - 
















425 


2 






3-98 


2 




2 










... 




434 


id 






3-74 


4 


5 


4 




5 


4d 


4 


4 


4 


449 


6 






3-33 


5 


6 


6 




6 


6 


5 


5 


5 


460 


2 






3-03 




2 


2 




2 








2 


468 


5 






2-79 


4 


5 


5 




5 


5 


4 


5 


4 


479 


5 






2-50 


4 


5 


5 




6 


5 


4 


5 


4 


493 


2 






213 




2 


2 




3 






2 


2 


502 


5 






1-88 


4 


5 


6 




6 


5 


5 


6 


5 


513 


3 






1-57 


3 


3 


2 






3 




2 


2 


528 


5 






1-18 


4 


5 


5 




5 


4 


f' 


u 


5 


533 


4 


fi 




1-04 


4 


4 


5 




4 


4 


4 


544 


1 






0-73 




2 












2 


1 


557 


5 






0-39 


5 


5 


5 




5 


5 


4 


5 


5 


191565 


4 






5220-17 


4 


4 


4 




4 


4 


4 


4 


4 



DR L. BECKER ON THE SOLAR SPECTRUM. 



189 





Mean 






















Intensity. 






High Sun. 








Low Sun. 






a 

3 . 


0) 


















Osc. Freq. 




o +-> a 


A. 


2a 


11a 


136 


21 


22 


30 


51 


52 




S3 
0^ 


so- 

Eh bW 
h3 




55 
1-3 


42 
2-0 


62 
2-1 


50 
28 


25 
14 


37 
12 


18 


29 
16 


191578 


5 




5219-81 


5 


5 


5 


5 


6 


4 


5 


5 


586 


1 




9-58 




2 












2 


600 


3 




9-20 




3 


3 


3 


2d 


2 


3 


2 


609 


2 




8-97 


2 


3 


2 




... 




3 


2 


621 


2 




8-64 






3 


... 


... 




3 


2 


633 


7 




8-32 


6 


6 


6 


7 


6 


6 


7 


8 


644 


7 




8-00 


6 


6 


6 


7 


6 


6 


7 


8 


651 


1 




7-82 




1 


... 


... 


..... 


... 






662 


M 


'■A 


7-61 
7-43 


5 

7 


} * 


9 


9 


8 


9 


9 


9 


677 


2 




7-11 


1 


2 


2 


... 


2 




3 


2 


688 


3 




6-80 




3 






• • * 








695 


5 




6-62 


6 


5 


5 


5 


5 


4 


5 


6 


704 


8 




6-39 


7 


9 


9 


8 


8 


8 


9 


9 


724 


2 




5-84 


3 


1 


2 


. . . 








2 


731 


4 




5-63 


3 


4 


3 


4 


3 


3d 


4 


4 


745 


9 




5-27 


8 


9 


10 


8 


9 


8 


9 


9 


760 


2? 




4-84 




... 


2 






... 






765 


4 




4-71 


4 


4 


5 


*4 


' 4 


4 


3 


4 


780 


4 




4-31 


4 


4 


5 


4 


4 


4 


3 


4 


791 


3 




4-01 


3 


3 


3 


3 


3 


3 


3 


3 


800 


21 




3-77 











... 


• . . 


3 




807 
811 


3 
3 




3-58 
3-48 


}'}_ 


4 


4 


3 


3 


3 


{I 


4 
4 


820 


2 




3-23 






3 










3 


830 


2 




2-96 




2 












3 


834 


4 




2-83 


4 


4 


*5 


4 


4 


4 


4 


4 


851 


id 




2-38 


4 


4 


4 


4 


4d 


4 


3 


4 


868 


2 




1-92 




2 


2 


3 






»• • 


2 


879 


6 




1-63 


5 


6 


7 


5 


6 


5 


7 


6 


890 


3 




1-31 


3 


3 


3 


3 


3 


3 


4 


3 


903 


4 




0-97 


4 


3 


4 


4 


4 


3 


5 


4 


914 


3? 




0-66 


3 
















921 


8 




0-48 


7 


8 


'8 


8 


8 


7 


10 


9 


929 


3 




5210-27 




3 




2 








4 


940 


3 




5209-95 


3 


2 


3 


3 


4 


3 


3 


3 


944 


1 




9-85 
















2 


957 


2d 




9-51 




2 


2 


2 


2 




3 


2d 


969 


2 




9-17 


2 






2 




3 


3 




987 


9 




8-69 


9 


. 9 


9 


12 


9 


9 


12 


10 


191994 


10 




8-49 


9 


10 


10 


12 


10 


9 


12 


10 


192006 


2 




8-17 


3 




3 












Oil 


4 




8-03 


4 


4 


5 


4d 


4 


4 


i 


' i 


022 


2 




7-75 




2 


... 












034 


3 




7-41 


2 


2 


3 


36 


2 


2 


3 


2 


045 


1 




7-13 


2 














2 


056 


3d 


;;;{ 


6-88 
6-76 


} 3 


2 


3 




2 


3 


3 


{ i 


064 


3 




6-60 


3 


3 


3 


3 


3 


4 


3 


4 


075 


6 




6-29 


7 


4 


6 


6 


6 


5 




5 


192082 


10 




5206-12 


9 


10 


11 


11 


8 


9 


10 


10 



190 



DR L. BECKER ON THE SOLAR SPECTRUM. 



Osc. Freq. 


Mean 
Intensity. 


A 






High Sun. 




Low Sun. 


a 


^ Q O 




2a 


11a 


136 


21 


22 


30 


51 


52 


73 







3 o .^2 

« s ° 
3 






55 
1-3 


42 
2-0 


62 
2-1 


50 
29 


25 
13 


37 
11 


21 


29 

18 


36 
22 


192092 


6 




5205-83 




5 


6 


6 


6 


5 


6 


4 


5 




108 


2 


4 


5-40 






2 


2 






2 


4 


2 




119 


2 


4 


5-12 




3 


2 


2 


4 


2 


2 


4 


2 




132 


2? 




4-77 


















2 




137 


lOd 


:::{ 


4-64 
4-60 


} 


11 


10 


{is 


}» 


10 


10 


11 


10 




156 


2 




4-10 






2 










1 


2 




171 


3 




3-71 




2 


3 


2 


2 


2 


1 


3 


2 




181 


2 




3-42 








2 




& 










195 


3 




3-06 




2 


3 


2 


3 


2 


1 


3 


2 




217 


lOd 


f 


2-49 

2-42 


} 


10 


10 


{ J 


}» 


9 


10 


11 


9 




227 


2 




2-19 




1 


3 


2 




3 


2 




2 




250 


2 




1-57 




2 


3 


2 










3 




261 


4 




1-26 




4 


4 


3 


3 


4 


3 


3 


4 




269 


2 




1-04 






2 


2 


3 


3 






1 




287 


6 




0-55 




5 


6 


6 


4 


6 


5 


5 


6 




297 


5 




5200-30 




4 


5 


5 


4 


5 


5 


5 


5 




314 
319 


3 

2 




5199-84 
9-68 


} 


id 


I I 


3 
3 


}» 


u 


3 


3 


3 

2 




330 


1 




9-39 






2 








1 




2 




343 


3 




9 05 




"I 


2 


2 














352 


9 




8-81 




8 


9 


9 


8 


"7 


*8 


9 


"9 




364 


2 




8-47 






2 


2 










3 




379 


5 




8-07 




5 


5 


6 


5 


5 


5 


5 


5 




393 


8 




7-69 




8 


8 


8 


7 


7 


7 


8 


8 




409 


5 




7-27 




4 


5 


6 


5 


5 


4 


4 


5 




419 


2 




6-99 






2 


2 












E 


430 


5 




6-68 




5 


5 


5 


1 7c? 


{"! 


5 


6 


5 


Y 


435 


5 




6-55 




5 


5 


5 


5 


6 


5 


449 


7 




6-19 




6 


8 


7 


7 


6 


7 


8 


8 


7 


460 


2 




5-89 




3 


1 
















470 


8 




5-61 




7 


8 


J8 


8 


V 


8 


9 


8 


8 


486 


3 




5-19 




3 










4 








490 


9 




5-08 




7 


9 


9 


8 


"s 


8 


9 


9 


9 


493 


3 




5-00 








2 










4 




505 


1 




4-66 








2 










2 




515 


2 




4-40 




1 


2 












3 


1 


525 


3 




4-13 




3 


3 


3 


3 


4 


3 




3 


) 


544 
549 


3 
3 




3-61 
3-47 


} 


3 


{ 3 

I 2 


} 3 


3 


4 


3 


3 


2 
3 


V ib 


564 


8 




3-07 




7 


8 


8 


8 


8 


7 


9 


8 


7 


584 


5 




2-55 




5 


4 


4 




6 


5 




5 




588 


10 




2-44 




8 


10 


10 


10 


9 


8 


12 


10 


10 


601 


4 




2-09 




4 


4 


5 




5 


4 




4 




616 


5 




1-68 














5 








621 


10 




1-55 




8 


10 


10 


10 


9 


8 


10 


16 


10 


640 


2 




1-02 




• • • 


1 


2 








E 


2 




650 


2 




0-76 


} 


2b 


{ 1 


2 










2 


4 


662 


2 




0-44 


2 




2 


i 




2 


4 


192673 


2 




5190-14 




1 


2 


1 










2 





DR L. BECKER ON THE SOLAR SPECTRUM. 



191 



Osc. Freq. 


Mean 
Intensity. 


A. 


High Sun. 


Low Sun. 


a . 

3 en 

IN 


03 

,B . 
O "^ B 
'E B 9 


2a 


6 


8a 


11a 1 


3a 


136 


21 


22 


29 


30 


51 


52 


53 


55 


73 




*-J3 


3 0.S 




55 


28 


62 


42 


64 


62 


50 


25 


45 


37 




29 


30 


31 


36 




-M •—* 


^ 03 O 




































OS <J 


H bW 




1-3 ' 


L-3 ' 


L-3 


2-0 ' 


2-0 


2-0 


32 


12 


11 


11 


23 


22 


9 


44 


21 







3 


































192690 


2 




5189-68 








2 




2 




2 








2 






4 


701 


2 




9-38 








2 




2 












2 








716 
723 


8 
8 




8-98 
8-80 


8 
8 






8 
8 




9 
9 


t 


!! 




"i 

8 


f 


it 






}1 .° 


735 


2 




8-47 








2 




2 






2 


2 




i 








750 


7 




8-08 


7 






5 




8 


"i 


6 




7 




7 






5 


754 


2 




7-95 
















2 








3 








766 


2 




7-63 












3 




3 
















772 


3 




7-47 


2 






3 








3 


. , 


3 




3 






3 


783 


2 




7-17 


2 






2 




2 












3 








800 


4 




6-71 


4 






4 




4 


6 


4 




4 




4 






4 


808 


3 




6-50 


3 






3 




2 




3 




4 




3 








821 


2? 




615 




















3 












825 


7 




6-05 


"i 






8 




8 


8 


6 


, . 


6 




8 






5 


841 


2 




5-61 








2 




2 




2 








1 








857 


2 




5-20 


i 






2 




2 




2 




3 




2 








863 


1 




5 04 




B 


E 




E 






2 
















875 


5 




4-71 


5 


5 


5 


5 


5 


6 


6 


6 




5 




7 








883 


5 




4-48 


5 


5 


5 


5 


5 


6 


6 


6 




5 




7 








900 


3 




4-04 






1 


4 


3 


3 














B 


B 




887 


1 


1 
'1 


4-39 


) 






























911 


12 


3-73 


11 


L2 


L2 


12 


12 


12 


12 


12 




12 


14 


13 


12 


14 


14 


936 


J 


3-07 


1 






























923 


3? 




3-43 








3 


... 


B 










E 










944 


2 




2-85 








2 








2 








2 








959 


2 




2-44 


1 


2 


2 


2 


3 






3 








3 


2 






979 


id 


••■■) 


1-95 

1-88 


}* 


3 


4d 


3 


4 






4 




3 




M 


3 
3 




}' 3 


192999 


5d 


...{ 


1-43 
1-33 


}* 


5 


5 


4 


5 






5 




5 




IH 


5 




5 


193012 


2 




1-03 




1 


2 


2 


2 






1 


E 






3 


2 






027 
033 


3 
3 




0-63 
0-46 


}'» 


2 


3d 


{1 


2 
2 






I. 3 


2 


3 




'{ 


3 
3 






043 


7 




5180-19 


.6 


7 


7 


7 


7 




"i 


7 


6 


7 




7 


7 


4 


*6 


055 


2 




5179-88 


2 


2 


2 


2 


2 






2 


2 


2 




3 


3 






069 


1 




9-50 








2 


2 
















2 






081 


4 




9-19 


4 


4 


4 


4 


4 




I 66 


{1 ' 


4 


4 




*4 


5 


}» 


l"i 


091 


5 




8-91 


5 


5 


5 


5 


5 




4 


5 




5 


6 


103 


2 




8-57 


2 


2 


2 


2 


3 






2 


1 


2 




1 


3 




4 


112 


1 




8-33 








1 


3 
















2 






122 


2 




8-07 


2 


2 


2 


2 


3 






2 


1 






3 


2 




3 


133 


1 




7-77 








1 


















2 






144 


5 




7-49 


5 


5 


5 


4 


5 




}• 


{] ' 


4 


5 




5 


6 


}' 5 


{] 


151 


5 




7-31 


5 


5 


5 


4 


5 




4 


5 




6 


6 


163 


1 




6-99 








2 . 
























167 


3 




6-88 


2 


2 


3 


2 


3 






3 


2 


3 




3 


3 






175 


7 




6-65 


7 


8 


7 


7 


8 




6 


6 


7 


6 




8 


8 


5 


7 


191 


4d 




6-22 


4 


3 


id 


3 


3 






4 


3 


3 




3 


3 




3 


203 


2 




5-90 


2 


2 


2 


2 . 


















2 






215 


2 




5-59 








2 . 








... . 








q 

t/ 


3 






193223 


3 




5175-36 


3 


3 


3 


3 


3 






3 


3 


2 




3 . 






3 









































192 



DR L. BECKER ON THE SOLAR SPECTRUM. 



Osc. Freq. 


Mean 
Intensity. 


X 


High Sun. 


Low Sun. 


S . 

.g s 

Q> 


,d 
■£ a o 

3 0.N 


2a 

55 


6 
28 


8a 
62 


lla 
42 


13a 
64 


21 
50 


22 
25 


29 

45 


30 
37 


52 
29 


53 
30 


55 
31 


66 

38 


686 
30 


73 
36 




a! << 

o 


Q} O O 

H.SW 




1-3 


1-3 


13 


2-0 


2 


33 


11 


11 


10 


25 


10 


41 


10 


10 


20 


193237 


2 




5174-99 


2 


2 


2 


2 












2 


2 










255 


3 




4-52 


3 


3 


3 


3 


3 




3 


3 


2 


3 


3 




E 




3 


271 


1 




4-08 








2 
























280 


8 




383 


5 


*8 


7 


8 


7 


8 


"i 


7 


7 


9 


9 




7 




7 


288 


2? 




3-62 








2 


















»•• 


E 




302 


) 


" ( 


3-25 


) 






























320 


1 12 


...J 


2-78 


tio 


12 


11 


11 


12 


14 


11 


11 


10 


13 


12 


14 


12 


14 


12 


340 


J 


( 


2-23 


J 






























359 


10 




1-73 


9 


10 


10 


10 


10 


E 


9 


9 


9 


10 


10 


8 


9 


9 


10 


367 


21 




1-50 




















2 








... 




381 


3 




114 


3 


1 


3 


2 


3 




3 


3 




4 


2 


[» 


{:: 






391 


6 




0-88 


6 


6 


5 


5 


6 




6 


5 


5 


5 


6 




5 


398 


2 




0-68 


2 




2 


3 


2 




2 








3 










411 


3 




0-34 


3 6 




3 








3 






2 


2 






. . . 


4 


421 


3 




5170-08 


"2 


3 


2 


3 








2 


3 










3 


427 


2 




5169-91 








2 












3 


2 










446 


3 




9-40 


3 


3 


3 


3 


3 




4 


3 




3 


2 










454 
460 


8 
8 




9-18 
9-03 


7 
7 


9 
9 


8 
8 


8 
8 


9 
9 




8 
8 


8 
8 


*8 

8 


} 10 


{^ 


f 


fj 


Il06 


{"! 


470 


7 




8-76 


7 


7 


7 


7 


7 


... 


7 


7 


8 


6 


8 




5 




7 


486 


4 




8-33 


4 


4 


4 


3 


3 




4 


3 


3 


3 


3 








3 


504 


4 




7-85 


4 


4 


3 


4 


3 




4 


... 




3 


3 






. . . 




500 


" 


'" r 


7-95 


) 






























512 


10 


i 

"'I 


7-64 


I 8 


11 


9 


9 


11 




10 


10 


9 


I" 


no 
1 10 


}u 


I 11 
111 


(„ 


I 11 
111 


522 


"10 


7-38 


( 9 


11 


9 


9 


11 




10 


10 


9 


534 




7-04 


) 






























535 


3? 




7-02 


B 






3 






B 


B 


B 














549 


2 1 




6-65 








2 












... 












558 


9 




6-41 




8 


9 


9 


9 










8 


9 


8 


9 


9 


7 


569 


2 




6-11 




1 




E 












2 


2 










579 


1 




5-84 




















2 












591 


8 




5-54 




8 


8 




8 










6 


8 


6 


8 


"7 


8 


595 


3? 




5-41 










3 






















604 
606 


4 

4 




5-19 
5-12 




}-3d 


{"i 




4 

4 










f' 


fi 


h 


U 


5 


id 


618 
619 


6 
6 




4-81 
4-77 


... 


}< 


6 




7 










{? 


}• 


b 


5 


6 


7 


634 


3 




4-39 




3 


2 




3 


. « . 








3 


3 


4 


3 


3 




649 


2 




3-98 




3 


3 




3 












2 










658 
662 


3 
3 




3-75 
3-64 




3 
3 


3 
3 




} 3 










3 


i 3 
(3 




}' 8 


3 


3 


676 


3 




3-25 




3 


3 




3 












3 


u 








682 


3 




3-11 




3 


3 




3 










3 


3 




3 


3 


3 


699 


2 




2-66 




2 


2 




3 












2 










709 


10 




2-39 




10 


10 




10 










10 


10 


11 


12 


11 


ii 


730 


4 




1-83 




4 


4 




4 










4 


4d 


2 


3 


4 


4 


747 
753 


4 
4 




1-37 
1-21 




4 
4 


4 
4 




4 

4 


1 








4 


{* 


J 3 


3 


4 


4 


759 


3 




1-04 




3 


2 




4 










3 


3 


3 


3 


4 


4 


781 
193785 


3 

4 




0-45 
5160-35 




}» 


i: 




3 

4 




::: 






3 
3 


4 
4 


V 


3 


5 


4 



DR L. BECKER ON THE SOLAR SPECTRUM. 



193 



Osc. Freq. 


Mean 
Intensity. 


X 


High Sun. 


Low Sun. 


o 


j? s o 

H .SW 


6 
28 
1-3 


8a 
62 
1-3 


13a 
6i 
2'0 


52 
29 
29 


53 
30 
12 


55 
31 
36 


66 
38 
11 


686 
30 
11 


73 
36 

18 


193796 


2 


1 ... 


5160-06 








3 












. 806 


3 


. , • 


5159-81 




2 




4 


"i 








• . . 


813 


3 




9-62 


3 


3 


4 


4 


4 


3 


3 


"i 


3 


829 


8 




9-18 


7 


7 


8 


8 


8 


8 


7 


8 


8 


834 


2 


' 


1 9-04 










2 










849 


4a 




8-66 


3 


3d 


4 


4 


4d 


2 


"i 


5 


4 


859 


1 




8-38 




1 
















868 


5 




8-14 


5 


5 


4 


4 


5 


2 


4 


5 


"i 


880 

882 


4 
4 




7-84 

7-77 


4 

4 


4 
4 


I » 


4 


u 


}... 


4 


5 


4 


898 


id 




7-35 


U 


4 


4 


4 


3 




4 


4 


4 


918 
922 


5 

5 




6-82 
6-72 


5 
5 


5 
5 


5 

5 


5 
5 


I 6e* 


5 


5 


5 


4 


933 


2 




6-43 


2 


3 


2 




1 








• . . 


943 


3 




6-15 


3 


3 


3 


3 


3 




4 






953 


8 




5-90 


8 


8 


7 


7 


8 


7 


8 


"8 


8 


960 


4 




5-70 


3 


3 


3 


4 


3 




5 


4 


4 


977 


7 




5-26 


7 


6 


7 


6 


7 


6 


7 


7 


7 


193984 


2 




5-07 






2 




2 










194006 


M 




4-49 


"ei 


"id 


4d 


5 


5d 


5 


5 


5 


5 


018 


8 




4-17 


8 


7 


8 


8 


8 


8 


8 


8 


8 


041 


5 ; 


... 


3-55 


7 b 


5 


5 


6 


5 


5 b 


4 


5 


5 


051 




3-29 


7 


7 


6 


6 


7 


7 


6 


072 


1 




2-72 






2 




1 










078 


2 




2-57 






2 


2 


2 






2 




083 


1 




2-43 


2 


2 






1 










090 


6 




2-26 


6 


6 


*6 


"e 


6 


"i 


5 


5 


5 


100 


9 




1-98 


9 


9 


9 


9 


9 


8 


9 


9 


9 


104 


5] 




1-89 






5 














116 


2 




1-57 


2 


2 


2 


3 


1 






1 




127 


1 




1-27 




2 


2 




1 










139 


9 




0-94 


9 


9 


9 


9 


9 


9 


9 


9 


"9 


148 


3 




0-72 


3 


3 


3 




3 










167 


4 




5150-22 


3 


5 


5 




4 


3 


4 


4 


4 


181 


3 




5149-85 


3 


4 


3 




3 




3 


3 


3 


192 


2 




9-53 


2 


3 


2 


... 


2 


1 








206 


4 




9-16 


3 


4 


4 




4 


4 


3 


4 


3 


217 


3 




8-87 


3 


4 


3 




3 




3 


4 




221 


3 




8-78 


3 


4 


3 




3 






4 


3 


237 


8 




8-36 


8 


8 


8 


9 


9 


8 


8 


7 


8 


245 


8 




8-14 


8 


8 


8 


9 


9 


6 


8 


7 


8 


257 


3 


. . . 


7-83 


3 


3 


3 




3 






2 


2 


266 


6 




7-58 


6 


6 


6 


' 4 


6 




5 


5 


5 


278 


4 




7-27 


4 


4 


4 


4 


3 


" - 4 


4 


4 


3 


290 


3 




6-95 


3 


3 


4 


3 


3 


3 




3 


3 


297 


2? 




6-76 












2 








302 


8 




6-62 


8 


"i 


8 


9 


8 


8 


*7 


"7 


7 


311 


4 




6-40 


5 


3 


4 




3 






4 


2 


317 


5 




6-24 


5 


5 


5 


4 


5 


5 


5 


5 


5 


329 


2 




5-91 


2 


3 


2 




2 








... 


194341 


5 




5145-60 


6 


5 


5 


5 


6 


5 


5 


4 


5 



194 



DR L. BECKER ON THE SOLAR SPECTRUM. 



Osc. Freq. 


Mean 
Intensity. 


A. 


H 


igh Sun. 




Low Sun. 


e . 


CD 

.a . 
JgJ 


6 

28 


8a 
62 


13a 
64 


52 
29 


53 
30 


55 

31 


66 
38 


686 
30 


72 
37 


73 
36 




I s 


Up 
3 




1-8 


1-3 


2 


33 


14 


30 


12 


12 


24 


16 


194356 


7 




5145-21 


7 


6 


7 


6 


7 


6 


7 


5 




7 


361 


2 




5-06 










2 










... 


370 
374 


4 
3 




4-82 
4-72 


4 
3 


4 

4 


5 
4 


} : 


i 4 

t 3 


}} 


4c? 


4cZ 




4 


381 


1 




4-53 










2 












396 


2 




4-15 




*2 


2 




2 












404 




5d 


3-94 








5 


}» 


{} 


5d 


4 




1 4d 


410 


4 




3-78 


4 


5 


4 


5 


4 


4 




424 


2 




3-40 


2 


3 


2 




2 






2 






438 
443 


8 
8 




3-04 

2-89 


9 
9 


8 
8 


8 
8 


}"• 


f 9 

1 9 
1 10 


[lid 


H 


7 
7 




8 
8 


455 


9 




2-57 


10 


9 


9 


9 


) 


I 9 


8 






9 


473 


2 




210 










1 


2 












484 


8 




1-81 


9 


*8 


8 


8 


9 


10 


8 


*8 






9 


486 


1 




1-76 










1 














503 


id 


:::{ 


1-34 
1-27 


f« 


5 


4 


{::: 


3 
3 


f» 


3 


4 






4 


1 517 


4 




0-94 


4 


5 


4 




4 


3 


3 


4 




4 


538 


3 




0-38 


2 


2 


3 




2 


2 


2 


2 




3 


547 


2 




5140-14 


2 


2 


3 


... 


2 




... 








563 


4 




5139-71 


5 




4 




3 








E 




569 


11 




9-56 


11 


10 


10 


ft 


M0 

t 10 


11 


10 


11 


}1 . 3 


fl2 

112 


579 


11 




9-31 


11 


10 


10 


11 


10 


11 


600 


3 




8-76 


2 


3 


3 


46 


3 


3 


3 


2 






610 


3 




8-48 


2 


3 


3 




3 


3 




2 




"2 


620 


3 




8-22 


2 


3 


3 




3 




3 






2 


639 


4 




7-72 




4 


3 


. . . 


4 












647 


8 


* « . 


7-51 


8 


9 


8 


9 


9 


9 


*8 


8 


}» 


{] 


660 


8 




7-15 


8 


9 


8 


9 


9 


9 


8 


8 


669 


3 




692 


3 


3 


2 




3 






2 






681 


1 




6-60 






2 
















693 


3 




6-30 


3 


3 


4 




3 




4 


"4 




3 


698 


4 




6-15 


4 


4 


5 




4 


3 


5 


5 




^ 


714 
717 


3 

4 




5-75 
5-66 


}* 


4 


It 


... 


4 
5 


I s 


4 


5 




I 
4 


735 


3 




5-17 


3 


3 


3 




3 


3 


3 


3 




3 


751 
755 


4 
4 




4-75 
4-66 


4 
4 


3 
3 


3 
3 




5 
4 


1 3d 


4 


4 


46 


4 


765 


3 




4-40 


3 


2 


3 




3 




3 


4 




4 


787 


11 




3-82 


11 


10 


11 


11 


10 


11 


11 


11 


106 


12 


795 


4 




3-60 


4 


2 


2 




3 






6 






810 


2 




3-20 




1 


2 




2 






2 




2 


822 


5 




2-88 


*5 


5 


5 


46 


6 


5 


"5 


5 




5 


833 


3tf 




2-59 


3d 


3 


3 




4 




4 


4 




3 


846 


2 


(St) 


2-25 










2 


3 










860 


7 




1-89 


6 


"l 


6 


8 


7 


6 


6 


6 


t 96 


{] 


872 


8 




1-58 


8 


8 


7 


8 


8 


8 


8 


8 


879 


3 




1-38 


4 


1 


2 




3 






4 






891 


1 




1-06 






2 
















900 


3 




0-84 


2 




4 




2 




4 




> 56 


( 4 


908 


5 




0-61 


4 


5 


4 




4 


"i» 


5 


4 


5 


194916 


5 




513041 


5 


5 


4 




5 


4 


56 


) 




( 4 



DR L. BECKER ON THE SOLAR SPECTRUM. 



195 



Osc. Freq. 


Mean 
Intensity. 


A. 


High Sun. 


Low Sun. 


a . 
3 -8 


Sh _ O 


6 


8a 


13a 


52 


53 


55 


64 


66 


686 


71 


72 


73 




S.I 






28 


62 


64 


29 


30 


31 


42 


38 


3 


27 


37 


36 




o 3 


3 




1-3 


1-3 


2-0 


35 


19 


25 


11 


13 


14 


30 


24 


15 


194930 


2 




513004 


2 




2 




2 
















942 


7 




5129-74 


5 


7 


7 


7 


6 


6 




7 


6 




8 


8 


952 


7 




9-47 


7 


7 


7 


6 


8 


7 




7 


7 




6 


8 


961 


7 




9-24 


7 


7 


7 


7 


8 


7 




7 


7 




8 


8 


976 


1 




8-83 










2 
















986 


3 




8-57 


3 


3 


3 




3 






3 


2 






26 


194999 
195002 


3 
3 




8-24 
8-16 


} 3 


U 


}* 


{::: 


3 
3 


3 
3 




} 3 


3 




31 


3 


016 


4 




7-79 


3 


4 


4 




4 


3 




3 


3 






3 


028 


8 




7-47 


8 


9 


8 


8 


8 


9 




8 


8 




"7 


8 


047 


3 




6-96 


2 


3 


2 




2 


3 




2 


3 






2 


054 


2 




6-77 


2 


3 


2 










2 








2 


072 


8 




6-32 


8 


7 


8 


8 


*7 


9 




9 


7 




"i 


7 


088 
096 


2 

2 




5-88 
5-68 


} 2 


2 


(I 


... 


1 2d 


2 




2 


3 






2 


110 
114 


7 
8 


(10?) 


532 

5-20 


8 
8 


6 

8 


7 
8 


}" 


{I 


}» 




10 


i: 




}» 


Ho 


133 


4 


*• • 


4-70 


4 


5 


4 


E 


4 


4 




4 


4 




3 


5 


155 


3 




4-14 


3 


3 


3 




3 


4 


E 


3 


3 






4 


167 


8 




3-81 


8 


8 


8 




9 


9 


8 


9 


8 




9 


8 


177 


3 




3-56 


3 


3 


3 




2 




4 


4 


3 








187 


5 




3-30 


4 


5 


5 




6 


4 


5 


5 


5 






5 


196 


2 




3-05 


1 


3 






• • • 
















203 


4 




2-87 


4 


4 


"i 




id 


4 


4 


5 


5 




3 


5 


218 


2 




2-47 


2 


2 


2 




3 












& 




222 


21 




2-37 










3 
















228 


4 




2-21 


3 


3 


3 




3 


4 


4 


4 


4 


E 


3 


4 


246 


9 




174 


9 


9 


9 




9 


10 


8 


9 


8 


9 


9 


9 


256 


3 




1-47 


5 








2 


2 


2 




3 








265 


1 




1-24 




2 














2 








273 


3 




1-04 


2 


3 


3 




3 




2 


3 


2 






2 


284 


3 




0-74 


2 


3 


3 




3 


2 


3 




2 








294 


Id 




5120-48 


5 


7 


7 




6 


7 


7 


"7 


7 


6 


Vd 


6 


318 


3 




5119-86 


2 


3 


3 




3 


3 


3 




3 






3 


333 


2 




9-45 


3 


3 


2 




3 
















344 


5 


> > • 


917 


4 


5 


5 




4 


4 


5 


5 


5 


3 


4 


4 


356 


3 




8-85 


2 


3 


2 




2 


3 


3 




3 






2 


382 


4 




8-19 


3 


3 


3 




3 




4 


4 


4 






4 


389 


5 




7-99 


4 


5 


5 




5 


4d 


56 


5 


5 


3 


4 


5 


406 


2 




7-55 




2 


2 




2 
















419 


2? 




7-21 






3 




















426 
438 


1* 


(5?) 


7-02 
6-72 


3 b 


"> 


3 

2 


... 


3 
3 


3 
3 


"> 


1 46 


{} 


3 


5 b 


> 


459 


1 




6-16 




1 


2 




















471 


5 




5-85 


4 


5 


5 




6 


5 


5 


5 


6 






4 


484 


8 




5-50 


8 


8 


8 




8 


9 


8 


8 


8 


8 


8 


8 


497 


3 




5-18 


4 


2 


1 






3 














515 


4 




4-70 


4 


4 


4 




4 


4 


4 


5 


5 


4 


I 45 


fi 


526 


4 




4-40 


4 


4 


4 




4 


4 


4 


5 


5 




542 


1 




3-98 






2 




2 
















195555 


5 




5113-64 


5 


4 


5 




5 


5 


5 


5 


5 




4 


6 



VOL. XXXVI. PART I. (NO. 6.) 



2 G- 



190 



DR L. BECKER ON THE SOLAR SPECTRUM. 



Osc. Freq. 


Mean 
Intensity. 


\ 


High Sun. 


Low Sun. 


S . 
.2 S 


llunc 
3 on the 


6 

28 


8a 
62 


13a 
64 


53 
30 


54 
28 


55 
31 


64 
42 


66 

38 


67 

26 


68& 
30 


71 

27 


72 
37 


73 
36 




rt is* 

o 


3 




1-3 

4 
4 


1-3 


1-9 


22 


12 


22 


11 


14 


14 


17 


29 


("22 
1 14 


}" 


195570 
572 


4 
4 




5113-26 
3-20 


I 5d 


5 


5d 




5 


4d 


5 




5d 


4 


5 


6 


592 


2 




2-68 


2 


2 


2 


2 






2 






3 






3 


603 


3 




2-41 


3 


3 


3 


3 




2 


3 


3 




3 




4 


3 


623 


3 




1-88 


3 


3 


3 


2 




2 


3 












4 


628 


3 




1-74 


3 


3 


3 


2 






3 


3 




4 




3 


4 


639 


3 




1-45 


3 


3 


3 


2 












2 






4 


650 


1 


4 


1-16 




1 




2 




2 


3 


3 




3 


4 


1 46 


{1 


665 


4 




0-78 


"4 


4 


4 


4 


B 


2 


3 


4 




3 




676 


10 




0-48 


10 


9 


10 


10 


10 


10 


9 


10 




9 


10 


10 


9 


687 


1 


3 


5110-20 


2 






3 


3 


2 




4 ... | 2 








704 


8 




5109-76 


7 


7 


8 


9 


8 


9 


"7 


8 




8 


8 


8 


8 


712 


2\ 




9-56 




.*. 






2 


















723 


3 




9-27 


3 


3 


3 




3 


3 








3 




3 


"i 


730 


3 




9-09 




3 


2 


3 


3 




3 


3 








3 




745 


1 




8-70 


... 




2 


■ • . 


1 


















752 


4 




8-50 


3 


4 


3 


4 


5 


4 


4 


"i 




*4 


3 


\id 


Q. 


768 


3 




8-09 


2 


3 


2 


3 


3 


3 








. • • 




780 


9 




7-76 


9 


9 


9 


10 


10 


10 


*8 


9 




9 


\\2d 


12 


{i 


790 


9 


... 


7-50 


9 


9 


9 


10 


10 


10 


8 


9 




9 


799 


2b 1 




7-27 


2b 




















... 






814 


3 




6-88 


3 


3 


2 


3 


2 


2 


2 


3 








4 


4 


826 


4 




6-57 


b 


4 


3 


3 


4 


3 


3 


3 










4 


832 


4 


. . . 


6-41 


3 


4 


3 


3 


4 


3 


3 


3 






3 


4 


4 


848 


2 


. . . 


6-01 






2 




2 


2 
















861 


9 




5-67 


9 


"8 


9 


9 


9 


9 


8 


9 




8 


8 


9 


9 


863 


51 




5-61 




B 
















5 








872 


3 




5-38 


"i 




2 


1 


1 


















884 


1 


"id 


5-07 






2 


1 


1 




"2 








3 


88 


M 


904 


6 




4-55 


"5 




6 


5 


6 


5 


4 


5 






4 


6 


6 


915 


5 




4-25 


5 




5 


5 


6 


4 


4 


j-66 






{* 


b 


5 


920 


5 




4-13 


5 




5 


5 


6 


4 


4 






6 


5 


932 


2d 


(3«){ 


3-86 
3-77 


}■ 




2 


3 


3 




3 












{t 


946 


2 


■ •• 


3-45 


2 




2 


3 


2 


3 


2 






... 






2 


961 


7 




3-06 


8 




7 


8 


7 


7 


6 


8 






5 


7 


7 


980 


3 


8 


2-57 


3 




3 


6 


6 


4 


5 


7 






6 


8 


5 


195992 


2 




2-26 










2 




3 














196005 


2 


6 


1-90 


2 




3 


4 


3 


3 


3 


4 






"g 


4 


4 


016 


3d 




1-62 


3 




3 


3 


2d 




3 








... 


2 


3 


036 


3 




Ml 


3 




3 


4 


1 


















040 


4 




1-00 


3 




4 


4 


5 


3 


4 


5 








4 


4 


050 


4 




0-74 


4 




4 


4 


5 


3 


4 


5 






4 


4 


4 


066 


2 




0-31 


• • • 








2 


















078 


8 




5100-02 


8 




"8 


9 


9 


8 


7 


9 




8 


8 


"a 


'V 


082 


4 




5099-92 






3 




5 










5 






4 


089 


1 




9-71 






2 


1 


2 


















100 


7 




9-43 


V 




7 


8 


8 


6 


6 


6 






i< 


{? 


6 


110 


6 




9-17 


6 




7 


6 


7 


6 


5 


6 


E 




6 


125 
196130 


9 

8 




8-79 
5098-65 


9 

8 




8 
8 


10 
10 


9 
9 


10 

6 


7 

7 


}K 


8 


1 8 
B 


}K 


19 


8 
8 



DR L. BECKER ON THE SOLAR SPECTRUM. 



197 



Osc. Freq. 


Mean 
Intensity. 


A 


High 


Sun. 


Low Sun. 


S 




6 


13a 


53 


54 


55 


64 


66 


67 


71 


72 


73 




*.-§ 


3 o .2 




28 


64 


30 


28 


31 


42 


38 


26 


27 


37 


36 




0^ 


? sis 

3 




1-3 


1-9 


26 


14 


19 


12 


15 


14 


27 


14 


13 


' 196141 


1 




5098-36 


2 






















148 


4 




8-20 


4 


4 


4 


"4 


4 


3 


"4 






3 


3 


162 


2 




7-83 


2 


2 




2 
















171 


6 




7-58 


6 


6 


6 


7 


6 


"4 


'7 




5 


5 


5 


178 


3 


*5 


7-40 


3 


3 


4 


3 




4 








5 


4 


190 
196 


8 

7 




7-10 

6-94 


8 
6 


8 

7 


8 
6 


9 
5 


8 
6 


} . 9 


12 


8 


10 


u 


8 

8 


214 


2 




6-48 


2 


1 


2 


2 
















224 


1 


5 


6'23 




2 


2 


2 


2 


3 


4 




5 


4 


4 


234 


2 


7 


5-95 


2 


3 


4 


4 


4 


5 


5 




7 


5 


5 


253 


3 




5-47 


3 


3 


2 


4 


3 


I 3 


4 




3 


3 


4 


258 


3 




5-34 


3 


3 


3 


4 


6 




268 


3 




5-08 


3 


3 


3 


4 


3 


3 


4 




3 


3 


4 


280 


1 




4-75 




1 




2 
















289 


5 


*8 


4-52 


6 


5 


7 


7 


"7 


6 


6 




*8 


6 


6 


302 
308 


2 


6 
6 


4-20 
4-04 


3 


1 


}* 


5 


4 


5 


M 




{t 


} M { 


5 

4 


318 




2 


3-78 






1 


2 












2 


3 


330 


3 




3-45 


3 


2 




2 


2 


2 






3 


2 


2 


351 


3 




2-92 


3 


2 


3 


2 


2 


2 






3 


2 


2 


364 


4 


8 


2-58 


4 


3 


6 


6 


6 


5 


6 


5 


8 


6 


5 


372 


5 


7 


2-37 


5 


4 


6 


6 


5 


5 


6 


5 


7 


6 


5 


381 


2 




2-13 








3 


1 














388 
394 


4 
4 




1-95 
1-79 


4 

4 


3 
3 


}"* 


{I 


} 3 


46 


4d 


4 


5 


"M 


4 
4 


413 


2 


"i 


1-32 


2 


3 


3 


2d 


2 


2 




2 


4 


2 


3 


430 


9 




0-88 


9 


9 


10 


10 


9 


9 


9 


9 


9 


9 


9 


451 


2 


4rf{ 


0-39 
5090-25 


h 


3 


2 


u 


i 26 


2 


3 


3 


4 


3 


B 


467 


2 


4 


5089-92 


2 


2 


2 


2 


2 




3 


3 


3 


3 




488 


4 


(4?) 


9-36 


3 


3 


3 


3 


3 


3 


4 


3 


4 


}«{ 




493 


3 


(4?) 


9-23 


3 


3 




3 








3 


4 




501 


5 




9-04 


6 


4 


5 


5 


4 


4 


4 


4 


4 


5 




510 


2? 




8-80 








2 
















517 


5 




8-61 


6 


4 


5 


6 


4 


4 


4 


4 


4 


5 




531 


6 




8-25 


6 


5 


5 


6 


5 


5 


4 


5 


5 


5 




537 


4 




8-10 


4 


3 


4 


4 


3 


3 


3 


4 


5 


2 




548 


2 




7-81 






2 


2 
















559 


7 




7-52 


"7 


'V 


6 


8 


'V 


5 


5 


5 


6 


6 




573 


5 




717 


5 


5 


5 


5 


4 


4 


4 


5 


4 


5 




581 


2? 




6-97 








2 
















589 


2 


6 


6-75 


2 


2 


5 


5 


4 


5 


5 


5 


"6 


5 




603 


5 




6-40 


5 


4 


5 


5 


4 


4 


5 


4 


6 


5 




610 




6 


6-21 






4 


4 


3 


4 


4 


4 


6 


5 




620 


2 




5-95 


1 


2 






2 














634 
642 


4 

2 


4 


5-60 
5-39 


5 
3 


4 

1 


3 


3 

5 


I 36 


£ 


U<Z 


{1 


4 
4 


4 

4 




653 




3 


5-11 


















3 


2 




663 


3 




4-85 


3 


2 




2 












2 




671 


2 


5 


4-64 


3 


2 


"4 


4 


3 


4 


4 


4 


5 


4 




196688 


9 




5084-20 


10 


8 


9 


10 


9 


8 


8 


8 


8 


9 



































198 



DR L. BECKER ON THE SOLAR SPECTRUM. 



Osc. Freq. 


Mean 
Intensity. 


\ 


High 


Sun. 


Low Sun. 





Ceo 


6 


13a 


53 


54 


55 6 


3 


64 


66 


67 


71 7 


2 




S .-2 


9 0.2 

•— ' CO £? 




28 


64 


30 


28 


31 4 





42 


38 


26 


27 S 


7 






1) m O 




1-3 


1-9 


30 


15 


17 


9 


13 


17 


15 


24 1 


2 




o 


>-3 


























196699 


2 


7 


5083-91 


3 


2 


6 


5 


5 




5 


7 


5 


7 


5 


706 


2? 




3-74 




2 




















716 


10 




3 47 


id 


9 


10 


10 


9 




"8 


8 


"8 


9 


9 


730 


2 


5 


312 


3 


2 


4 


4b 


4 




4 


4 


3 


5 


3 


739 


2 




2-88 




2 


















2 


755 


8 




2-45 


"8 


7 


9 


9 


"8 




6 


7 


'V 


7 


7 


762 


2 




2-27 


















3 




1 


775 


3 




1-94 


3 


3 


3 


3 


3 




1 


*2. 


2 


2 


2 


786 


3 




1-66 


3 


2 


3 


3 


3 




1 




3 


2 


2 


803 


8 




1-22 


8 


8 


9 


9 


8 




7 


"7 


7 


8 


6 


808 


4 




1-09 


4 


4 


4 


4 


3 








5 




3 


824 


8 




0-69 


8 


8 


9 


9 


8 




"7 


6 


7 


"i 


6 


830 


5 


8 


053 


5 


5 


7 


6 


6 




6 


5. 


6 


7 


5 


848 


7 




5080-05 


6 


7 


7 


7 


6 




5 


6 


5 


5 


5 


857 


8 




5079-84 


8 


8 


9 


9 


8 




6 


}* 


{I 


6 


6 


862 


1 


"7 


9-70 


1 




6 


4 


5 


E 


5 


6 


4 


877 


9 




9-32 


9 


9 


10 


10 


9 


8 


9 


9 


9 


11 


8 


886 


9 




9-07 


9 


9 


9 


10 


9 


8 


8 


9 


9 


11 


8 


906 


3 


6 


8-57 


3 


2 


4 


4b 


4 


3 


5 


5 


4 


6 


B 


921 


1 


3 


8-18 




2 


3 


2 


2 


2 


... 




3 


2 




937 


3? 




7-77 






3 


















945 


3 


"7 


7-57 


3 


3 


6 


"56 


5 


5 


6 


5 


5 


6 


... 


954 


2 




7-32 




2 














3 




,, 


969 


3 




6-94 


3 


3 


2 




1 




"i 






2 




980 


2 


9 


6-65 




3 


9 


5 


6 


7 


6 


6 


6 


10 




196989 


9 


• • - 


6-43 


9 


9 


9 


9 


7 


8 


7 


8 


8 


10 




197006 


2 


5 


5-98 


2 


3 


5 


4 


3 


4 


5 


4 


4 


5 




027 


5d 




5-45 


5 


M 


5 


56 


4 


4 


5 


4 


4 


4 




049 


10 




4-87 


10 


10 


10 


11 


9 


8 


9 


9 


9 


9 




053 


4? 




4-78 














... 




4 






066 


1 


3? 


4-43 




2 


2 


3 


1 














087 


3 


43 


3-89 


3 


3 


4 


4 


3 


3 


3 


3 


3 


*4& 




097 


4 




3-63 


4 


3 




4 


3 


3 


3 




3 


• • > 




118 


6 


"7 


3-09 


5 


6 


}» 


u 


7 


7 


7 


8 


7 


8 




127 


7 




2-87 


7 


7 


7 


7 


7 


8 


7 


8 




138 


1 




2-60 




• • . 




1 
















144 


6 


. . . 


2-44 


5 


6 


r» 


IS 


7 


6 


6 


4 


"4 


'V 




151 


8 




2-26 


8 


8 


8 


7 


7 


6 


7 


7 


1 


158 




4 


2-06 


... 




4 


3 








4 


4 


• . • 




164 


2 


... 


1-92 


2 


'2 




















175 


5 




1-64 


5 


5 




6 


3 


4 


4 


5 


4 


5 




184 


1 


5 


1-40 


• • • 


2 




4 


3 


3 


4 


5 


4 






192 


2 


5 


1-21 


1 


2 




3 


2 


3 


3 




4 


5 




211 


2 




071 


1 


2 




2 












2 




225 




5 


35 






46 


4 


3 


4 


46 


5 


5 


5 




233 


4 




0-15 


4 


3 




b 


b 














237 


3 


5 


5070-04 


3 


4 




4 


3 


4 


3 


5 


"5 


5 




246 


1 




5069-80 




2 














• • • 






257 


3 


4 


9-53 


3 


3 


4 


4 


3 


4 


"i 


"3 


3 






267 


3 


5 


9-26 


3 


3 




4 


3 


4 


5 


4 


5 


4 




197282 


9 


11? 


5068-88 


9 


9 


11 


12 


11 


9 


9 


9 


9 


10 


•• 









DR L. BECKER ON THE SOLAR SPECTRUM. 






199 


Osc. Freq. 


Mean 
Intensity. 


A 


High Sun. 


Low Sun. 


6 . 

03 r5 




6 


7c 


13a 


53 


54 


55 


63 


64 


66 


67 


71 






S 5-3 




28 


55 


64 


3a 


28 


31 


40 


42 


38 


26 


27 




"S3 



3 




1-2 


1-6 


1-9 


34 


17 


15 


10 


14 


19 


17 


21 


197299 


4 


5 


5068-45 


4 




3 


5 


5 


4 


4 


5 


4 


4 


4 


309 


1 




8-20 






2 


















322 


5d 




7-87 


6 




5 


5 


id 


56 


5 


5 


4 


4 


4 


332 


1 




7-59 


2 








2 














344 


8 


11 


7-29 


8 




8 


11 


11 


9 


8 


*9 


10 


9 


io 


351 


2? 




7-10 






















2 


359 


4 




6-91 


4 




3 


... 


"i 


3 


4 


4 


4 


5 


3 


375 


3 


6 


6-49 


3 




3 


6 


5 


4 


4 


5 


5 


5 


5 


393 


6 


9 


6-04 


7 




5 


10 


8 


7 


7 


7 


8 


7 


9 


400 


3 


(3?) 


585 




E 






2 


... 




1 




4 




422 


8 




5-30 


9 


7 


7 


10 


10 


8 


8 


7 


10 


6 


8 


429 


9 




5-12 


9 


9 


9 


10 


11 


9 


9 


9 


10 


9 


9 


444 


8 




4-73 


9 


8 


8 


8 


10 


8 


8 


8 


8 


7 


8 


468 


3 




4-11 


2 


3 


2 




2 


2 


3 


3 


2 


2 


3 


482 


1 


*4 


3-74 


2 




2 


36 


1 












4 


495 
501 


3 
3 




3-41 
3-27 


3 
3 


i 

4 


{■3d 




3d 


U 


3 

4 


}"' 


4 


u 


1 46 


515 


2 




2-90 






, . . 


n 












2 




533 


2 


(3?) 


2-44 


i 


2i 


2 




2 


3 


3 


3 








544 


4 




2-17 


4 


4 


4 




3 


3 


4 




4 


3 


"ij 


559 


3 




1-78 


3 


3 


3 


3 


2 


2 


3 


2 




2 


3 


568 


1 




1-56 




1 


2 


















582 


2 


6 


1-18 


2 


2 


2 


5 


4 


3 


5 


6 


*6 


4 


6 


592 


1 




0-92 


















• • • 


3 


1 


607 


2 


5 


056 




2 


2' 




2 


2 


2 


2 






5 


621 


8 


10 


5060-19 


8 


7 


8 


10 


10 


9 


9 


9 


9 


*8 


9 


630 


4 




5059-95 


3 


4 


4 


E 


4 










5 




645 


1 


3 


9-58 






2 






2 


2 


3 


3 




3 


666 


3d 




9-05 


\d 


3 


2 




3 


2 


2 


3 


3 


*2 


3 


681 


4 




8-66 


4 


4 


3 




3 


2 


2 






2 




694 


2 


6 


8-32 




3 


2 




5 


5 


4 


6 


I Id 


/ 5 


6 


703 


5 




8-09 


5 


5 


5 




6 


5 


4 


5 


\ 5 


5 


705 


3? 




8-03 




3 




















719 




9 


7-69 










*7 


V 


5 


}" 8 


9d 


{"i 


9 


723 


5 




7-58 


4 


5 


5 




5 


5 


& 


4 


741 


1 




7-13 






2 


















748 


5 


5 


6-95 


4 


6 


5 




5 


5 


id 


5 


' i 


3 


46 


762 


3 


10 


658 


V 


3 


{^ 




7 


5 


5 


8 


10 


6 


9 


768 


2 


5 


6-44 




4 


4 


4 






5 


3 


782 


4 


... 


6-08 


36 


5 


4 




4 


4 


4 


4 


"i 


4 


3 


798 


2 




5-66 


2 


3 


2 




2 












2 


813 


2 


4 


5-28 


2 


2 


2 




2 


3 


2 


3 


"i 


3 


3 


834 


6 




4-73 


7 


6 


6 




8 


6 


7 


5 


5 


5 


6 


843 




4 


4-52 










4 


1 


• • • 






4 




850 


2 




4-33 




2 


2 


... 
















866 


3 


6 


3-92 


3 


J36 


{a 




5 


3 


"i 


5 


5 


5 


6 


877 


3 


5d 


3-64 


3 




4tf 


3 


4 


4 


5 


4 


4 


898 
903 


4 
4 


... 


3-10 

2-99 


3 
3 


}* 


4 


... 


u 


} .. 3 


u 


} : 


3 


4 


4 


911 


3 




2-78 


3 


4 


Q 


















- 197921 


1 


6 : 


5052-52 






2 




6 




3 


5 


4 


4 


5 



200 



BR L. BECKER ON THE SOLAR SPECTRUM. 



Osc. Freq. 


Mean 
Intensity. 


A 


High Sun. 






Low I 


3un. 






a . 

■r-l <D 


CD 

E a o 


6 


7c 


13a 


54 


55 


56a 


576 


63 


64 


66 


67 


68a 


70 


71 








3 O N 




28 


55 


64 


28 


31 


38 


42 


40 


42 


38 


26 


30 


27 


27 









£.sw 




1-2 


1-6 


1*9 


20 


13 


10 


23 


11 


16 


21 


19 


22 


27 


19 




197929 


3 


6? 


5052-31 


3 


5 


4 


6 


3 






3 


4 


4 


4 






4 




940 


3 




2-04 


3 


4 


3 


4 








2 
















952 


10 




1-74 


10 


8 


9 


11 


10 






9 


10 


10 


9 






ibd 




958 


6 




1-58 


6 


6 


8 


7 


4 












4 










197981 


3 




1-00 


2 


3 


2 


3 


2 






3 


3 


3 


2 






3 




198001 


2 


4 


5050-49 


2 


2 


2 


3 


2 






3 


4 


4 


3 






4 




022 


10 




5049-94 


10 


9 


10 


10 


10 






9 


9 


10 


9 






10 




031 


1 


5 


9-72 






2 




4 












5 






2 




045 


2 




9-36 




1 


2 


3 




















2 




059 


Id 


I{ 


9-05 
8-95 


f' 


7 


7 


8 


8 






7 


7 


6 


6 






{^ 




074 


8 




8-61 


7 


7 


7 


8 


7 






7 


8 


7 


7 






8 




086 


4 




8-32 


5 


4 


4 


5 


5 






3 






4 










093 


5d 


I{ 


8-18 

8-08 


}* 


5 


/5 

15 


} 5 


5 






5 


5 


5 


5 






5 




115 


h 


(4?) 


7-56 


\" 


3 6 


2 


> 


3 ; 
3* 






3 


2 


2 


2 






4 




132 


3° 


(4?) 


7-14 


2 






3 


2 


2 


2 






4 




151 




3 


6-65 








3 7 

3 6 


2 


















2 




163 


2 


3 


6-35 


2 


2 


2 








2 


2 


2 




E 




4 




186 




4 


5-76 








4 


2 


... 




3 


3 


3 


2 


3 




4 




201 

207 


4 

4 




5-39 

5-24 


4 
4 


\u 


i'i 


}» 


4d 


... 




4 


5 


4 


{* 


h 




5 




217 


1 




4-98 






2 






















O 




227 


2 


3 


4-73 


2 


2 


2 


"i 


2 




B 


2 


2 




3 




E 


3 




243 


8 


.... 


4-33 


8 


8 


8 


8 


8 




8 


7 


7 


6 


7 


"7 


I 8 


{? 




252 


3 


8 


4-08 


3 


4 


2 


6 


6 




8 


6 


7 


8 


7 


7 




269 


4 




3-65 


4 


4 


4 


3 


3 






4 


3 




3 


3 




4 




280 


2 




3 38 


3 


2 


2 


























290 
296 


3 
3 


8 

8 


3-13 

2-97 


3 
3 


3 

3 


3 
3 


8 
8 


5 
5 




\8d 


{"§ 


"7 

7 


1 96 


{"? 


8 

8 


h 


(s 




310 


2 


3 


2-62 


2 


1 


2 


3 


2 


B 




2 


3 




3 


3 




3 




325 


7 




2-23 


7 


7 


7 


8 


7 


8 


8 


7 


7 


'V 


7 


8 


"7 


8 




339 
345 


10 
9 




1-88 
1-73 


10 
9 


8 
8 


8 
8 


11 
11 


]l2cZ 


I2d 


lid 


i 8 


9 
9 


|l2d 


{? 


10 
10 


} 12 


(10 
\10 




355 


4 


8 

2*3 


1-46 


4 


4 


4 


7 


5 


5 


6 


5 


6 


4 


6 


8 


7 

i3 


6 




370 
377 


9 
9 




1-08 
0-91 


9 

9 


8 
8 


9 
9 


10 
10 


10 
10 


9 
9 


} 9 


[s 


8 
8 


jlld 


8 


(9 


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386 


3 


4 


067 


3 


3 


3 


4 


3 


4 


5 


3 


4 


3 


3 


4 




4 




397 


3 


5 


0-39 


3 


3 


3 


4 


3 


4 




3 


4 


3 


4 


4 




5 




410 


7 




5040-08 


8 


7 


7 


8 


7 


7 


Isd 


\l 


6 


6 


5 


5 


7 


7 




418 


2 


"i 


5039-86 


2 


3 




4 


3 


4 


5 


6 


5 


4 


7 


5 




430 


5 




9-57 


6 




"4 


3 




3 




2 


5 






4 




4 




438 


8 




9-35 


7 


8 


8 


8 


8 


8 


"7 


7 


7 


6 


7 


7 


7 


8d 




451 

456 


2 


5 
5 


9 03 
8-91 




2 


2 


2 
3 


} 3 


{I 


4 
4 


I s 


5 


4 


3 


4 


5 


4 




467 
475 


7 
7 


9 


8-63 

8-42 


7 

7 


7 
7 


7 
7 


6 

8 


7 
7 


6 

8 


{•7d 


{? 


5 

7 


}' 


I 4 
I 8 


5 
8 


I 8 


I 5 
) 6«/ 


! 


483 




(5?) 


8-23 












5 




















491 


2 


5 


8-00 


1 




2 


















5 




"5 




198499 


4 


9 


5037-82 


5 


4 


4 


9 


7 


8 


8 


6 


7 


7 


7 


8 


8 


8 





DR L. BECKER ON THE SOLAR SPECTRUM. 



201 





Mean 


















Osc. Freq. 


Intensity. 


X 


High Sun. 










Low Sun. 




B . 


A . 

O +J a 

'£ a ° 


6 


1c 


13a 


54 


55 


56a 


576 


63 


64 


65 


66 


67 


68a 


70 


71 




si 


J2 °-f 3 




28 


55 


64 


28 


31 


38 


42 


40 


42 


40 


38 


26 


30 


27 


27 




-•J i — i 
© 


3 




1-2 


1-6 


1-8 


23 


12 


10 


22 


12 


18 


17 


24 


21 


24 


25 


17 


198514 


3 


8 


5037-43 


4 


3 


3 


8 


6 


6 


6 


6 


6 




7 


7 


8 


8 


7 


529 


5d 


: { 


7-12 
6-98 


}* 


4 


it 


}» 


4 


5 


3 


4 


3 






4 


4 




4 


545 
554 


7 
6 




6-63 
6-42 


8 
6 


6 
6 


7 

6 


8 
8 


7 
7 


7 
7 


\&d 


{I 


Ud 




7 


{§ 


5 
6 


}' 9 


{» 


569 

577 


9 

2 


**8 


6-04 
5-83 


9 
3 


9 


9 


9 
5 


8 
4 


9 
5 


\sd 


{I 


7 
7 




j-9d 


{? 


6 
6 


}!0 


le 


592 


9 




5-46 


9 


8 


9 


10 


9 


9 


9 


9 


9 




9 


10 


9 


10 


7 


602 




5 


5-19 










2 


3 




3 


3 












5 


618 


i 


8 


4-80 






"2 


\ 5d 


(1 


5 


8 


5 


8 




"8 


8 


8 


9 


B 


622 




7 


4-69 








4 


5 


5 










a 






631 


2 


5 


4-45 




3 


2 


i» 


3 


4 


b 


4 


5 




}' 6 


{s s 








640 


2 


5 


4-23- 


2 


3 


2 


3 


4 


5 


4 


5 




"5 


5 




656 
665 


2 
3 




3-82 
3-60 


\ld 


3 


{3 


2 


... 


3 
3 


... 


3 




... 




l 3S 


{::: 


4 




682 


2 


5 


317 


2 


2 


3 


3 


3 


4 


4 


4 


4 




5 


Ud 


{i 


6 




696 


5 




2-80 


5 


4 


5 


5 


5 


5 


5 


S 


6 


.... 


6 


4 




710 


3 




2-47 


2 


3 


2 


2 


2 


2 


3 


4 




> .. 












726 


4 




2-04 


5 


4 


4 


5 


4 


5 


4 


3 


5 




4 


3 


4 


4 




735 


2 




1-83 


3 




3 


















3 








754 


2 


6 


1-34 






3 


4 


2 


3 




4 










4 






761 


8 




1-16 


8 


*8 


8 


9 


8 


8 


8 


7 


k 


. > > 


"86 


V 


8 


86 




771 


5 




0-92 


5 


5 


4 


4 


3 


3 


4 


4 








5 


4 






787 


1 


4 


0-52 


1 




2 






2 












4 








800 
802 


3 
3 




0-18 
503012 


} 3d 


4 


{3 


£ 


3 


3 




4 








4 








814 
821 


7 


8 


5029-82 
9-64 


"l 


6 


"i 


}« 


9 


{I 


[• 


{ i 


\&b 




8 


{e 


8 
5 


i 86 




834 


2 




9-32 






2 




2 








2 














847 


2 


*6 


8-98 


2 


2 


3 


5 


3 


4 


5 


'4 


6 




Is* 


g 


6 


V 




858 


1 


6 


8-72 






2 


4 


3 


4 


5 


4 


6 




6 


5 




874 


7 




8-30 


7 


*7 


8 


9 


8 


9 


8 


7 


8 




5 


6 


7 


6 




889 


6 




7-92 


6 


6 


7 


6 


6 


7 


7 


6 


6 




5 


5 


6 


5 




908 


5 




7-46 


4 


5 


5 


4 


5 


5 




5 


1 














915 


10 




7-27 


10 


9 


10 


11 


10 


10 


9 


9 


9 




10 


8 


io 


10 




932 


1 




6-85 






2 


2 


2 






















944 


2 




6-55 


1 


2 


2 






2 


... 


2d 


"36 














955 




6 


6-26 








2 


2 


4 


4 


3 


4 




5 




4 


5 




968 


3 


6 


5-94 


2 


3 


3 


2 


2 


4 




3 


4 




i 




4 


& 




978 


7 




5-67 


7 


7 


7 


6 


6 


7 


5 


6 


5 




5 




4 


5 


... 


986 


4 




5-47 


3 


4 


4 




2 


3 




3 
















198993 


4 




5-30 


3 


4 


4 




2 


3 




3 


3 














199004 


7 




5-03 


7 


8 


8 


*6 


7 


7 


7 


7 


6 




6 




5 


6 




013 


2 


6 


4-81 


3 






\n 


{"» 


3 




3 


5, 




5x 




5 






029 


3 


6 


4-39' 


4 


4 


3 


3 


3 


3 


5 b 




5 & 




5 


5 




044 


2 




4-02 


3 




2 




3 




3 


















063 


5 




3-54 


5 


5 


5 


5 


4 


"5 


5 


4 


i 




5 




5 


U* 




075 


5 




3-24 


5 


5 


5 


6 


4 


5 


4 


4 


4 








5 




087 


7 




2-92 


8 


7 


7 


9 


8 


7 


7 


7 


6 




7 




7 


7 




098 


1 




2-65 






2 














E 












199111 


8 




5022-33 


9 


8 


8 


11 


9 


9 


8 


8 


7 


8 


8 




8 


8 





202 



DR L. BECKER ON THE SOLAR SPECTRUM. 



Osc. Freq. 


Moan 
Intensity. 


X 


High Sun. 


Low Sun. 


a 


o 
*~ ^ o 


6 


7c 


13a 


54 


55 


56re 


576 


6 


L 63 


64 


65 


66 


67 


68a 


69 


70 






3 §.§ 

£3 t. 




28 


55 


64 


28 


31 


38 


42 


2 


3 40 


42 


40 


38 


26 


30 


33 


27 




l % 


3 




1-2 


1-5 


1-8 


26 


11 


12 


19 


1 


3 14 


21 


17 


28 


23 


27 


25 


22 


199123 


4 




5022-03 


4 


4 


3 


5 


3 


3 


3 




3 


4 


4 










4 


136 


7 




1-70 


5 


7 


7 


7 


7 


7 


7 




7 


5 


7 


5 




M 




7 


152 


2 




1-30 


2 


1 


3 


3 




2 






3 
















165 
176 


4 
4 




0-97 
0-69 


3 

2 


3 
3 


4 
4 


1 44 


{] 


3 

2 


3 
3 




4 
3 


\u 


3 


4 


{::: 


3 
3 




4 

4 


185 


2? 




0-45 
































3 


198 


8 




5020-14 


B 


"7 


8 


"« 


*8 


9 


"*8 




*7 


"7 


"7 


5 




5 




7 


210 


3 




5019-82 


3 


3 


4 




2 


3 






3 










. * . 






224 
233 


3 


4 
4 


9-49 
9-26 


3 


3 


3 


V 


{;■ 


3 6 


4 
4 




3 
3 


"i» 


2 
2 


}" 6 




4 




ii 


257 




5? 


8-65 
















I 






] 










5 


261 
268 


9 

8 


11 


8-55 
8-38 


9 

6 


9 

8 


9 

8 


I" 


{f 


ii 

8 


i« 


1( 


>fs 


}» 


}lI6 


}» 


10 


11 , 




15 


283 


1 


5 


8-00 






1 




E 








! ... 


B 




B 








5 


296 


8 




7-67 


8 


8 


8 


8 




' 8 


8 


* 


8 




*8 






7 




9 


313 


2 


5 


7-23 




2 


2 


4 




2 






4 




3 












5 


321 


6 




7-02 


5 


6 


■6 


4 




5 


5 


i 


t 5 




5 












6 


336 


5 




6-65 


5 


5 


5 


4 


.». 


5 


4 




5 4 




4 








5 




5 


350 


7 




6-31 


7 


7 


•7 


6 




7 


6 


'J 


> 6 




6 








6 




6 


359 


1 


5 


6-07 






2 




... 


3 


2 


( 


$ ... 
















5 


389 


2 


4 


5-33 


2 


3 


2 


2 




2 


















4 




3 


400 


9 




5-04 


10 


8 


•8 


11 




•9 


io 


i 


1 *8 




9 








7 




10 


409 


2 




4-81 






2 


3 




2 
























427 


9tf 


'•••{ 


4-39 
4-33 


}» 


9 


Is 


}» 




10 


10 


1 


) 9 




9 






8 


8 




10 


443 


4 




3-96 


4 


3 


4 












4 




t • • 












3 


451 


6 


... . 


3-77 


5 


6 


6 


*5 




5 


5 


^ 


1 5 




6 








5 




6 


467 


7 




3-35 


7 


■7 


7 


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6 


5 


1 


5 6 




7 








5 




6 


481 


2 




3-01 


2 




2 




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2 
























492 


5 




2-73 


■6 


5 


5 


<6 




5 


5 


i 


I 5 




5 








5 




6 


501 


6 




2-50 


6 


6 


6 


6 




6 


5 


1 


1 5 




5 












5 


516 


10 




2-13 


11 


9 


10 


12 




10 


10 


1 


) 9 




9 j 






9 


10 




10 


538 


3 




1-57 


3 


2 


2 






2 




.< 


I 3 




3 












3 


548 


2 




1-33 


3 




2 






























561 


6 




1-00 


•6 


6 


7 


■6 




8 


"7 


( 


5 "7 




6 












"e 


568 


2 




0-82 


3 




1 






... 
























586 


4 




0-37 


5 


"4 


4 


4 




4 


3 


, 


1 "4 




4 












5 


595 


5 




0-16 


5 


5 


5 


6 




4 


3 


, 


1 4 




4 












5 


600 


1 




5010-03 






1 






























607 
614 


5 
4 




5009-85 
9-66 


5 
4 


5 

4 


4 
3 


V 




3 


3 


1 


1 4 




4 












4 


624 


1 




9-42 






2 






























633 


2 




9-19 


2 




2 


3 










2 




2 












"3 


652 


4 




8-72 


5 


4 


4 






3 


2 




2 3 




3 












4 


673 


2 




8-19 


2 


2 


2 






2 






2 














E 


3 


687 


4 




7-83 


5 


4 


4 


4 




4 


3 




2 4 




3 










4 


4 1 


707 


10 


... - 


7-34 


11 


9 


10 


12 




11 


10 


i< 


) 9 




11 






9 


11 


10 


10 1 


724 


2 


4 


6-90 


2 


2 


2 


3 






3 




2 2 














4 


3 


738 


2? 




6-57 




26 






























... i 


750 


11 




6-26 


ii 


10 


11 


12 




11 


10 


K 


) io 




ii 






"9 


ii 


io 


11 


199766 


10 




5005-85 


10 


9 


10 


11 




9 


9 


< 


) 9 




10 






B 


10 


10 


1 



DR L. BECKER ON THE SOLAR SPECTRUM. 



203 



Osc. Freq. 


Mean 
Intensity. 


A. 


High Sun. 


Low Sun. 




1 <® 

o -^ P 

£ 5 N 


6 


7e 


13a 


54 


56a 


576 


61 


63 


65 


68a 


69 


70 




S.-B 


^ m o 




28 


55 


64 


28 


38 


42 


28 


40 


40 


30 


33 


27 




o 


3 




1-2 


1-5 


1-8 


30 


13 


17 


18 


16 


15 


30 


25 


18 


199780 


21 




5005-52 


2 
























786 


4 




5 35 


3 


4 


4 




3 


\ 3d 


{} 


3 


2 




1 46 


{"! 


797 


3 




5-09 


3 


4 


3 




2 


3 


2 




821 


3 


5 


4-48 


3 


3 


3 




3 






4 






5 


4 


831 


5 




4-23 


5 


6 


6 


5 


5 


5 


4 


5 


5 




5 h 
5 b 


5 


843 


5 




3-92 


5 


5 


5 


5 


5 


5 


4 


5 


5 




5 


860 


1 




3-50 






2 






... 




... 










870 


2 


... 


3-25 


"fl 


2 


2 


















3 


883 


7 




2-92 


8 


7 


7 


8 


*8 


8 


6 


7 


"7 




8 


7 


890 


2d 


"i 


2-75 


3 


3 


Id 




4 












4 


4 


919 


9 




2-03 


10 


9 


9 


11 


9 


10 


8 


8 


8 




9 


9 


933 


3 




1-67 


3 


2 


3 






3 


2 


2 






4 


3 


954 


5 




1-14 


6 


5 


6 


5 


5 


5 


4 


5 


5 




5 


5 


965 


3 




0-88 


3 


2 


2 
















4 




981 
199986 


6 
4 




0-47 
5000-34 


6 
4 


6 
5 


6 
4 


}"• 


{! 


f' 


6 


7 


7 




7 


n 


200001 


2 




4999-98 


2 




2 




1 


2 


... 










2 


014 


8 




9-64 


8 


*8 


9 


8 


9 


9 


7 


*8 


9 




8 


9 


029 


4 




9-28 


4 


5 


5 


4 


5 


3 


3 


4 


5 




4 


5 


052 


2 




8-69 


3 


1 


2 




2 




... 








... 


3 


065 


7 




8-37 


7 


7 


7 


66 


7 


7 


5 


6 


6 




6 


7 


074 


3 




8-14 


3 


3 


2 






3 




2 






4 


4 


084 


21 




7-91 
















... 








3 


091 


2 




7-73 


2 


2 


2 




2 






2 


2 






2 


113 


5 




7-18 


5 


6 


6 


" 5 ; 
5 6 


6 


5 


5 


4 


5 




5 


5 


123 


6 




6-92 


6 


7 


7 


6 


6 


5 


5 


6 




5 


& 


142 


3 




6-45 


3 


3 


3 


36 


3 


2 


2 


3 


2 




3 


4 


155 


1 




6-13 






2 






3 


... 


2 








3 


169 


4 




5-77 


3 


"i 


4 




3i 


3 


3 


3 


3 




4 


4 


178 


3 




5-54 


3 


4 


3 




3 


4 


3 


3 


3 






4 


193 


2 




5-19 


2 


2 


2 




2 




.... 










2; 


201 


2 




4-97 


b 














2 


2 




2 


. . .- 


211 


2 




4-72 


2 


1 


2' 




2 


2 




... 


.... 




... 


2: 


231 


9 




4-23 


9 


9 


9 


8 


9 


9 


*7 


8 


8 


"a 


8 


9 


248 


6 




3-80 


6 


6 


6 


5 


6 


6 


5, 


6 


6 


1 56 


{}* 


7 


264 


5, 




3-42 


6 


5 


6 


4 


5 


5 


4 


5 


5 


& 


277 


2 




3 09 


2 






6 




... 














286 


3 




2-87 


3 


3 


3 


4 


3 


2 


2 


3 


3 






3 


301 
305 


3 
3 




2-49 
2-40 


3 
3 


} 3 


3 


36 


3 


2. 


2 


3 


3 




3 


3 


324 


4 




1-92 


3 


4 


4 




3 


2 


2 


3 


3 


„. 


3 


3 


338 


5? 




1-56 




















.... 


5 




346 
354 


9 
9 




1-37 
1-17 


9 
9 


'.8 

9 


8 
8 


}i : 


{} 


8 
8 


'V 
8 


"7 
7 


8 

8 


}» 


1Q 


u 


371 


3 




0-75 






3 
















. ... 


3. 


378 


5 




0-58 


6 


5 


6 


"lb 


4 


'4' 


"i 


5 


4 




4 


5 


397 


3 




4990-10 


2 


3 


3 




2 






3 


2 






3 


412 


3 




4989-72 


2 


2 


2 




2 


3 


2 




2 




3 


2 


425 


1 




9-39 












1 














432 


5 




9-22 


6 


5 


5 




"i 


5 




5 


6 




6 


5 


200439 


8 


... 


4989-04 


8 


8 


9 


9 


8 


8 


8 


8 


7 


9 


8 


8 



VOL. XXXVI. PART I. (NO. 6). 



2 H 



204 



DR L. BECKER ON THE SOLAR SPECTRUM. 



Osc. Freq. 


Mean 
Intensity. 


\ 


High Sun. 


Low Sun. 


a 

3 m 


0) 

si . 

+* a 


6 


7c 


13a 


54 


56a 


576 


596 


61 


63 


65 


68a 


69 


70 




i — 2 


o .2 




28 


55 


64 


28 


38 


42 


35 


28 


40 


40 


30 


33 


27 







15 

■3 




1-2 


1-4 


1-8 


33 


15 


16 


9 


19 


18 


13 


31 


28 


15 


200461 


2 ( 


3?) 


4988-50 






2 












3 








3 


470 


3 




8-28 


"hb 


3 


3 


"36 


2 


2 






2 




2 




3 


3 


491 


3 




7-76 




2 


3 




2 








2 


3 


2 






3 


507 


2 




7-35 


2 


2 


2 












2 










3 


522 


4 




6-98 


4 


3 


4 




3 


3 






3 


3 


3 




3 


4 


539 


1 




6-56 






2 
























548 


6 




6-34 


7 


5 


6 


i 6 


5 


6 






5 


5 


5 


J56 


5b 


{I 


556 


4 


.. 


6-15 


5 


4 


4 




5 


5 






2 


4 


4 


564 


3^ 




5-94 






3 
























575 

587 


8 
8 




5-67 
5-38 


8 
8 


*8 

8 


9 
9 


8 

! 8 


8 
8 


8 
8 






8 
8 


8 
8 


'■8 

8 


\to 


I 6 

I 9 


8 
8 


605 


1 


4 


4-91 






2 












2 


4 


j-36 


{* 


3 




612 


4 




4-76 


4 


"i 


4 




3 


3 






3 


3 


4 


4 


632 


8 


,. 


4-26 


8 


8 


8 


8 


8 


• 8 






7 


6 


8 


\: 


9 


!: 


642 


8 


... 


3-99 


8 


8 


9 


8 


8 


8 






7 


7 


8 


655 


1 


4 


3-69 






2 




2 








3 


4 










665 


8 




3-42 


9 


8 


8 


8 


7 


"i 






7 


7 


8 


7 


6 


'8 


686 


7 




2-91 


8 


7 


7 


6 


6 


6 






6 


6 


8 




5 


6 


699 


8 




2-58 


9 


8 


8 


8 


8 


8 






7 


7 


9 


io 


9 


9 


701 


3? 




2-53 






3 
















... 








713 


3 




2-25 


3 


2 


2 




2 


2 


E 


1 


2 


1 






3 


729 


8 




1-85 


9 


8 


8 


8 


8 


9 


9 


8 


8 


9 


8 


"i 


9 


744 


2 


6 


1-48 


2 


2 


3 




2 




2 


2 


3 


2 


6 


4 


3 


760 


1 




1-07 






2 








2 


2 








. •• 




775 


2 




0-70 


2 


2 


2 




2 










2 




• •• 


2 


790 


9 




4980-32 


9 


9 


9 


8 


9 


9 


9 


8 


8 


9 


io 


9 


9 


812 


4 




4979-79 


3 


4 


4 




3 


3 


3 


3 


3 


3 


... 


3 


3 


829 


3 




9-37 


3 


3 


3 




3 


3 




3 


2 


3 




3 


2 


839 


2? 




9-12 






2 






















854 


9 




8-75 


9 


9 


10 


7 


10 


9 


9 


8 


8 


9 


8 


9 


9 


869 


5 




8-36 


4 


5 


5 




4 


4 


5 


4 


4 


5 






5 


891 


5 




7-83 


4 


5 


5 




4 


4 


5 


4 


5 


5 




4 


5 


904 


2 




7-50 




3 


2 














2 






2 


917 


2 




7-19 


2 




2 




1 




2 


1 


2 






3 




927 


3 




6-93 


2 


3 


3 




2 


3 




2 




2 






2 


942 
950 


5 
5 




6-55 
6-36 


5 
5 


5 

5 


6 

5 


{►36 


{1 


4 
4 


5 
5 


}&* 


{] 


5 

5 


j-66 


6 


I 5 


967 


2 


3? 


5-95 




1 


1 














2 


B 




3 


200984 


5i 


••{ 


5-58 
5-45 


}"* 


6 


ol> 




tt 


f' 


5 


5 


5 


4Z> 




5 


5 


201000 


2 




5-12 




2 


1 












2 


2 






2 


016 

026 


4 
4 




4-73 
4-49 


i 

4 


1 36 


{I 




\zb 


46 


I 3 


}' 3 


4 


U 




4 


id 


043 


2 


, , 


4-07 




3 


2 










2 


3 


2 






2 


064 


2? 




3-54 






2 






















076 


9 


., 


3-25 


9 


9 


9 


9 


10 


9 


9 


7 


8 


9 




8 


9 


097 


2 




2-72 




2 


2 








2 


2 


2 


2 






2 


112 


1 




2-36 




2 


2 






















122 


3 




2-10 




2 


3 




2 


2 


2 


3 


3 


3 






3 


145 


7 




1-55 


7 


7 


7 


8 


7 


8 


7 


6 


5 


7 




bb 


6 


201161 


1 




4971 15 


... 


1 


2 




















2 



DR L. BECKER ON THE SOLAR SPECTRUM. 



205 







Mean 
Intensity. 


A 




High 


Sun. 






Low Sun. 


Osc. Freq. 


S . 
>9ts 


0> 


6 


7a 


76 


7c 


126 


13a 


54 56a 


576 


58a 


596 


61 


62 


63 


65 


69 


70 


74a 




8J 


.3 o.S 




28 


56 


55 


55 


45 


64 


28 38 


42 


39 


35 


28 


43 


40 


40 


33 


27 


44 




4J ^H 


■«• o 








































e3<< 

o 


h3 




1-2 


1-3 


14 


1-4 


2-6 


1-8 


36 17 


15 


9 


10 


22 


21 


22 


12 


31 


13 


19 


201173 
180 


5 
6 




4970-84 
0-66 


6 
6 






5 

7 




5 
6 


I 8 Id 


{I 




4 
6 


} 6 




{$ 


5 
6 


J-56 


{I 




194 


3 




0-32 


... 






3 


... 


3 




















2 




205 


8 




4970-06 


8 






8 




8 


"i 7 


"7 




8 


6 




6 


8 


56 


8 




223 


2 


(3?) 


4969-61 








1 




2 


1 












3 






2 




231 


2 


(31) 


9-41 


1 




..... 


2 




2 




1 




2 


3 




2 


2 




2 




254 
257 


6 
6 






8-84 
8-76 


8 
36 






5 
5 




6 
6 


{-8 8 


7 




6 


66 




6 


7 


56 


{S 




267 


4 






8-52 


4 






4 


... 


4 


5 


5 




5 


2 




4 


4 




4 




288 


8 






8-00 


9 




.... 


7 




8 


8 8 


7 




9 


7 




7 


8 


56 


8 




303 


3 






7-64 


3 






2 




3 




3 




3 


3 




3 


2 




3 




313 


1 






7-39 


2 










1 


i 


















2 




329 


2 






6-99 








2 












2 


2 




2 


2 




1 




340 


2 






6-71 


U 






2 




2 


26 


2 
















1 




361 


9 






6-21 


9 






9 




9 


12 10 


9 




9 


8 




8 


9 


6 


9 




372 


5 






5-94 


5 






4 




4 


4 


5 




5 


4 




4 


4 


6 


5 




390 


1 






5-48 












1 




















2 




399 


5 






5-27 


5 






5 




5 


!!! "4 


5 




6 


5 




4 


"i 


Ud 


U 






409 


6 






5-02 


6 






5 




6 


6 


5 




6 


5 




5 


5 






418 


2 


OH) 


4-80 


2 






2 




... 


4 














3 




3 






440 


4 




4-26 


3 






4 




4 




2 




4 


3 




4 


3 




4 






452 


2 






3-96 








2 


















3 












466 


3 






3-62 


3 






2 




2 




2 




3 


3 




2 


3 




2 




486 


2 






3-12 


2 






2 




2 




2 












2 




2 




504 


7 






2-68 


8 






7 




6 


46 7 


7 




'V 


5 




6 


7 


6 


7 




513 


2 






2-46 


2 






3 




2 




















3 




530 


5 






2-03 


6 






5 




5 




3 




5 


3 




5 


5 


"i 


5 




545 


2 






1-66 


2 






2 




2 














2 


3 




2 




565 
573 


4 
3 






1-18 

0-98 


5 

4 






4 
3 




4 
2 




} 3 




4 






}* 


4d 




3 




591 


3 






0-55 


2 






3 




2 




1 




4 


2 




3 


2 




2 






613 


2 






4960-00 








3 




2 




2 




3 






3 


2 




2 






626 


1 






4959-68 


2 














2 






















641 


4 






9-30 


5 






4 




4 


4 


4 




4 


3 




4 


4 


4 


46 






656 


2 






8-94 






E 


2 


E 


2 






B 














2 






676 


3 






8-44 


4 






3 


3 


3 




3 


3 


3 






3 


3 




3 






698 


5 






7-90 




B 






5 














E 










E 




705 


12 






7-73 


13 


10 


12 


12 


12 


12 


h {S 


io 


12 


12 


12 


13 


11 


12 


tl4 


fi'i 

in 


12 




720 


11 






7-36 


12 


9 


12 


12 


11 


11 


10 


11 


11 


12 


13 


11 


11 


12 




751 


3 






6-60 


E 


3 


2 


B 


2 


B 


E E 


3 


2 




B 


}• 














776 
































B 


B 


B 


B 


36 




3 






6-00 




3 


3 




3 






3 


2 


2 
















788 


2 






5-69 




2 






3 










2 




















804 


2 






5-30 




2 


2 




3 








3 






















821 
830 


6 
6 






4-88 
4-66 




5 
5 


6 
6 




7 
7 








6 
5 


5 
5 


6 
6 




\8d 










9 




848 


2 






4-23 




3 


2 




2 








2 


2 


2 










... 








, 865 


2 






3-80 




3 


2 




2 








2 


2 


















i »84 


7 






3-34 




6 


7 




7 








7 


7 


7 




7 










6 


897 


2? 






3-03 




















2 




















908 


6 






2-76 




5 


6 




6 








6 


7 


"7 




6 










6 




:1924 


5 






4952-37 




5 


5 




5 








5 


5 


5 




6 










5 
















































206 



DR L. BECKER ON THE SOLAR SPECTRUM. 



Osc. Freq. 


Mean 
Intensity. 


X 


High Sun. 


Low Sun. 


a . 

P CO 

T3 ~j 


-* P. O 


U 


76 


126 


576 


58a 


596 


62 


74a 


75 




O 


P © N 

H .2W 




56 
1-3 


55 
1-4 


45 
2-5 


42 
13 


39 
10 


35 
11 


43 
20 


44 
18 


43 

18 


201953 


3 




4951-65 


3 


3 


2 


2 


2 


2 








964 


2 






1-37 


3 




3 




2 










978 


1 






1-03 


2 


















201988 


3 






079 


3 


2 


2 


2 


2 


2 




36 


• * ■ 


202010 


9 






4950-26 


8 


8 


9 


9 


8 


8 


9 


9 




034 


2 






4949-67 


2 


2 


2 








1" 


3 




053 


2 






9-19 


3 


2 


2 


2 


I 26 


u 






070 


1 






8-79 




* , . 


2 


2 








091 


3 






8-26 


3 


3 


3 


3 


3 


4 


i 


2 




099 


1 






8-08 




2 


... 








& 






117 


4 






7-63 


4 


4 


4 


3 


3 


5 


i 


3 




137 


2 






7-13 


2 


2 


2 




1 


2 




. . • 




162 


9 






6-53 


8 


8 


9 


9 


9 


8 


8 


9 




176 


4 






6-18 


4 


4 


5 


4 


5 


4 




• . • 




195 


6 






5-73 


6 


6 


6 


6 


5 


5 


}"' 


7 




203 


6 






5-52 


6 


6 


6 


6 


5 


5 




228 


2 






4-92 


2 


2 


1 




2 


I 26 


{"a 




, , , 


240 


3 






4-61 


3 


3 


2 


2 


2 


3 




251 


3 






4-34 


3 


3 


2 


2 


2 


2 


& 


3 




267 


2 






3-95 


2 


2 


2 


2 


1 




3 


3 




287 


2 






3-47 


2 


1 2d 


{ \ 


2 


2 


2 


... 






300 


1 






315 














, . , 


321 


9 






2-65 


9 


8 


9 


9 


9 


9 


8 


8 




346 


3 






2-04 


3 


3 


3 


2 


2 


2 


♦ . . 


2 




371 


3 






1-42 


3 


2 


2 


2 


2 


2 




2 




390 


2 






0-96 


2 




2 






2 




. .. 




403 


3 






0-64 


3 


*2 


2 


2 


2 


2 


2 


2 




422 


3 






4940-19 


4 


3 


3 


3 


3 


3 


• •• 


... 




435 


8 






4939-86 


8 


8 


8 


9 


8 


8 


8 


7 


, . 


453 


7 






9-41 


7 


7 


7 


8 


7 


6 


7 


7 


.• 


471 


8 






8-98 


8 


8 


8 


9 


8 


8 


8 


8 


,, 


492 


4 






8-46 




4 


5 














497 


7 






8-35 


"i 


8 


7 


"8 


8 


"i 


7 


8 




513 


3 






7-95 


3 


3 


2 


3 


3 




2 






530 


8 






7-54 


7 


8 


8 


8 


8 


8 


8 


8 




542 


4 






7-26 


4 


4 


4 


4 


4 




4 


6 




559 


2 






6-84 


3 


3 


3 




1 




1 






574 


6 






6-48 


6 


6 


6 


5 


7 


6 


6 


6 


E 


595 


7 






5-96 


6 


7 


7 


7 


7 


7 


7 


7 


5 


615 
629 


2 
3 






5-48 
5-12 


2 
2 


2 

2 


2 
2 


2 


2 


2 


I 26 


Cs 




644 


2 






4-76 


2 




2 




2 


2 








667 


10 






4-20 


10 


9 


9 


10 


11 


11 


11 


12 


11 


673 


7 






4-05 


6 


7 


7 


5 


6 










699 


8 






3-42 


9 


8 


7 


8 


8 


9 


9 


io 


9 


706 


5 






3-26 


4 


6 


7 


4 


5 










731 


2 






2-66 


2 


2 


2 


2 


2 




i 






751 


6d 






2-17 


7 


6 


6 


6 


56 


*7 


5 


"id 


6d 


765 


2 






1-81 


3 


2 


2 










4 




786 


2 






1-32 


2 


2 


2 














202799 


5ri 






4931-00 


5 


4 


5 


5 


5 


4 


4 


4d 


66 



DR L. BECKER ON THE SOLAR SPECTRUM. 



207 



Osc. Freq. 


Mean 
Intensity. 


A. 


High Sun. 


Low Sun. 


S 

■§■1 


03 

O -U p 


7a 


n 


126 


576 


58a 


596 


60 


62 


74a 


75 




8| 


2 o S 




56 


55 


43 


42 


39 


35 


26 


43 


44 


43 






«5o 




1-3 


1-4 


2-5 


11 


10 


11 


12 


18 


17 


17 







3 
























202823 


8 




4930-42 


8 


8 


8 


9 


9 


8 




9 


8 


7 


850 


2 






4929-76 


2 


2 


2 


2 


1 


2 




3 


3 




874 


2 






9-18 


2 


1 


2 


2 




2 




3 


3 




882 


1 






8-98 


2 




















904 


5 






8-43 


5 


5 


6 


6 


5 


5 




5 


5 


5 


920 


8 






8-04 


6 


8 


8 


8 


7 


7 




7 


6 


I 5& 


942 


7 






7-52 


6 


7 


7 


7 


6 


7 




7 


6 


955 


5? 






7-21 


















5 




966 


3 






6-93 


3 


3 


3 


2 


2 


3 




3 


4 




202995 


3 






6-24 


3 


3 


3 


2 


2 


3 




3 


4 




203016 


6 






5-72 


7 


6 


6 


7 


7 


6 




6 


1 5d 


6 


027 


5 






5-45 


5 


5 


4 


5 


5 


4 




4 


041 


3 






511 




3 


















050 


9 






4-90 


*9 


8 


8 


9 


9 


*8 




8 


8 


"i 


071 


3 






4-38 


3 


3 


3 




1 












085 


10 






4-04 


9 


9 


10 


10 


11 


io 




9 


io 


io 


100 


2 






3-68 


3 






2 














118 


3 






3-25 


4 


3 


3 


2 


2 


4 




3 


4 




132 


3 






2-91 


3 


3 


3 


2 


2 






3 






141 


1 






2-70 




1 


















156 


8 






2-33 


8 


7 


7 


8 


10 


8 




7 


7 


8 


161 


4 






2-21 




4 


4 
















175 


6 






1-87 


6 


5 


6 


5 


5 


5 




5 


5 


5 


188 


2 






1-55 


2 


2 


3 








B 








208 


5 






1-07 


5 


5 


4 


4 


5 


4 


4 


4 


4 




220 


4? 






0-77 




4 








... , 










226 


12 






0-63 


ii 


11 


13 


ii 


12 


12 


11 


12 


12 


i2 


234 


4 






4920-44 


4 


4 


















254 


4 






4919-96 


4 


3 


4 


4 


3 


"i 


3 


4 


2 




269 


2 






9-58 


2 


2 


















288 


11 






9-12 


10 


10 


12 


10 


11 


11 


10 


11 


11 


11 


299 


5 






8-87 


5 


5 


5 


4 


5 


4 


4 


5 






315 


7 






8-48 


7 


7 


7 


6 


6 


5 


6 


7 


6 


6 


329 


6 






8-13 


6 


6 


7 


5 


6 


5 


5 


7 


6 


6 


340 


3? 






7-87 


3 




• • • 
















361 


8 






7-37 


7 


8 


8 


"i 


*8 


8 


8* 


8 


"i 


7 


378 


2 






6-95 








2 




... , 




3 






392 


3 






6-62 


3 


3 


3 


2 


2 


2 


i 


2 


3 


3 


400 


2 






6-41 


2 


2 


2 
















421 


3 






5-92 


3 


3 


3 


2 


2 


2 


2 


2 


3 


2 


443 


3 






5-38 


3 


3 


2 


2 


2 


2 


2 


2 


2 


16 


465 


1 






4-84 


1 
















2 




475 


2 






4-61 


3 


3 


2 


2 


2 




2 


2 


2 




495 


7 






4-13 


7 


6 


8 


7 


7 


6 


7 


6 


6 


"t» 


509 


7 






3-78 


7 


6 


7 > 


7 


7 


6 


7 


6 


5 


528 


3 






3-34 


4 


3 


3 




3 


3 


3 


3 


4 




537 








3-10 








2 


3 








2 




552 


3 






2-74 


4 


3 


3 ! 


3 


3 


3 


2 


3 


2 




573 


6 






2-25 


6 


5 


6 


5 


6 


5 


6 


5 


6 


I id 


582 


6 






2-03 


6 


5 


6 


5 


6 


5 


6 


5 


6 


203595 


4 






4911-72 


4 


4 


5 


3 


5 


4 


2 


4 







208 



DR L. BECKER ON THE SOLAR SPECTRUM. 



Osc. Freq. 


Mean 

Intensity. 


A. 


High Sun. 


Low Sun. 


a 
.2 » 

a s 


03 

-a . 
o ** a 

j3 o.H 

m * 3 


7a 
56 


76 
55 


126 
45 


576 
42 


58a 
39 


59a 
35 


596 
35 


60 
26 


62 
43 


74a 
44 


75 
43 




[0 


3 




1-3 


1-4 


2-4 


10 


12 


21 


12 


13 


16 


15 


15 


203610 


6 




4911-34 


7 


6 


7 


6 


7 




7 


6 


6 


6 


4 


638 


7 






0-68 


7 


6 


7 


6 


8 




6 


6 


7 


7 


7 


648 


7 






0-44 


7 


6 


7 


6 


8 




6 


6 


7 


7 


7 


660 


8 






4910-15 


8 


7 


8 


6 


8 




8 


8 


8 


7 


7 


671 


1 


.. 




4909-88 


2 














1 








685 


8 






9-54 


8 


7 


*8 


7 


7 




8 


7 


"a 


7 


*7 


700 


1 






9-17 


2 


1 




2 
















714 


2 






8-84 


2 




3 


2 


2 






id 


3 


2 


i 


724 


2 






8-59 




3 


3 








2 




2 






742 


5 






8-16 


5 


6 


5 


5 


5 




6 


5 


6 


6 


6 


755 


7 






7-85 


6 


7 


7 


7 


7 




7 


7 


7 


7 


86 


782 


2 






7-20 


3 


2 


3 




3 




2 


1 


2 


3 




796 


3 






6-86 


3 


3 


3 


3 


3 




36 


2 


2 


3 


3 


824 


3 






6-20 


2 


3 


3 


2 







2 


2 


2 


3 


2 


836 


2 






5-91 


2 


2 


2 


















863 


5 






5-25 


5 


5 


6 


6 


7 




5 


5 


6 


4 


4 


876 


2? 






4-94 






2 














... 




891 


8 






4-57 


8 


8 


8 


9 


9 




"s 


9 


8 


8 


86 


912 


2 






4-07 


2 


2 


1 














2 




928 


21 






3-70 


2 










B 












939 


10 






3-42 


9 


9 


10 


10 


12 


10 


10 


10 


9 


10 


10 


977 
203990 


3 
3 


*4? 
4? 


2-52 
2-21 


3 


1 3d 


{I 


3* 


3 7 

3 6 - 


J» 


1 id 


U s 


3 
3 


1 46 


/ 46 
1 3 


204010 


2 




1-72 


2 


2 


2 


2 










1 




2 


033 
043 


4 
4 




1-18 
0-94 


I 36 


U 


4 
4 


1 4rf 


3 


4 


4 


fi» 


I 46 


46 


3d 


069 


7 




0-31 


6 


7 


8 


7 


} .. 7 


86 


{? 


7 


7 


5 


}' 


080 


7 




4900-05 


6 


7 


8 


7 


7 


7 


6 


096 


3 




4899-65 


2 


3 


3 












2 


2 




106 


21 




9-41 


















2 






126 


2 




8-93 


2 


2 


2 






3 


2 


1 


1 


3 


2 


147 


2 




8-44 


2 


2 


2 


2 




6 


2 


• . . 


2 


3 




180 


3 




7-64 


3 




3 


2d 




3 


2 


1 


2 




2 


192 


2 




7-35 


3 


3 
















3 




217 


4 




6-75 






4 


















223 


6 




6-61 


*6 


7 


6 


5 


5 


6 


6 


5 


5 


6 


"46 


245 


1 




6-07 


2 






















253 


2 




5-88 


2 


3 


'2 








2 




2 


3 




273 


2 




5-40 


3 


1 


3 


2 






2 






3 




305 


3 




4-65 


3 


3 


3 


3 






3 


3 


3 


4 




331 


4 




4-01 


4 


4 


4 


3 


4 




3 


3 


3 


4 




351 


1 




3-53 


1 


2 




















370 


7 




3-08 


7 


7 


8 


7 


7 


'V 


7 


6 


6 


"7 


4 


392 


2 




2-55 


2 


2 


1 








. . . 










408 


1 




2-18 




1 


2 


















429 


11 

i2 




1-68 


11 


10 


12 


12 


12 


11 


ii 


11 

*2 


11 


12 


ii 


463 


10 




0-87 


10 


9 


11 


11 


ii 


10 


n 


10 


10 


11 


11 


485 


2 




4890-34 


1 


2 


3 


E 


1 36 


{::: 






2 


2 




505 


3 




4889-86 


2 


2 


3 




2 


2 


3 


3 


3 


528 
204532 


7 
7 




9-31 

4889-22 


I 8 


Sd 


{? 




} 8 


9 


9 


9 


8 


8 


10 



DR L. BECKER ON THE SOLAR SPECTRUM. 



209 



Osc. Freq. 


Mean 
Intensity. 


A 


High Sun. 


Low Sun. 


a . 

CD r^ 


CD 

.a . 

o -^ a 

■fl a ° 


7a 


76 


126 


58a 


59a 


596 


60 


62 


74a 


75 






3 §.a 




56 


55 


45 


39 


35 


35 


26 


43 


44 


43 




X< 






1-3 


1-3 


2-3 


13 


20 


13 


14 


13 


14 


13 







13 
























204550 


8 




4888-79 


7 


7 


8 


8 


8 


8 


8 


7 


8 


9 


570 


2 




8-31 


2 


2 


2 








1 


2 


3 




589 


2 




7-86 


2 


2 


2 










2 




2 


608 
617 


7 
7 




7-40 
7-19 


6 
6 


7 
7 


7 
7 


}} 


7b 


{] 


*7 

7 


6 
6 


6 

7 


}- 


633 


3 




6-81 


3 


3 


2 








3 








646 


7 




6-49 


6 


8 


8 


"i 


7 


8 


7 


"7 


7 


7 


660 


3 




6-15 


4 


3 


3 








4 


I 4tf 


{•« 




668 


4 




5-96 


5 


4 


4 


5 


5 


3 


4 




684 


6 




5-58 


6 


7 


7 


6 


6 


6 


6 


6 


6 


5 


701 


6 




5-18 


6 


6 


7 


5 


5 


6 


6 


6 


6 


6 


707 


3 




5-03 


3 




















719 


5 




4-75 


4 


5 


5 




"4 


4 




"4 


5 


5 


745 


2 




4-12 


3 


3 


2 




1 






2 






761 


7 




3-75 


7 


7 


7 


7 


7 


8 


7 


7 


8 


7 


773 


2 




3-47 


3 


2 


2 








2 


1 






796 


3 




2-90 


3 


3 


2 






3 




2 


4 




810 


2? 




2-57 






2 






... 




• * . 






821 


8 




2-30 


"7 


"i 


8 


"7 


7 


6 


*7 


7 


*8 


6 


840 


7 




1-85 


7 


6 


7 


I 8cZ 






c 


7 


h 


















8 


7b 




7 


847 


7 




1-70 


7 


6 


7 






7 




875 


3 




1-02 


3 


3 


3 


3 




3 


16 


2 


3 




892 


3 




0-61 


3 


3 


3 


3 




3 




2 






912 


2 




4880-14 


2 


2 


3 






... 


2 


1 


3 




933 


2 




4879-65 


2 




2 










1 


3 




951 


2 


• . • 


9-21 


2 


2 


2 
















968 


2 




8-81 


2 


2 


2 








2 


i 


3 




204989 


11 




8-30 


11 


10 


10 


11 


11 


10 


11 


10 


11 


11 


205010 


3 




7-80 


3 




3 
















014 


4 




7-71 


4 


4 


4 


4 


4 


4 


3 


3 


4 


3 


034 


2 




7-24 


2 




2 










2 


3 




046 


2 




6-94 


2 


2 


2 




• . • 












062 
065 


4 
6 




6-56 
6-49 


}* 


7 


!• 


f' 


6 


6 


5d 


7 


7 


66 


076 


2? 




6-23 


2 




















085 


6 




6-02 


6 


6 


5 


5 


6 


6 


5 


6 


5 


5 


106 


5 




5-53 


6 


5 


6 


5 


6 


5 


5 


5 


5 


5 


126 
135 


4 
4 




5-05 
4-85 


4 
4 


4 
4 


5 i 
5 


i 46 


U 


u 


}* 


{1 


4 
4 


I 4<i 


155 


4 




4-36 


4 


4 


4 




4 


4 




3 






169 


5 




4-03 


5 


5 


5 


3 


5 


5 


5 


4 


4 


4& 


178 


4 




3-81 


3 


4 


4 
















195 


7 




3-41 


6 


6 


7 


8 


7 


*7 


"7 


6 


"7 


56 


201 


5 




3-26 


5 


4 


5 










4 






214 


3 




2-95 


3 


3 


2 








i 4b 


h 






226 


2 




2-67 


2 


2 


2 








3 




247 


9 




2-19 


8 


9 


8 


11 


10 


i'6 


11 


9 


11 


llOrf 


255 


6 




1-98 


6 


5 


6 










5 




267 


2? 




1-70 




2 


















279 


11 


... 


141 


9 


10 


10 


ri 


lQ 


11 


ii 


16 


ii 


ii 


205301 


7 




4870-89 


6 


7 


8 




6 


6 


E 


7 


7 


8 



210 



DR L. BECKER ON THE SOLAR SPECTRUM. 



Osc. Freq. 


Mean 
Intensity. 


\ 


High Sun. 






Low Sun. 






3 . 
.2 3 


8 

•n rt o 


7a 


76 


126 


58a 


59a 


596 


62 


74a 


75 




o 


Tellui 

Lines oi 

Horiz 




56 
1-3 


55 
1-3 


45 
2-2 


39 
14 


35 

17 


35 
14 


43 
11 


44 
13 


43 
12 


205315 


2 




4870-56 




2 


2 


4 












328 


6 






0-26 


6 


6 


6 


5 


6 


6 


5 


6 


5 


333 


4? 






4870-15 








6 






4 






358 


5 






4869-55 


5 


5 


5 


5 


5 


4 


5 


5 


5 


383 


3 






8-95 


3 


3 


3 








3 


3 


2 


400 
406 


5 
5 






8-55 
8-41 


5 
5 


5 
5 


5 
5 


}" 6 


7 


5 


u 


}° 


6 


425 


6 






7-95 


7 


6 


6 


6 


7 


5 


7 


6 


6 


439 


3 






7-63 


3 


3 










1 


4 




456 


2 






7-23 




2 


3 














459 


1 






7-16 


I 2b 


{"i 


2 


... 












470 


2 






6-88 


2 




• • • 


■ . * 


1 




1 


489 


8 






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( 211 ) 



VII. — Electrolytic Synthesis of Dibasic Acids. By Professor Alexander Crum Brown 

and Dr James Walker. 

(Read 17th February, 19th May, 16th June, and 7th July 1890 ; revised 11th November 1890.) 

Part I. 

Forty years ago Kolbe * showed that a strong aqueous solution of potassium acetate, 
when subjected to the influence of the electric current, is decomposed with formation of the 
following products. At the anode a gaseous mixture is evolved which consists chiefly of 
carbonic acid and ethan ; while at the cathode hydrogen escapes, and potassium hydrate 
is formed in the solution. When dilute solutions of the same substance are electrolysed 
under similar conditions, the decomposition products at the cathode are the same as in 
the previous case, but at the anode the gas evolved is now oxygen, and free acetic acid 
makes its appearance in the solution. The difference between the two cases must, on 
modern views of electrolysis, be attributed to the occurrence of secondary reactions. The 
primary process is in all cases the transference of the electrically-charged submolecules 
or ions to the corresponding poles, where they lose their charges, and thereby become 
capable of reacting with one another or with neighbouring molecules. As a general rule 
they are, when discharged, themselves incapable of independent existence. 

The ions in a solution of potassium acetate are K and CH 3 COO, of which the former 
travels to the cathode, the latter to the anode. On discharge, the potassium atom 
immediately attacks the water in which the salt is dissolved, with formation of potassium 
hydrate and liberation of hydrogen. The acetion, on the other hand, can either react 
with the water or with another acetion molecule, according to circumstances. Should 
the solution be dilute, the conditions evidently favour interaction with the water, which 
will then take place according to the equations 

CH3COO + HOH = CH3COOH + OH 
or 2CH 3 COO + H 2 = 2CH 3 COOH + 

But if the solution is concentrated, the reaction will rather take place between the acetions, 
and that in either (or both) of two ways, viz. — 

I. 2CH 3 C0 2 = CH3CH3+ 2C0 2 
II. 2CH 3 C0 2 = CH 3 C0 2 CH 3 +C0 2 

The secondary products in this case are therefore carbonic acid, ethan, and methyl acetate. 
As KoLBEt proved, the quantity of methyl acetate formed is extremely small ; indeed, he 
only succeeded in showing its existence in an indirect manner. The decomposition thus 

* Kolbe, Chem. Soc. Quart. Jour., ii. 157, 1850. t Kolbe, loc. tit., 177. 

VOL. XXXVI. PART I. (NO. 7). 2 I . 



212 PROFESSOR A. CRUM BROWN AND DR JAMES WALKER ON THE 

proceeds chiefly according to equation I. With other acids, however, the result is 
different. Potassium valerianate, for example, yields on electrolysis considerable quantities 
of valerianate of butyl * formed according to equation II. ; thus 

2C 4 H 9 -COO = C 4 H 9 -COOC 4 H 9 +C0 2 . 

Another and particularly interesting case is that of the electrolysis of a formiate. If the 
reaction took place in the sense of equation I 

2HCOO = H 2 +2C0 2 , 

we should have the somewhat surprising circumstance of hydrogen being given off at 
both poles. As a matter of fact, no hydrogen is formed at the anode, but the reaction 
which occurs is as follows : — 

2HCOO = H-COOH + C0 2 ; 

formic acid is regenerated and carbonic acid alone is evolved.t This process has been 
looked upon as one of oxidation, but it is clearly a case of the occurrence of the mode of 
decomposition symbolised by equation II. 

There is still another way in which two anion molecules may react together. It 
occurs chiefly with the higher fatty acids, and results in the formation of unsaturated 
bodies. For instance, a propionate gives as chief product at the anode, ethylen,| according 
to the equation 

III. 2C 2 H 5 COO = C 2 H 4 +C0 2 + C 2 H 5 COOH . 

It evidently depends on the relative stability of the various possible products of 
decomposition which of these three reactions will prevail. The most interesting case, 
however, is that in which two alkyl residues from different molecules unite to form a 
hydrocarbon (equation I.) ; for this gives us the means of effecting the synthesis of long 
carbon chains. 

Till now only a few hydrocarbons have been thus synthetically prepared. The method, 
however, is by no means confined to such substances, but is capable of considerable 
extension ; and in the present paper will be found its development in one particular 
direction. 

It is a well-known fact that the specific function of any class of substances in organic 
chemistry is determined by the presence within them of a definite group of atoms. 
Acids are thus characterised by the carboxyl group, primary alcohols by the radical 
CH 2 OH.§ Now it often happens that one and the same substance contains two 
characteristic radicals ; the substance then belongs formally to two families, and has in 
general the properties of both. A short time ago one of us expressed in the Proceedings 

* Kolbe, loc. cit., 164. 

t Jahn, Wiedemann's Annalen, xxxvii., 408, 1889. 

\ Jahn, loc. cit., p. 430 ; compare also Kolbe, loc. cit., p. 168. 

§ Compare Crum Brown, Trans. Roy. Soc. Edin., xxiv. 331, 1866. 



ELECTROLYTIC SYNTHESIS OF DIBASIC ACIDS. 213 

of this Society* the expectation that salts of the type E'DOC'E^COOK (where E' is a 
univalent and E" a bivalent alcohol radical), which are thus at once potassium salts 
and esters, would behave electrolytically as salts of monobasic acids. An experiment of 
Guthrie's shows that the ester group plays no active part in electrolysis. Guthrie found 
that on the electrolysis of the salt KOS0 2 *OC 2 H 5 , his anode of amalgamated zinc was 
attacked with formation of the corresponding zinc salt, Zn(OS0 2 'OC 2 H 5 ) 2 ,t which proves 
that the anion was composed of the unchanged group , S0 2 'OC 2 H 5 . One would there- 
fore expect the anion of the salt C 2 H 5 OOC-E"-COOK to be C 2 H 5 OOC-E"COO, which, 
if platinum electrodes were used, should decompose according to equations I. to III. 
Equation I. would then read as follows : — 

2C 2 H 5 OOCR"COO = C 2 H 5 OOC-R"-E"-COOC 2 H 5 +2C0 2 ; 

that is, from the ethyl-potassium salt we should obtain the diethyl ether of a higher acid 
of the same homologous series. This expectation we were able to realise, for from 
ethyl potassium malonate we obtained by electrolysis diethyl succinate. In a similar 
way we have prepared adipic acid from succinic acid, sebacic acid from adipic acid, 
suberic acid from glutaric acid, and from suberic and sebacic acids two new acids of the 
oxalic series. 

It is evident from the mode of formation that the acids thus prepared must be 
symmetrical (provided we leave stereo-chemical relations out of account) ; and, in especial, 
from normal acids we obtain normal acids, as the following examples illustrate : — 

2C„H 5 OOC-CH 2 -COO = C 2 H 5 OOCCH 2 -CH 2 -COOC 2 H 5 +2C0 2 
2C 2 H 5 OOCCH 2 CH 2 COO = C 2 H 5 OOCCH 2 CH 9 CH 2 CH 2 COOC 2 H 5 +2C0 2 
2C 2 H 5 OOC(CH 2 ) 4 -COO = C 2 H 5 OOC(CH 2 ) 8 COOC 2 H 5 + 2C0 2 

The method then gives us the means of ascending the oxalic series of acids synthetically, 
and that by the greater steps the further we advance in the series. As yet we have not 
pushed the process beyond the normal acid containing a chain of eighteen carbon atoms, 
but we hope shortly to take the next step, and prepare the acid with a chain of thirty-four 
carbon atoms. 

With regard to the practical working of the method, we have found that in order to 
obtain a successful result there are certain conditions which must be observed, and these 
perhaps may be best illustrated in the special case of the synthesis of succinic ether. 

The vessel in which the electrolysis took place was a platinum crucible, 4" 8 cm. high 

and 4 - 3 cm. in diameter. This served at the same time as the cathode. The anode was 

made of a stout platinum wire bent in corkscrew fashion, and distant all round about 

1 cm. from the wall of the crucible. The relatively small area of the anode occasioned a 

great current density at its surface, — a condition extremely favourable for the electrolysis 

proceeding according to equations I. to III. It is a priori clear that the greater the current 

density at the anode is chosen, the closer will the discharged anions be packed, and there- 

* Crum Brown, Proc. Roy. Soc. Edin., 1889-90, p. 53. 
t Guthrie, Ghem. Soc. Quar. Jour., ix. 131, 1856. 




214 PROFESSOR A. CRUM BROWN AND DR JAMES WALKER ON THE 

fore the greater will be the probability that they react among themselves and not on the 
water used as solvent. A special experiment served to confirm this conclusion. With 
the apparatus arranged as above, a solution containing 15 grams of ethyl potassium 
malonate yielded on electrolysis 4*5 grams of succinic ether. A perfectly similar solution 
under precisely the same conditions, with the exception that the current was reversed, 
gave scarcely '5 gram of the ether, and that not nearly so pure as in the first case. 
Still using the same solution, we again reversed the current, and obtained 4 more grams 
of the diethyl succinate. This proves beyond doubt that with a large anode — the crucible 
— the discharged anions, being spread over a wide area, have not the opportunity of 
reacting with each other, and are consequently forced to attack the water. The original 
acid is thereby regenerated, and this is speedily neutralised by the potash produced at 
the cathode, so that everything returns to its primary state, the chief result being the 
decomposition of water. 

RCOOK = RCOO + K 

RCOO + HOH = R-COOH + OH 

K+HOH = KOH+H 
RCOOH + KOH = R-COOK + H 2 

The above experiment seems to stand in direct contradiction to an observation made by 
Jahn,* who found that on the electrolysis of sodium acetate, more ethan was formed when 
his anode was large than when it was small. The difference between his electrodes was, 
however, not nearly so great as that between ours, the areas of which were in the ratio 
300 : 1, and consequently the difference between the quantities of ethan he obtained was 
also small, so that perhaps other circumstances might have occasioned the discrepancy. 

We derived our electricity from a battery of twenty-four secondary cells connected so 
as to give an electromotive force of twelve volts. In the course of the investigation it 
appeared that a high temperature lessened to some extent the yield of the synthetic pro- 
duct, which obliged us to keep the current intensity below a maximum of five amperes. 
With this current, the heat developed by the passage of the electricity through the 
solution can be conducted away by a stream of cold water flowing round the platinum 
crucible. A probable cause of the diminution of the quantity of ester formed at a high 
temperature is the readiness with which the potash formed at the cathode saponifies the 
ethyl-potassium salt in hot aqueous solution. This saponification, however, is always in 
great measure prevented by the gases evolved at the electrodes serving to keep the 
solution constantly stirred up, so that the potash is at least partially neutralised by the 
carbonic acid liberated at the anode. A special current of carbonic acid passed through 
the solution seems to have no beneficial effect. 

One point to be attended to is that the solution should not be too concentrated. The 
best strength is from 1 '5 to 2 parts of ethyl-potassium salt to 1 part of water. It is 
a circumstance of the greatest moment for the success of this electrolytic synthesis of the 
dibasic acids that the ethyl-potassium salts are so extraordinarily soluble in water. Even 

* Jahn, loc. cit., 423. 



ELECTROLYTIC SYNTHESIS OF DIBASIC ACIDS. 215 

in the case of sebacic acid, we obtain a salt, two parts of which dissolve in one part of cold 
water, being thus much more soluble than the dipotassium salt. If the concentration 
exceeds the above limit, the resistance of the solution becomes very high, and the 
electrolysis proceeds slowly ; at the same time the viscosity of the liquid occasions exces- 
sive and inconvenient frothing. The quantity and appearance of the froth gives indeed 
a very good notion as to whether the electrolysis is proceeding properly or not. At first 
the froth is small in quantity and creamy in appearance. Afterwards it increases in 
amount and becomes coarser. When the electrolysis is near an end, the froth disappears 
almost entirely from the middle of the crucible, so that one can see an oily liquid on the 
surface, and masses of a solid in the aqueous layer below. The solid is potassium car- 
bonate, or bicarbonate. On completion of the electrolysis the two layers are separated, 
and the aqueous one extracted with ether. The ethereal extract is then added to the 
oily layer, the mixture dried with fused calcium chloride, and the ether and alcohol 
distilled off on the water-bath. The alcohol is a secondary product arising from the partial 
saponification of the ethyl-potassium salt by the potash formed during the electrolysis. 
What remains in the distilling-flask as a colourless or slightly yellow oil is pure diethyl 
succinate. 

In the above way it is easy to work up 25 grams of ethyl -potassium malonate in an 
hour. The yield is in this case very satisfactory. Thirty grams of ethyl-potassium 
malonate dissolved in 20 grams of water gave 9 '2 grams of succinic ether, or 60 
per cent, of the calculated quantity. In the case of the higher acids the yield is much 
smaller, falling at once to 35 per cent, at the next step, and scarcely reaching 20 percent, 
in the electrolysis of ethyl-potassium sebate. 

We have confined ourselves to the preparation and study of the esters which are 
formed according to equation I. Other ethereal products of the electrolysis are met 
with in any quantity only in the case of acids well up in the series. These may form 
the subject of a future investigation. From the aqueous solution considerable quantities 
of the original acid may be recovered on acidification. 

The replacement of the hydrogen atom of one carboxyl group in the dibasic acids by 
ethyl is not the only mode of rendering this group electrolytically inactive. We have 
found that the electrolysis of a methyl-potassium salt yields almost as favourable 
results. It might be possible to effect the same synthesis by electrolysing solutions of 

the potassium salts of the amic acids R\pf>OK *' °^ *^ e acid potassium salts 

^ \OOOK' or even m some cases of the acids R' \pr)fkrr themselves ; for it has been 

proved indirectly that w T eak dibasic acids split off only one hydrogen atom as cation, so 

<COO 
roOTT' wn i° n would, according to equation I., give 

COOH'R'^R'^COOH and carbonic acid. Experiments made by us in this direction 
with malonic acid have not as yet led to the desired result. With the acid potassium 
salts the same reaction ought to take place, but these salts are by no means so convenient, 



216 PROFESSOR A. CRUM BROWN AND DR JAMES WALKER ON THE 

as in their case it would be necessary to use a divided cell. The potassium salts of the 
amic acids, again, would yield an insoluble amide. By far the best substances to use, then, 
are the ester salts, which are distinguished by their great solubility in water, are easily 
obtainable in sufficient purity for electrolysis, and give as product an oil at once removed 
from the sphere of action. 

In the following pages we describe the experiments made in the individual cases, and 
the products thereby obtained. 

Synthesis of Succinic Acid. 

Ethyl potassium malonate is easily prepared according to the directions of Freund* 
from diethyl malonate and the calculated quantity of alcoholic potash. The salt thus 
obtained was electrolysed in the manner already mentioned, the product being a colour- 
less oil, which, when freed from alcohol and water, was subjected to elementary analysis. 
•2619 gr. substance gave -5287 gr. C0 2 and 1930 gr. H 2 

Found. Calculated for C 8 H 14 4 . 

C . . . 5506 per cent. 55*17 per cent. 

H . 819 „ 805 

The oil had thus the composition of diethyl succinate. It boiled at 213° (uncorr.): the 
boiling-point of succinic ether is 216°. 

On saponification with alcoholic potash it yielded a potassium salt exhibiting all the 
reactions of a succinate. The silver salt obtained from the potassium compound by 
precipitation was analysed for silver with the following result : — 

•1878 gr. substance gave "1215 gr. Ag . 

Found. Calculated for Ag 2 C 4 H 4 4 . 

Ag .... 647 per cent. 65"0 per cent. 

The acid itself, prepared from the silver salt, melted at 180°, the fusing-point of succinic 
acid. 

To establish completely the identity of our synthetic acids, we have had recourse to 
the valuable method proposed by Ostwald, which consists in determining their electric 
conductivity at different stages of dilution, and calculating from the values so obtained 
the very characteristic dissociation-constant. The apparatus employed was that described 
by Ostwald in the Zeitschrift fur physikalische Chemie, vol. ii. p. 561. The letters used 
in the tables have the following signification : — v is the number of litres of the 
solution in which one molecular weight of the acid in grams is contained ; fx is the mole- 
cular conductivity in mercury units at 25° ; 100m is the quantity per cent, of acid dis- 
sociated into its ions ; and finally k is the dissociation or affinity-constant calculated 

9 

on 
according to the equation k = IOOtt— — r- . m^ denotes the molecular conductivity in an 

infinitely dilute solution, and m is calculated from the formula w = . 

* Freund, Berichte d. deut. chem. Ges., xvii. 780, 1884. 



ELECTEOLYTIC SYNTHESIS OF DIBASIC ACIDS. 217 

Synthetic Succinic Acid, COOH-(CH 2 ) 2 -COOH . 
Mod =356. 



V 


fi 


100m 


K 


32 


1633 


4-59 


•0069 


64 


22-80 


641 


•0067 


128 


31-67 


8-89 


•0068 


256 


4402 


1236 


•0068 


512 


6017 


16-90 


0067 


024 


82-97 


23-31 


•0069 



k = -0068 

According to Ostwald the dissociation-constant of succinic acid is '00665.* The agree- 
ment between the two numbers is satisfactory, and proves the identity of our synthetic 
acid with ordinary succinic acid. 

As has been already mentioned, the yield is 60 per cent, of the theoretical amount. 

Synthesis of Adi'pic Acid. 

On first preparing ethyl potassium succinate we followed the directions of HEiNTZ,t 
who obtained the salt by boiling succinic anhydride for several hours with absolute 
alcohol, neutralising with potassium carbonate, and then precipitating the double salt from 
its alcoholic solution by means of ether. The ethyl potassium succinate thus prepared 
Heintz found to be always liquid ; in one case, however, we found it to separate as a 
non -crystalline solid. 

We have now abandoned this mode of preparation, and avail ourselves of a generally 
applicable method analogous to that adopted in the case of ethyl potassium malonate. 
The diethyl ether, either by itself or diluted with a little alcohol, is introduced into a 
roomy flask, and to it is added the calculated quantity of alcoholic potash. The whole 
is well shaken together, and after some little time the ethyl-potassium salt falls out with 
evolution of heat. It is not necessary, as is the case with malonic ether, to add the 
potash drop by drop ; the whole quantity may be poured in at once. The mixture is 
allowed to stand for some hours, and is then evaporated on the water-bath nearly to 
dryness, a current of carbonic acid being meanwhile passed through the liquid. The 
residue is now dissolved in water, the solution extracted with ether, and evaporated 
down to the proper concentration. The aqueous solution thus obtained contains, besides 
the ethyl-potassium salt, some dipotassium salt, and carbonate or bicarbonate of potassium. 
These substances, however, are formed in the course of the electrolysis, so that their 
presence from the first in the solution has little or no effect on the product. From the 
ethereal extract there is re-obtained a quantity of the diethyl ether, amounting in some 
cases to nearly one-third of what was originally taken. 

* Ostwald, Zeitschrift fiir physikal. Chem., iii. 282, 1889. 
t Heintz, Poggendorffis Annalen, cviii. 82, 1859. 



Found. 


Calculated for C 10 H 18 O 4 . 


5 9 '26 per cent. 


59 - 41 per cent. 


911 „ 


891 „ 



218 PROFESSOR A. CRUM BROWN AND DR JAMES WALKER ON THE 

The ethyl-potassium salts prepared by this method are all amorphous, and, apart from 
the presence of potassium carbonate, highly deliquescent substances, soluble to some 
extent in alcohol, and insoluble in ether. 

Ethyl-potassium succinate yields on electrolysis a light straw-coloured liquid, which, 
after warming for a short time at 100°, loses its at first somewhat unpleasant smell, but 
retains a feeble odour resembling that of melons. The liquid boils with slight decomposi- 
tion at 240° ; according to Arppe, the boiling-point of adipic ether is 245°. An analysis 
resulted as follows : — 

•1735 gr. substance gave '3770 gr. C0 2 and 1423 gr. H 2 0. 

C 
H 

The formula is that of diethyl adipate. A portion of the ether was saponified by alcoholic 
potash, and from the solution of the potassium salt we prepared the silver salt and the 
acid by precipitation. The acid melted at 147°, the melting-point of adipic acid being 
148°. An ignition of the silver salt gave the following numbers : — 

•2388 gr. substance yielded - 1428 gr. Ag . 

Found. Calculated for Ag 2 C a H 8 4 . 

Ag . . . 5 9 "8 per cent. 60 - per cent. 

The yield of diethyl succinate is 35 per cent, of the theoretical quantity. 

An experiment conducted precisely as above, only that dimethyl succinate was used as 
starting-point instead of the diethyl ether, gave as chief product of electrolysis an aromatic 
oil, which on purification and analysis proved to be dimethyl adipate. 

■1160 gr. substance gave -2360 gr. C0 2 and "0863 gr. H 2 . 

Found. Calculated for C 8 H 14 4 . 

C . . . 5 5 "48 per cent. 55*17 per cent. 

H . . . 827 „ 8-05 

The dimethyl ether begins to decompose at 210°. The yield is somewhat smaller than 
in the case of the ethyl compound. 

A determination of the dissociation constant of the acid was made with the following 
result : — 

Synthetic Adipic Acid, COOH(CH 2 ) 4 COOH 
Moo =352. 



s 



V 


M 


100m 


K 


32 


11-85 


3-37 


00366 


64 


1660 


4-72 


00364 


128 


2334 


663 


•00368 


256 


32-27 


9-17 


00362 


512 


4501 


12-79 


•00366 


1024 


61-65 


1751 


00363 




K = 


•00365 





ELECTROLYTIC SYNTHESIS OE DIBASIC ACIDS. 219 

For pure adipic acid Ostwald found the constant to be -00371.* The two substances are 
thus identical. 

Synthesis of Suberic Acid. 

An alkaline solution of caustic potash acts on glutaric ether very slowly in the cold. 
The mixture of the substances in calculated quantities must be boiled for some hours in 
order that the semi-saponification may take place. The solution of ethyl potassium 
glutarate is prepared for electrolysis precisely as in the preceding case. 

When the electrolysis is completed, a colourless oil is seen to float to the surface, 

and this contains, besides the synthetic ether and ethyl alcohol, small quantities of other 

ethereal electrolytic products. The alcohol is driven off on the water-bath, and the other 

impurities are removed by freezing and separating the suberic ether. An analysis of the 

substance thus purified yielded the following numbers : — 

•1137 gr. substance gave -2602 gr. C0 2 and -0959 gr. H 2 

Found. Calculated for C 12 H 22 4 . 

C 62 - 41 per cent. 6261 per cent. 

H . 937 „ 956 

The ether distilled between 265° and 275°. On saponifying it we got the potassium salt 

crystallisable from alcohol, and this we ignited to obtain the percentage of potassium. 

•2484 gr. substance gave 1388 gr. K 2 C0 3 . 

Found. Calculated forK 2 C 8 H 12 4 . 

K . . . 31 "6 per cent. 31 "2 per cent. 

The acid prepared from the potassium salt had the melting-point 138°, that of suberic 
acid being 140°. From hot water it separated in hard feathery crystals. As we found 
from parallel experiments, its salts exhibited the same solubility as those of the suberic 
acid derived from castor-oil. An affinity determination gave the following results : — 

Synthetic Suberic Acid, COOH(CH 2 ) 6 -COOH. 
Moo =351. 



V 

128 


2100 


worn 

5-98 


K 

•00298 


256 


29-05 


8-27 


•00292 


512 


40-49 


11-54 


•00294 


1024 


5616 


1600 


•00298 


2048 


76-94 


21-92 


•00300 




K = 


•00296 





Ostwald for the ordinary acid found K= -00258, t while Bethmann, with a " perfectly 
pure" preparation obtained the value '003114 In consequence of this discrepancy we 
have determined the constant for the purified acid from castor-oil anew. The results we 
obtained are shown in the following table : — 

* Ostwald, loc. cit., 283. t Ostwald, loc. cit., 283. 

J Bethmann, Zeitsch. fur physikal. Chera., v. 401, 1890. 
VOL. XXXVI. PART I. (NO. 7). 2 K 



220 PROFESSOR A. CRUM BROWN AND DR JAMES WALKER ON THE 

Suberic Acid from Castor-Oil. 
Moo = 351 • 



V 


M 


100m 


K 


64 


14-79 


4-21 


00290 


128 


20-93 


5-96 


00296 


256 


29-08 


8-28 


00292 


512 


4060 


11-57 


00295 


1024 


55-78 


15-89 


•00293 



k = 00293 

The agreement between this number and that given by the synthetic acid serves to com- 
plete the proof that the two substances are identical. 

The yield on electrolysis is about 28 per cent, of that demanded by theory. 

Synthesis of Sebacic Acid. 

The ethyl-potassium salt of adipic acid was made from synthetically prepared diethyl 
adipate under the same conditions as were adopted in preparing the corresponding salt of 
glutaric acid. 

The product of electrolysis is a colourless oil, which, when heated for some time to 

120°, loses small quantities of volatile bye-products, but retains a not unpleasant fatty 

smell while hot. When cold it is almost odourless. The oil distils undecomposed at 

305° ; the boiling-point of diethyl sebate is 307°. An elementary analysis gave the 

formula C 14 H 26 4 , — that of sebacic ether. 

■1452 gr. substance gave -3470 gr. C0 2 and -1329 gr. H 2 . 

Found. Calculated for C 14 H 2fi 4 . 

C . . . 65'18 per cent. 65-12 per cent. 

H . . . 1016 „ 1008 

A portion of the ether was saponified with potash, and the acid precipitated from 

solution of the potassium salt. It crystallised from water and alcohol in soft lustrous 

plates and melted at 128° ; the melting-point of sebacic acid is given as 127°. A potassium 

estimation resulted as follows : — 

•3662 gr. potassium salt gave '1808 gr. K 2 C0 3 . 

Found. Calculated for K 2 C 10 H 16 O 4 . 

K . . . 27-88 per cent. 2806 per cent. 

The dissociation constant of the acid was also determined. 

Synthetic Sebacic Acid, COOH-(CH 2 ) 8 -COOH . 

Moo =350. 

v fj, 100??^ k 

256 2801 800 -00272 

512 3932. 11-23 -00277 

1024 5428 1554 00278 

k = 00276 



ELECTROLYTIC SYNTHESIS OF DIBASIC ACIDS. 221 

This number differs considerably from the value -00234 observed by Ostwald * for the 
acid obtained from castor-oil. We therefore purified a preparation of the ordinary acid 
by repeated recrystallisation from water, and subjected it to an investigation of its con- 
ductivity. 

Sebacic Acid from Castor-Oil. 

Moo =350 



V 


M 


100m 


K 


256 


28-08 


8-02 


•00273 


512 


39-01 


11-14 


•00273 


1024 


5335 


15-24 


•00268 



k = -00271 

This agrees perfectly with the number found for the synthetic acid. 
The yield on electrolysis amounts to somewhat more than 20 per cent, of the 
theoretical. 

Synthesis of n-Dicarbododecanic Acid, COOH(CH 2 )i 2 COOH. 

The starting-point for this synthesis was suberic acid prepared from castor-oil. This 
was first converted into the diethyl ether, which was then transformed into the ethyl- 
potassium salt according to the directions given on p. 217, and electrolysed. 

The product of electrolysis is again a clear colourless oil, which is heated on the 
water-bath to drive off any alcohol, and then allowed to cool. After a short interval the 
oil solidifies to a white fatty-looking substance. When this is dried on porous tile there 
remains a mass of lustrous white crystals, which melt and solidify again at 27°. Analysis 
yielded the formula C 18 H 34 4 . 

•1249 gr. substance gave -3146 gr. C0 2 and -1235 gr. H 2 0. 

Found. Calculated for C 18 H 34 4 . 

C 6869 per cent. 68-79 per cent. 

H . 1098 „ 1083 

The substance has thus the composition of the diethyl ether of an acid C 12 H 24 (COOH) 2 
as was to be expected. The ether is insoluble in water, moderately soluble in ether and 
cold alcohol, much more so in hot alcohol. It cannot be distilled undecomposed. 
Alcoholic potash attacks it very slowly in the cold ; on boiling, a considerable quantity of 
ethyl-potassium salt separates, even when there is a large excess of potash, and this resists 
further saponification although the treatment may be continued for hours. The complete 
saponification is best effected by pouring the melted ether slowly into a strong boiling 
solution of alcoholic potash ; the potassium salt then separates in white granular masses. 
The acid precipitated from the potassium salt is very sparingly soluble in water (1 part 
in 4000 parts of boiling, and in 20,000 parts of cold water), tolerably soluble in cold alcohol 
and in ether, easily soluble in boiling alcohol. It crystallises from water and alcohol in 

* Ostwald, loc. cit., 284. 



222 PROFESSOR A. CRUM BROWN AND DR JAMES WALKER ON THE 

white or transparent plates. Its melting-point is 123°, and at a higher temperature it is 
decomposed. 

Analysis — 

•1078 gr. substance gave -2576 gr. C0 2 and -0990 gr. H 2 . 

Found. Calculated for C 14 H 2G 4 . 

C . . . 6517 per cent. 65-12 per cent. 

H . 10-20 „ 1008 

The acid was too sparingly soluble in water to admit of an accurate determination of its 
dissociation constant. 

The alkaline salts dissolve in water, forming soapy solutions. They are also slightly 
soluble in alcohol. Salts of the other metals may be obtained from an aqueous solution 
of the neutral potassium salt by precipitation. From dilute solutions the lithium and 
magnesium salts are not at once precipitated, but after a time they appear in the micro- 
crystalline form. This of course is owing to their slight solubility in water. The 
remaining salts fall out as voluminous precipitates insoluble in water. 

The quantity of metal present was estimated in the following salts : — 

Potassium salt. — "3304 gr. gave '1685 gr. K 2 S0 4 . K found, 23*40 per cent. ; cal- 
culated for K 2 Ci 4 H 24 4> 23*35 per cent. 

Magnesium salt. — "4856 gr. gave "0690 gr. MgO. Mg found, 8*58 per cent. ; cal- 
culated for MgC 14 H 24 4 , 870 per cent. 

Barium salt. — '4261 gr. gave "2531 gr. BaS0 4 . Ba found, 34*92 per cent.; cal- 
culated for BaCi 4 H 24 4 , 34*86 per cent. 

Copper salt. — *3272 gr. gave "0817 gr. CuO. Cu found. 19*92 per cent.; cal- 
culated for CuC 14 H 24 4 , 19*74 per cent. Blue-green precipitate. 

Silver salt. — "3715 gr. gave *1094 gr. Ag. Ag found, 29*5 per cent.; calculated 
for Ag 2 Ci 4 H 24 4 , 29*7 per cent. The silver salt is very soluble in ammonia solution. 

The chromium and nickel salts are light green ; the cobalt salt is reddish ; the ferric 
salt yellow ; and the ferrous salt brown. 

As suberic acid possesses the normal structure, this new acid, from its mode of forma- 
tion, must also be normal, and correspond to the formula COOH*(CH 2 ) 12 *COOH. With 
regard to the nomenclature of these acids, we propose to name them as dicarboxyl 
derivatives of the saturated hydrocarbons. The parent substance of the above acid is 
thus dodecan, C 12 H 2G , and the acid itself w-dicarbododecanic acid, C 12 H 24 (COOH) 2 . 

The yield is 25 per cent, of the calculated quantity. 

Synthesis of n-Dicarbodecahexanic Acid, COOH*(CH 2 ) 16 *COOH. 

Sebacic acid from castor-oil was converted into the diethyl ether, which was then 
further transformed into the electrolytic solution of the ethyl-potassium salt in the 
manner described on p. 217. 



ELECTROLYTIC SYNTHESIS OF DIBASIC ACIDS. 223 

When the electric current was passed through the cold solution, it rapidly diminished 
in intensity, and in a few moments ceased to flow altogether. This we found to be due 
to the fact that the product of electrolysis is solid at the ordinary temperature. Heating 
to 50° restored the current. On completion of the electrolysis a colourless oil was seen 
to float to the surface of the liquid, and this oil on cooling solidified to a white crystalline 
mass, which was washed several times with water, dried on porous tile, and analysed. 

T628 gr. substance gave "4254 gr. C0 2 and -1687 gr. H 2 . 

Found. Calculated for C 2 2H 42 4 . 

C . . . 71-26 per cent. 71*35 per cent. 

H 11-51 „ 11-35 

The substance thus possessed the composition of the diethyl ether of an acid 
C 1G H 32 (COOH) 2 . It is fairly soluble in ether and cold alcohol, much more so in hot 
alcohol, in water quite insoluble. It melts at 43°. When heated it has a somewhat 
unpleasant smell, and begins to decompose about 200°. To saponify it, it must be 
treated like the diethyl ether of dicarbododecanic acid. 

The potassium salt is somewhat soluble in alcohol, and easily soluble in hot water. 
It may be best crystallised out of dilute potash solution, when it separates in the form of 
very fine needles, which, on being sucked dry by the filter-pump, agglomerate into a felt- 
like mass with a beautiful pearly lustre. Even very dilute aqueous solutions of this salt 
are extremely soapy. 

The acid precipitated from such a solution is gelatinous, but on recrystallisation from 
alcohol it forms delicate transparent plates. It is not very soluble in ether, and practi- 
cally insoluble in water. Its melting-point is 118°. 

Analysis — 

1043 gr. substance gave 2625 gr. C0 2 and -1070 gr. H 2 . 

Found. Calculated for C 18 H 34 4 . 

C 6864 per cent. 68 - 79 per cent. 

H 1102 „ 1083 

The alkaline salts are soluble in water, and their solutions are precipitated by neutral 
salts of the other metals. The precipitates are voluminous and mostly somewhat 
gelatinous. The lithium salt is slightly soluble ; the rest are insoluble. The following 
salts are coloured : — copper salt, bluish green ; ferric salt, brownish yellow ; ferrous salt, 
brown ; chromium and nickel salts, greenish ; cobalt salt, pink. 

Potassium salt.— (I.) -3565 gr. gave 1253 gr. K 2 C0 3 ; (II.) -3592 gr. gave -1618 gr. 
K 2 S0 4 . Calculated for K 2 C 18 H 32 4 , 20*00 per cent.; found (1.) 19*87 per cent.; (II.) 
20-18 per cent. K. 

Barium salt— -3490 gr. gave 1814 gr. BaS0 4 . Calculated for BaC 18 H 32 4 , 30'5 
per cent. ; found 30 '6 per cent. Ba. 

Magnesium salt.— -4762 gr. gave "0570 gr. MgO. Calculated for MgC 18 H 32 4 , 7'26 
per cent. ; found 7 '22 per cent. Mg. 

VOL. XXXVI. PART I. (NO. 7). 2 L 



224 



ELECTROLYTIC SYNTHESIS OF DIBASIC ACIDS. 



Copper salt— '6110 gr. gave -1293 gr. CuO. Calculated for CuC ls H 32 4 , 16 '80 per 
cent, ; found 16*88 per cent. Cu. 

We have already shown that the sebacic acid obtained from castor-oil is identical 
with the normal acid prepared synthetically by us. It follows, therefore, that the 
new acid described above has also the normal structure, and possesses the formula 
COOH(CH 2 ) 16 -C001I. 

The yield of the diethyl ether on electrolysis amounts to nearly 20 per cent, of the 
theoretical quantity. 

In the malonic series of normal dibasic acids it has been pointed out that members 
with an even number of carbon atoms show a lower melting-point as their molecular weight 
increases. The two new acids form no exception to this rule, as may be seen from the 
following table : — 



Acid. 
Succinic 
Adipic 
Suberic 
Sebacic 



COOH(CH 9 ) 2 COOH 
COOH(CH 2 ) 4 COOH 
COOH-(CH,) 6 -COOH 
COOH(CH 2 VCOOH 







M.P. 


180° 


. 




148° 






140° 






127° 






125° 






123° 






118° 



Decamethylendicarboxylic* COOH\CH 2 ) 1( /COOH 
%-Dicarbododecanic . COOiT(CH 2 ) 12 -COOH 
w-Dicarbodecahexanic . COOH(CH 2 ) 16 COOH 

It is our intention next to investigate acids with side chains, and unsaturated acids ; and 
also to perform the electrolysis of mixtures of ethyl-potassium salts. 



* This acid, recently prepared by Noerdlinger (Berichte d. deut. Cham. Ges., 23, 2356, 1890), lias in all probability 
the normal constitution. 



( 225 ) 



VIII. — On Impact. By Professor Tait. (With a Plate.) 

(Revised November 8th, 1890.) 

The present inquiry is closely connected with some of the phenomena presented in 
golf: — especially the fact that a ball can be "jerked" nearly as far as it can be "driven." 
For this, in itself, furnishes a complete proof that the duration of the impact is 
exceedingly short. But it does not appear that any accurate determination of the 
duration can be made in this way. Measurements, even of a rude kind, are impracticable 
under the circumstances. 

In 1887 I made a number of preliminary experiments with the view of devising a 
form of apparatus which should trace a permanent record of the circumstances of impact. 
I found that it was necessary that one of the two impinging bodies should be fixed : — at 
least if the apparatus were to be at once simple and manageable. This arrangement gives, 
of course, a result not directly comparable with the behaviour of a golf-ball. For pressure 
is applied to one side only, both of ball and of club ; but when one of two impinging 
bodies is fixed it is virtually struck simultaneously on both sides. Even with the altered 
conditions, however, the inquiry seemed to be worth pursuing. I determined to operate, 
at least at first, on cylinders of the elastic material ; so fixed that considerable speed 
might be employed, while the details of several successive rebounds could be recorded. 
It is not at all likely that this will be found to be the best form for the distorted body ; 
but it was adopted as, in many respects, convenient for preliminary work. For the main 
object of the experiments was to gain some information about a subject which seems to 
have been left almost entirely unexplored ; and it is only by trial that we can hope to 
discover the best arrangement. Messrs Herbertson and Turnbull, who were at the 
time Neil-Arnott Scholars, and working in my Laboratory, rendered me great assistance 
in these preliminary trials, whose result was the construction of a first rude apparatus on 
the following plan. 

A brick-shaped block of hard wood was dropped endwise from a measured height 
upon a short cylinder of cork, vulcanized india-rubber, gutta-percha, &c, which was 
imbedded to half its length in a mass of lead, firmly cemented to an asphalt floor. The 
block slid freely between guide-rails, precisely like the axe of a guillotine. In front of 
the block was a massive fly-wheel, fitted on one end of its axle, and carrying a large 
hoard (planed true) on which was stretched, by means of drawing pins, a sheet of 
cartridge-paper. The sheet was thus made to revolve in its own plane. A pencil, project- 
ing from the block, was caused by a spring to press lightly upon the paper ; and it was 
adjusted so that its plane of motion passed as exactly as possible through the axis of the 
paper disc. To prevent breakage of the pencil on the edge of the disc, it was pushed 

VOL. XXXVI. PART I. (NO. 8). 2 M 



226 PROFESSOR TAIT ON IMPACT. 

into its bearings, and released by a trigger only after it had, in its fall, passed the edge. 
The block, having fallen, rebounded several times to rapidly diminishing heights and, 
after a second or two, came to rest on the cork cylinder. The pencil then traced a circle 
and, as soon as this was complete, the fly-wheel (previously detached from the gas- 
engine) was at once stopped by the application of a very powerful brake. The circle 
thus described was the datum line for all the subsequent measures ; since the tracings 
which passed beyond it were obviously made during the impact, while those within it 
referred at least mainly to the comparatively free motion between two successive impacts. 
The duration of the impact was at once approximately given by the arc of the circle 
intercepted between the tracings of the pencil as it passed out and in, combined of 
course with the measured angular velocity of the fly-wheel. It is not yet known at 
what stage during the recovery of form the impinging bodies go out of contact with one 
another. In the present paper we are content to assume that contact commences and 
terminates at the instants of passage across the datum circle. This is certainly not 
rigorously true as regards the commencement, but the assumption cannot introduce any 
serious error ; while of the termination we have no knowledge. It may be remarked, in 
passing, that the error at commencement will necessarily be greater the larger the mass 
of the falling body. It will also be greater for soft than for hard bodies, and especially 
for those of the former class which most depart from Hooke's Law. 

In the winter 1887-8, and in the subsequent summer, some very curious results 
were obtained by Messrs Herbertson and Turnbull with this rough apparatus. 
Several of these were communicated to the Society at the time when they were obtained. 
Thus, for instance, it was found that although the mass of the block was over 5 lbs., the 
time of impact on a cork cylinder was of the order of s * 01 only, while with vulcanite it 
was of the order S- 001. Also, for one and the same body, the duration was less, the 
more violent the impact. [The golf result mentioned above was now at once explained ; 
for, as the mass of a golf-ball is less than -^ of that of the block, under equal forces its 
motions will be fifty times more rapid. Thus, even if it were of cork, the time of impact 
would be of the order of about one five-thousandth of a second only ; and the shorter the 
more violent the blow.] Taking the coefficient of restitution as 0'5 on the average, the 
time-average of the force during impact after a fall of 4 feet was, for these classes of 
bodies respectively, of the orders 400 lbs. weight and 4000 lbs. weight. This result is of 
very high interest from many points of view. 

The values of the coefficient of restitution for impacts of different intensity were 
obtained by drawing tangents to the fall-curve at its intersections with the datum circle 
corresponding to the assumed commencement and end of each impact, and finding their 
inclination, each to the corresponding radius of the circle. The coefficient of restitution is, 
of course, the ratio of the tangents of these angles. The results of these graphical methods 
could easily be checked by forming the polar equations of the various branches of the 
fill-curve (ascending and descending) and obtaining the above-mentioned tangents of 
angles b) 7 direct differentiation. If we assume the friction (whether of rails or pencil) 



PROFESSOR TAIT ON IMPACT. 227 

to be approximately" constant, it is easy to see that the equation of the part of the tracing 
made during a fall, or during a rise, can be put in the very simple form 

r = A + B0 2 . 

Here the centre of the disc is the pole, and the initial Hne is the particular radius 
which was vertical when the block was at one of its successive highest positions. This 
radius separates the rise, from the fall, part of each branch of the curve. A is of course 
the same for both parts, but B (being directly as the acceleration of the block, and inversely 
as the square of the angular velocity of the disc) is larger for the rise than for the fall ; 
because friction aids gravity in the ascent and acts against it in the descent. A number 
of sets of corresponding values of the polar coordinates were measured on each part of 
the curve, the angles being taken from an approximately assumed initial line. Three of 
these sets determined A, B, and the true position of the initial radius ; and the others 
were found to satisfy (almost exactly) the equation thus formed. This shows that the 
assumption, of friction nearly constant throughout the whole trace, is sufficiently 
accurate. B is always positive in the equation, but A is negative or positive according 
as the block does, or does not, rebound to a height greater than the radius of the datum 
circle. 

It is not necessary to tabulate here any of the very numerous results of these earlier 
experiments. While the work was in progress many valuable improvements of the apparatus 
suggested themselves, and I resolved to repeat the experiments after these had been intro- 
duced. The whole of these subsequent results are tabulated below. The following were 
found to be the chief defects of the earlier arrangement, so far at least as they were not 
absolutely inherent in the whole plan. These have been since remedied ; and results 
obtained with the improved apparatus have been, from time to time, communicated to 
the Society. 

1. The use of a pencil is objectionable from many points of view. Serious worry and 
much loss of time are incurred in consequence of the frequent breaking of the lead, even 
when every possible precaution seems to have been taken. Then the rapid wearing-down 
of the point by the cartridge-paper causes the later-traced portions of each diagram 
(including especially the datum circle, which is of vital importance) to be drawn in broad 
lines, whose exact point of intersection can be but roughly guessed at. The friction, also, 
was (mainly on account of the roughness of the paper) so large that the values of B, for 
the ascending and descending parts of any one branch of the curve, differed from the 
mean by a large fraction of it, sometimes as much as 20 per cent. This is approximately 
the ratio which the acceleration due to friction bears to that due to gravity ; so that the 
friction was, at least occasionally, as much as one pound weight. This, of course, seriously 
interfered with the accurate measure of the coefficient of restitution. Instead of the board 
and cartridge-paper I introduced a specially prepared disc of plate-glass, which ran per- 
fectly true. It was covered uniformly with a thin layer of very fine printers' ink, which 
was employed wet. For the pencil was substituted a needle-point, so that this part of the 



228 PROFESSOR TAIT ON IMPACT. 

apparatus was rendered exceedingly light, strong, and compact. The lines traced could 
easily be made as fine as those of an etching, but it was found that a slightly blunted 
point (giving a line of about 0'005 inch in breadth) produced probably less friction, at all 
events less irregularity, than did a very sharp one. The difference of either value of B from 
the mean rarely amounted to more than 1"5 or 2 per cent, of the mean. When the ink 
was dry, which happened after about a day, photographic prints were taken by using 
the disc as a negative. [In the later experiments it was found that, when proper pre- 
cautions were taken, no delay on this account was necessary.] To test whether the paper 
of the positives had been distorted, in drying after fixing, a number of circles were 
described on the glass disc at various places before the ink was dry. They were found 
to remain almost exactly circular on the dried photograph. All the subsequent measure- 
ments were made on these photographs. In a subsequent paper I hope to give the results 
of careful micrometric measures, made on the glass plate itself, of the form of the trace 
during impact. This may lead to information which could not be derived from the 
photographs themselves with any degree of accuracy. My first object was to obtain a 
number of separate experiments, so as to get the general laws of the phenomena, and 
for this purpose the glass plate had to be cleaned and prepared for a new series of 
experiments as rapidly as possible. The micrometric measures cannot be effected in a 
short time. 

2. In the earlier experiments the fly-wheel continued in connection with the gas- 
engine until the fall was completed. Hence the rate of rotation was irregular, and the 
mode adopted for its measurement gave an average value only. In the later experiments 
an electrically-controlled tuning-fork, furnished with a short bristle, made its record on 
the disc, simultaneously with the fall of the block ; and the gas-engine belt was thrown 
on an idle pully immediately before the experiment commenced. The angular velocity 
of the disc was sensibly different in different experiments, according as the engine was 
thrown off just before, or just after, an explosion. But the fact that its fly-wheel is a 
gigantic one made these differences of small importance. They were, however, always 
taken account of in the reductions. The disc, when left to itself, suffered no measurable 
diminution of angular velocity during a single turn. In the earlier experiments one 
rotation of the disc occupied about s "3 ; but I was afraid to employ so great a speed with 
the glass plate, so its period was made not very different from one second. I found it 
easy to obtain on the glass disc the records of four successive falls, each with its series of 
gradually diminishiug rebounds, and along with these the corresponding serrated lines 
for the tuning-fork. These records were kept apart from one another by altering the 
position of the fork, as well as that of the needle-point on the block, immediately after 
each fall. The latter adjustment alters, of course, nothing but the radius of the datum- 
circle, and the corresponding values of the quantity A. As soon as the four falls had 
been recorded, the glass disc was dismounted, and all the necessary details of the experi- 
ment — e.g., date, heights of fall, substance impinged on, mass of block, &c. — were written 
(backwards) on the printers' ink, with a sharp point, and of course appeared on the 



PKOFESSOE. TAIT ON IMPACT. 229 

photograph. The changes of mass, just alluded to, were occasionally introduced by 
firmly screwing on the top of the block a thick plate of lead of mass equal to 
its own. 

3. A very troublesome difficulty was now and then met with, but chiefly when the 
elastic substance employed was- a hard one, such as vulcanite or wood. For the block 
was occasionally set in oscillation during the impact, and especially at the instant when it 
was beginning to rebound. The trace then had a wriggling or wavy outline, altogether 
unlike the usual smooth record. Sometimes the wriggle took place perpendicularly to 
the disc, and the trace was then alternately broadened and all but evanescent. After 
some trouble I found that the main cause was the slight dent (produced by repeated falls 
on hard bodies) in the striking part of the block, which had originally been plane. The 
wriggling always appeared when this dent did not fit exactly upon the (slightly convex) 
upper end of the hard cylinder. To give free play at the moment of impact, the lower 
parts of the guide-rails had been, by filing, set a very little further apart than the rest, 
and thus small transverse oscillations of the block were possible. I hope to avoid this 
difficulty in future, by fixing a hard steel plate on the striking part of the block, and 
making all the remaining experiments with this. Of course a few of the former experi- 
ments must be repeated in order to discover whether the circumstances are seriously, or 
only slightly, modified by the altered nature of the striking surface. There can be no 
doubt that the distortion, as tabulated, belongs in part to each of the impinging bodies ; 
but it is not easy to assign their respective shares. 

The general nature of the whole trace of one experiment will be obvious from the 
upper figure in the Plate, which is reduced to about 0'3 of the actual size. The lower 
figures (drawn full size) show the nature of the trace during impact : — the first series, some 
of which exhibit the " wriggles" above described, belonging to the pencil records of the 
old apparatus ; the second series containing some of those obtained with the improved form 
just described. 

In the earlier work, with the cartridge-paper, falls of 8 and even of 12 feet were 
often recorded. The results of the later work have been, as yet, confined to falls of 4 feet 
at most. But I intend to pursue the experiments much further, after fitting an automatic 
catch on the apparatus ; such as will prevent the block from descending a second time 
if it should happen to rebound so far that the needle-point leaves the glass disc. 

What precedes is of course designed to furnish only a general notion of the nature of 
the apparatus ; the principle on which it works, and the results already obtained with it. 
Some further remarks, on the physical principles involved, will be made after details of 
dimensions, and of numerical data have been given. But it must be stated here that with 
the later form of the apparatus it was found necessary to have a party of at least three, 
engaged in each experiment ; one to attend to the driving-gear, a second to the falling- 
block, and a third to the tuning-fork. My assistant, Mr Lindsay, took the first post ; I 
usually took the second myself; and the fork was managed by Mr Shand, to whom I am 
besides indebted for the greater part of the subsequent measurements and reductions. 



230 PROFESSOR TAIT ON IMPACT. 

These, of course, involved an amount of work which, though not perhaps more difficult 
than the rest, was incomparably longer and more tiresome. 

Description of the Apparatus. 

Two beams nearly 12 feet long, and 6 inches by 2\ inches cross section, are 
rigidly fixed, vertically, and at a distance of 8^ inches from each other, to a massive 
stone pillar. To them the rails, which act as guides for the falling body, are screwed, the 
distance between them being 6§ inches. At the base, between the rails, is a cylinder of 
lead, 6 inches by 6 inches, firmly imbedded in a mass of concrete, and having on its 
upper end a hole, f inch deep and 1^ inch diameter, for holding the lower end of the 
substance experimented on. This consists of cork, india-rubber, vulcanite, &c, as the 
case may be, cut into a cylinder, 1^ inch diameter, and 1^ inch long, with the lower 
end flat and the upper slightly rounded. It thus projects about |- inch after being 
thrust home into the hole in the leaden cylinder, in which it rests on a thin disc of gutta- 
percha. This was found effectually to prevent the cylinder's being displaced in the lead- 
block. Before it was introduced, the cylinder was occasionally left not in contact with 
the bottom of the hole, so that the record of the next impact was vitiated. Sometimes, 
indeed, the cylinder had jumped entirely out of the hole before the block redescended. 

In a plane, parallel to that which contains the guides and nearly 1\ inches from it, a 
massive fly-wheel, 28f inches diameter, whose moment of inertia is 102 "6 in lbs. sq. ft., 
is placed. The iron frame supporting it is fixed to the concrete floor by means of bolts, 
so that the whole can be rigidly fixed in position or lifted back at pleasure. A thick 
wooden board is firmly attached to the front of this wheel, and on it is laid a .sheet of 
felt. On the top of the felt, an octagonal plate of glass, about § inch thick, the edges of 
which are bevelled, is placed, and then firmly pressed to the board by means of bevelled 
metal plates, covered with felt, and screwed down on four alternate edges. 

The mass of the glass is 28 lbs., its moment of inertia 2 5 "21. For the wood these 
are 21'5 and 24*19 respectively. The total mass (including the fly-wheel) being 1225 
lbs., ¥ is found to be about 1*24 sq. ft. 

A rope passing up the outside of one of the beams, over two small pulleys, and down 
between the rails, serves to raise and lower the block, next to be described, or to keep it 
suspended by a hook at any desired height. A cord running parallel to the rope is 
attached to the catch of the hook at the end of the rope, so that by pulling this cord the 
hook is tilted and allows the block to fall. 

The block is rectangular, and formed of hard wood (plane-tree along the grain), \l\ 
by 7\ by 1\ inches, weighing b\ lbs. Down the centre of each of the edges runs a deep 
groove, at the ends of which pieces of iron with a polished groove of U section are screwed 
on. It is on these that the guides bear while the block is falling. The guides and Us 
being well oiled, the friction is reduced to a minimum. 

A brass plate, 5^ inches by 2^ inches, is sunk into the face of the block about \ inch, 



PROFESSOR TAIT ON IMPACT. 231 

and through the plate and wood a longitudinal slot, 3 inches by § inch, is cut, the centre 
of the slot coinciding with the centre of the block. Another plate of brass, 3-g- inches by 
2^ inches, with two parallel slots 2^ inches long and ^ inch broad, half an inch distant 
from, and on either side of the centre, lies on the fixed plate, and can be clamped to it 
by means of flat-headed screws passing through the slots. This movable plate has, 
therefore, a longitudinal (vertical) play of about 2 inches when the screws are loose. 
It carries the tracing-point and its adjusting mechanism. 

The tracing-point is at the extremity of a steel rod, one inch of whose length is of 
£ inch diameter, the remaining f inch being of rather less than -§- inch diameter. The 
thicker part works freely, but not loosely, in a cylindrical barrel, the thinner part passing 
through a collar at the front end. The cylinder is fixed, at right angles, to the movable 
brass plate, and passes through the slot in the block. The rod is lightly pressed forwards 
at the thicker end by a piece of watch-spring, so as to keep it, when required, steadily in 
contact with the revolving disc. In the wall of the cylindrical barrel is a long slot which 
runs backwards for \ inch parallel to the axis, and then, turning at right angles to its 
former direction, runs through a small fraction of the circumference of the barrel. In this 
slot works a stout wire screwed perpendicularly into the rod which carries the tracing- 
point. Of course, when this wire is in the transverse part of the slot the needle-point is 
retracted ; but as soon as it is turned into the axial part the spring makes the needle- 
point project through the collar. Before the block falls, the wire is in the transverse 
part of the slot, and the needle-point is retracted. But when, in its fall, the point has 
passed the edge of the glass disc, a pin fixed at the proper height catches the end of the 
wire and turns it into the axial slot. As soon as the tracing is complete, the wire is 
forced back (by means of a system of jointed levers) into the transverse slot, and thus 
the tracing-point is permanently withdrawn from the disc, so that the block can be 
pulled up, and adjusted for another fall. 

The last part of the apparatus to be described is that for recording the time. 

It consists of an electrically controlled tuning-fork, making 128 vibrations per second. 
A circular bar of iron, 8 inches long, is fixed perpendicularly to one of the beams, and 
in the plane of the beams. From this the tuning-fork is suspended by means of circular 
bearings. It therefore has a swinging motion perpendicularly to the disc, as well as a 
translatory motion parallel to it. By means of a screw it can be fixed in any position, 
and to any degree of stiffness. The bar is at such a height that the end of the tuning- 
fork carrying the tracing-point is in the same horizontal plane with the centre of the 
revolving glass plate. By this means it can be adjusted to trace its record anywhere 
between the edge of the plate and a circle whose radius is 5 or 6 inches, measured from 
the centre of the glass. 

Theory of the Experiments. 

So far as concerns the motion of the block between two successive impacts, the 
investigation is extremely simple. For we assume (in fair accordance with the results, 



232 PROFESSOR TAIT ON IMPACT. 

as shown above) that the friction is practically constant. Thus the motion of the block 

is represented by 

Mr = Mg ± F, 

the positive sign referring to upward motion. 

We have also, taking the angular velocity, <u, of the disc as uniform throughout the 
short period of the experiment, 

eld = wdt. 
Thus 

d 2 r ( , F\/ , ft _ 

w = \ 9 ± m)/- 2 - 2B > sa y; 

so that 

r = A + B0 2 , 

if we agree that 6 is to be measured in each case from the particular radius which is 
vertical at the moment when the block is at one of its highest positions. 

If our assumptions were rigorously correct, the equations of those branches of the 
curve which are traced during each successive rise of the block should differ from one 
another solely in the values of the constant A. Similarly with those traced during 
successive descents. The ascending and descending branches of the same free path 
should differ solely by the change of value of B, according as the friction aids, or opposes, 
the action of gravity. Also the two values of B should differ from their mean by a 
smaller percentage the greater is the mass of the block. This, however, will be 
necessarily true only if the friction be independent of the weight of the block. 

As a test of the closeness of our approximation, to be applied to the experimental 
results below, it is clear that, if we call B the mean of the values of B for the parts of 
the curve due to any one rebound, we have 

But, in the notation of the Tables as explained in the next section, we have 

o) = 27r/(6N/128). 

Taking the value of g as 32*2 when a foot is unit of length, it is 9814 to millimetres ; 
and the two equations above give the following simple relation between B and N 

Q 

R — — N 2 

which is sufficiently approximate to be used as a test, the fraction being in defect by 
about 0'14 per cent, only, say l/700th. 

Thus, in the first experiment of those given below for date 23/7/90, we have 

N = 21-25, 
which gives as the calculated value 

B = 12316; or, -with l/700th added, = 12333. 



PROFESSOR TAIT ON IMPACT. 233 

The actual value, as given by the equations for the two parts (fi v fi 2 ) of the first 

rebound, is 

J(125-73 + 120-81) = 123-27 , 

the difference being less than 0'05 per cent. In this case the acceleration due to friction 

bears to that of gravity the ratio 

246 : 12327 ; 
almost exactly 2 per cent. 

From the data (y lt y 2 ) for the second rebound we find the actual value of B to be 

i(131 -31 + 12146) = 126-33; 
and the percentage of acceleration due to friction rather less than 4. As the whole rise 
in this second rebound was considerably less than an inch, these results are highly satis- 
factory. 

It is a fairer mode of proceeding, however, to calculate the value of N from that of 
B , by means of the above relation. The values, thus calculated, are inserted in the 
tables below, in the same column as the measured value of N, with the prefixed letters 
)8, y, &c, to show from which rebound, the first, second, &c, they have been calculated. 
These agree in a very satisfactory manner with the value of N given by the record of the 
tuning-fork. 

From the facts, that the time of impact is nearly the same for all small distortions, 
and that it diminishes rapidly as the distortion is greater, it follows that the equation of 

motion must be of the form 

Mx = - Cx - X 

during the first stage of the impact ; and of approximately the same form, but with the 
square of the coefficient of restitution as a factor of the right, during the second stage. In 
this equation x (which is confined to positive values) is measured from the datum line, so 
that no term in g comes in explicitly. X is a function of x, which is small for small 
values of x, but increases faster than does the first power of x for larger values. Hence, 
for small relative speeds, the time of compression is 

7T /M 
2V c 

and that of rebound 1/e times as much. The utmost distortion is 



V c + c 



V 

where V is the speed at the datum line. The first term is due to the fall; the 
second, which is due to the weight of the block, does not appear in our Tables, as the 
measures are made from the datum line. Its value, however, is usually only a small 
fraction of that of the first term. 

To compare the distortion with the duration of impact in experiments made with the 
same mass, falling from different heights, the following equation was tried : — 

2 Sx 2 
x = — n z x — — , 
2a 

VOL. XXXVI. PART I. (NO. 8). 2 N 



234 PROFESSOR TAIT ON IMPACT. 

where the numerical factors are introduced for convenience. This assumes X, above, to 
vary as the square of the distortion measured from the datum circle, and it gives, for the 
time of compression, in terms of the greatest distortion, a, the expression 

dz 



.-/ 



P 



\l n 2 + a a 

to a sufficient approximation. Here p is a numerical quantity which is about 1 *6 when 

a/a is small in comparison with n 2 , and continuously approaches the value 1*4 as a 

gradually increases. It is easy to give similar expressions for other assumed laws of 

relation of stress to distortion ; but, as will be seen later, this part of the inquiry has not 

yet led to any result of value. 

In testing the results obtained with the earlier apparatus I assumed the force (for the 

more violent impacts) to be as the square of the distortion simply. This gives, in the 

notation of the Tables below, 

D«T- ! oc Hi 

Of course any investigations, based on such simple assumptions as those made above, 
can be only very rough approximations, since they ignore altogether the true nature of 
the distortion of either of the impinging bodies, as well as the internal wave disturbance 
which is constantly passing to and fro in the interior of each ; part of it, no doubt, 
becoming heat, but another part ultimately contributing to the resilience. In such cir- 
cumstances the impact may 'perhaps sometimes consist of a number of successive collisions ; 
certainly the pressure between the two bodies will have a fluctuating value. 

Measurements of the Tracings, and their Reduction. 

From the tracing for each separate experiment the following quantities were carefully 
determined. Their values are given in the subsequent Tables, under the corresponding- 
letters below. 

1. Number of vibrations of the fork corresponding to one-sixth of a complete 
revolution of the disc ........... N. 

Three diameters of the disc were drawn, making angles of 60° with one another, and 
the number of undulations of the fork-tracing intercepted between each pair of radii was 
counted. This process was preferred to the simpler one, of counting the undulations in 
the entire circumference, for two reasons : — it tests the uniformity of the rotation, or a 
possible shrinking of the photographic paper ; and it makes one common process of 
measurement applicable to complete traces, and to others which from some imperfection 
of adjustment presented only parts which were sufficiently distinct. When only one 
measurement is given under this head, it means either that only one was possible or that 
;ill six gave the same result. When two are given, they are chosen as the least and 
greatest of the six. They usually differ by a small quantity only, and may indicate 



PROFESSOR TAIT ON IMPACT. 235 

distortion of the paper or irregularity of the fork (due to the bristle's being clogged with 
printer's ink, or to its pressing too strongly on the plate ?). In. these cases the arith- 
metical mean is to be taken for any subsequent calculation. 

2. The radius of the datum circle ........ R. 

This, and the other measurements of length, are in millimetres. 

3. The height of fall, or of rebound ........ H. 

For the first fall, this was of course measured on the rails : — for the subsequent rebounds 
it was measured on the tracing. 

4. Chord of the arc of datum circle intercepted by the trace during impact . C. 
As this arc was, on the average, considerably less than one-tenth of radius, the chord is 
practically equal to it. (differing at most by 1/I200th only), and it is thus a measure of 
the duration of the impact. The duration is, in fact, 

C 6N _3_ CN 
2ttR ' 128 _ 400' R near ty; 

this approximation being much within the inevitable errors of experiment. It is tabulated 
under .............. T. 

5. Greatest distortion — i.e., greatest distance of the trace beyond the datum 
circle (of course not including the (small) distortion due to the weight of the block). This 
datum is always, to a small but uncertain amount, increased by the distortion of the lower 
part of the falling block. This is probably nearly proportional to that of the elastic 
cylinder, so that the numbers given are all a little too large, but they are increased 
nearly in a common ratio ........... D. 

It was found impracticable to estimate with certainty the relative distances of this 
greatest ordinate from the ends of the intercepted arc ; as the radial motion generally 
remains exceedingly small during a sensible fraction of the whole time of impact. This 
is true of all the substances examined, even when they have properties so different as 
those of vulcanite and vulcanised india-rubber. It seems as if the elastic substance were 
for a moment stunned (if such an expression can be permitted) when the sudden 
distortion is complete. 

We can easily assign limits within which the time of compression must lie. For, since 
the elastic force resists the motion, and increases with the distortion, its time-average 
during the compression is greater than its space-average : — i.e. 

mV mV 2 
~T > YD' 
where m is the mass of the block, V its speed at the datum line, and t the time of com- 
pression. Hence 

D 2D 

V < l < T ■ 
If we make the assumption that the force at each stage during restitution is e times its 
value during compression, this gives 

D _T_ 2D 

V < 1 + 1/e < V > 



236 PROFESSOR TAIT ON IMPACT. 

and the values tabulated satisfy these conditions. Thus the somewhat precarious assump- 
tion as to the circumstances of restitution is, so far, justified. 

6. The tangents of the inclination of the trace to the radius of the datum circle 
drawn to the intersection of these curves before and after impact . . . Aj, A 2 . 

These values were determined directly by drawing tangents to the trace ; and 
indirectly by calculation from the equation of each part of the trace. The agreement of 
the observed (o) and calculated (c) values is satisfactory. 

Attempts to form the equation of the part of the trace made before the first impact 
were not very successful, as the available range of polar angle was small, and the radius 
vector increases rapidly for small changes of that angle. Hence the calculated value of 
Ax was obtained simply as the ratio of the tangential and radial speeds of the tracing 
point at the moment of its first crossing the datum circle. This was taken as 

R&) R , 

— r- = tttt-^tt nearly. 

s/tyK 36-5N • J 

In this numerical reduction H is taken as 4 feet, i.e. 1219 mm.; and the full value 
of g is employed, as we do not know the amount by which friction diminishes it, the 
contact of the tracing-point with the disc coming about only during an uncertain portion 
of the lower range of the fall ; while it is not possible to estimate with any accuracy the 
effect of the impact on the trigger. The calculated value of the tangent will therefore 
always be too small, but (since the square-root of the acceleration is involved) rarely by 
more than 1 per cent. On the other hand, the graphic method employed for the direct 
measurement of this tangent usually exaggerates its value. 

7. The ratios of these pairs of tangents — i.e., the values of the coefficient of 
restitution .............. e. 

The equation of each distinct part of the trace (alluded to in 6. above) was found 
thus : — The minimum (or maximum) radius-vector was drawn approximately for each 
separate free path, and other radii were drawn, two on either side of it, making with it 
convenient angles : — usually 40°, 80°, —40°, —80°, or such like. The notation employed 
below for the measured lengths of these radii- vectores is simply square brackets enclosing 
the value of the angle-vector, thus : — 

[80], [40], [0], [-40], [-80]. 

If x be the angular error introduced in the estimated position of the minimum radius, 
we determine it, as well as the A and B of the equation of the corresponding half of the 
branch of the curve in question, from three equations of the very simple form 

[0] = A + Ba 2 , 
[40] = A + B(40 + xf, 
[80] = A + B(80 + xf, 

(which may be made even more simple for calculation by putting y for 40 + x). The 
assumed initial radius was in most cases so near to the minimum that very little difference 
was found between [0] and A ; x being usually very small. 



PROFESSOR TAIT ON IMPACT. 237 

We now write the equation of this part of the branch in the form 

r = A + B(0 + xf ; 

the numerical values of A, B, x being inserted, after x has been reduced to radians, and 
B modified accordingly. The equations, in this final form, are printed below — each with 
the data from which it was obtained. (A fine protractor, by Cary, London, reading to 
one minute over an entire circumference, belongs to the Natural Philosophy Class 
collection of Apparatus ; so that it was found convenient to deal with degrees in all 
measurements of angle, and in the bulk of the subsequent calculations : — the results being 
finally reduced to circular measure.) 

In the Tables below, after the data (enumerated above) from each experiment, come 
the equations of the successive parts of each trace in order. In these, /3 V f3 2 refer 
respectively to the rise and fall due to the first rebound ; 71,72 to the second rebound, 
&c. 

To test the formulae thus obtained, other radii were measured, as far as possible from 
those already employed, say for instance [20], [60], [ — 20], [ — 60], &c. These measured 
values, and the corresponding values calculated from the equation (before reducing to 
circular measure), are also given below. The agreement is, in most cases, surprisingly 
close ; and shows that the assumption of nearly constant friction cannot be far from 
correct. 

The whole of the above statement presupposes that the adjustments have been so exact 
that the line of fall of the needle-point passes accurately through the centre of the disc. 
On a few occasions, only, it was not so : — but the necessary correction was easily calculated 
and applied, by means of the trace preceding the first impact ; even if the trace of the 
first rebound did not reach to the level of the centre of the disc. In fact, if we wish 
to find the curve which would have been traced on the disc had the adjustment been 
perfect, it is easy to see that we must draw from each point of the trace a tangent to 
the circle described about the centre of the disc so as to touch the true line of fall. The 
position of the centre of the disc, relatively to the point of contact of this tangent, is 
the same as that of the true point, relatively to the actual point, of the trace. This 
applies, of course, to all parts of the trace, including the datum circle. 

In the special trace which has been selected for photolithography as an illustration 
(see Plate) this adjustment is markedly imperfect ; much more so than in the worst of 
the others. The path of the tracing-point passed, in fact, about 3 mm. from the centre 
of the disc ; while, in the worst of the other cases, the distance was not more than half 
as great. But this very imperfection serves to enable the reader to follow without 
any difficulty the various convolutions of the trace. The measurements and reductions, 
obtained from this specially imperfect figure, agree wonderfully with those obtained 
from the best traces. It would only have confused the reader had we selected one of 
the latter for reproduction, since each of them contains the record of four experiments — 
i.e., it contains four times as much detail as does the trace reproduced. 



238 PROFESSOR TAIT ON IMPACT. 

Conclusions from the Experiments. 

It will be observed from the following Tables that the assumed initial radius-vector 
was never very far from the true position of the minimum ; the correction (in circular 
measure) being usually of the order 0"01, i.e., about 0°"6, and very often much less. 
When the minimum was small, the correction was usually larger ; but in few cases did it 
amount to 0'05, i.e., 3°. This correction ought, of course, to have equal values for the 
two parts of each free path. 

The substances experimented on w T ere fresh specimens, not those which had been 
frequently battered by 8 and 12 foot falls in the earlier experiments. They were limited 
to four, Plane-tree, Cork, Vulcanised India-rubber, and Vulcanite. The first material 
was chosen the same as that of the falling block, in order that (if possible) a correction 
for the compression of the block might be determined, and applied to the results of the 
experiments on other materials. I do not as yet see any simple mode of obtaining 
approximately such a correction : — and the data from different experiments -with the 
same materials are scarcely sufficiently consistent with one another to warrant the 
application of rigorous analysis, a task which would involve immense labour as well as 
difficulties of a most formidable order. Hence there is not much to be said, for the 
present at least, about the behaviour of a hard body such as vulcanite, whose distortion 
is only of the same order as that of the block. The time of the impact between it and 
the wood-block is somewhere about l/500th of a second when the speed of the block is 
about 16 feet per second. For lower speeds it is longer; while for very low speeds this 
substance seems to show a peculiarity which is specially marked in cork, and will be 
considered below. 

With vulcanized india-rubber, when the speed is 16 feet per second, the time of 
impact is about l/l30th of a second; it becomes longer as the relative speed is less; 
until, with very low speeds, it becomes practically constant. 

With cork the period of impact for a speed of 16 feet per second is about l/70th of a 
second ; it increases as the speed is reduced to about 8 feet per seeond ; and again 
steadily diminishes as the speed is still further reduced. This seems to indicate that (at 
least in circumstances of rapid distortion) the elastic force in cork increases in a slower 
ratio than does the distortion, while both are small, but at a higher ratio when they are 
larger. 

In all the cases tested the coefficient of restitution seems steadily to diminish as the 
speed of impact is increased. 

In some of the experiments the mass of the block was doubled ; and occasionally the 
doubled mass was allowed to fall from half the previous height, so that its energy 
remained unaltered. But the number of cases is as yet too small to enable us to judge 
with certainty the consequences of these changes. I hope to discuss this point in a 
subsequent paper. 



PROFESSOR TAIT ON IMPACT. 



239 



23/7/90. Plane Tree, I. 



N R 


H 


c 


T D A 




i 

c 


c 


e 


21-25 292-S 


1219-2 


3-8 


000206 20 0421 


0377 1-474 


1-608 


•286* 




670 


4-7 


255 08 1600 


1-626 2-651 


2-720 


•604 


j8 21-24 


221 


4-8 


260 05 2-798 


2-844 4-198 




•667 


7 21-5 


91 
4-2 
21 


5-0 

5-8 


271 03 
314 







c 


[20] 
[40] 


225-0 
239-3 
284-3 


r = 


= 225 + 12573(0- -0115) 2 


[15] 
[35] 
[42] 


232-8 
2703 

291-8 


2329 
2702 
290-5 


A.[0] 

[-20] 
[-40] 


225-0 
2408 
2860 


r- 


= 225 + 12O-81(0--O128) 2 


[-30] 
[-42] 


259-7 
293-0 


2599 
291-7 


Vi,[0] 

[10] 
[20] 


270-8 
274-4 
286-0 


r = 


= 2708 + 131-31(0- -0087) 2 


[24] 


293-0 


292-9 


y 2 >[0] 

[-10] 
[-20] 


270-8 

274-7 
286-0 


r = 


= 270-8 + 121-46(0 --0047) 2 


[-24] 


292-7 


292-6 


* Note. — It is 


clear from this value of e, and from the amount of the first rebound, that the cyl 


mder was 


not home in 



the lead-block. This fall is therefore not trustworthy in some of its details. 



II. 

N 

22-9 

ft 22-5 
y, 227 



R 



3015 



H 

12192 

1552 

427 

162 

75 

3-7 



C 

3-0 
3-8 
40 
42 



000170 
215 
225 
237 



D 

1-6 
1-2 

•6 
•4 



o c 

0388 036 
1037 1039 



A 2 
o c 

0924 1-028 
1-867 1-919 



1-982 1-942 3-271 



•42 

•555 

•606 



A, 



[- 

[- 

Yv 



y 2 : 

[■ 

[ 



[0] 

[20] 
[40] 

[0] 
-20] 
-40] 

[0] 
[10] 
[20] 

[0] 
-10] 
-20] 



1466 
1623 
2122 

1466 
164-5 
215-5 

258-8 
262-8 
275-5 

258-8 
262-9 
275-5 



r == 146-6 + 140-50(0 - -0143) 2 



r = 146-6 + 135-91(0- -0141) 2 



r = 258-8 + 142-80(0 - -0072) 2 



r = 258-8 + 139-52(0 - -003) 2 



[30 ] 1830 1830 

[605] 300-9 299-1 

[-10 ] 151-4 1514 

[-50 ] 253-7 253-5 

[-60-5] 3022 302-2 

[32] 302-2 302-2 



[-32] 301-1 301-8 



'240 PROFESSOR TAIT ON IMPACT. 

III. Double Mass. 



N R 


H 


C T D 


A, 


A 2 


e 











c 


c 




2233 3224 


6096 


41 000212 1-9 


0575 


D-56 1281 


1-356 


•449 




104-4 


56 289 1-0 


1-385 


1-368 2-718 


2680 


•509 


8, 22-23 


27-5 


5-2 269 5 


2592 


2-634 4705 




•551 


7, 2206 


97 
40 
20 


78 403 5 
8-2 424 3 









c 


A>[0] 
[20] 
[40] 


218-3 
234-9 

284-7 


r = 218-3 + 136-2< 


1(0) 2 


[30 ] 
[5008] 


2561 
3229 


255-6 
3224 


A.[0] 

[-20] 
[-40] 


2183 
235-1 
284-5 


r = 218-3 + 133-61(0- 


--0056) 2 


[-30 ] 
[-50-08] 


255-6 
321-6 


255-7 
321-7 


7i, [0] 


294-5 












[10] 


298-4 


r = 294-5 + 132-95(0- 


-0031) 2 


[2604] 


3216 


321-6 , 


[20] 


3104 












y 2 .[0] 


2945 












[-10] 


298-8 


r = 294-5 + 132-95(0 - 


-0054) 2 


[-26-04] 


3221 


322-6 


[-20] 


3112 












IV. 














N R 


H 


C T D 


Ax 


A 2 


e 











c 


c 




22-8 3318 1219-2 


4-5 000231 24 


0408 


04 1072 1150 


•381 




155-0 


53 272 1-3 


1-098 


1-133 2-179 2-238 


•504 


8, 22-5 


36-7 


5-6 287 -8 


2-371 


2-397 4127 


•575 


7, 22-8 


11.6 

4-7 
2-3 


8-0 410 6 
8-1 415 5 









c 


fiv 10] 

[20] 
[40] 


176-6 
193-3 
2436 


r = 176-6 + 137-88(0- 


--0017) 2 


[30 ] 
[6005] 


2143 
331-7 


2142 
3276 


A.[0] 

[-20] 
[-40] 


176-6 
194-5 
246-2 


r = 176-6 + 138-70(0 - 


- -0103) 2 


[-30 ] 
[-6005] 


2160 
3328 


2160 
3320 


Vi,[0] 


2959 












[10] 


300-2 


r = 295-9 + 147-73(0 - 


--0039) 2 


[29-04] 


3328 


333 


[20] 


3135 












V 2 , [0] 


2959 












[-10] 


3003 


r = 295-9 + 136-24(0 - 


•001 0) 2 


[-29 04] 


331-7 


3310 


[-20] 


3130 













PROFESSOR TAIT ON IMPACT. 241 



14/6/90. Cork, I. 

N R H C T D A 1 A 2 e 

O C c 

217 2964 1219-2 305 0-0167 190 0390 0373 110 1-124 '355 

218 1228 44-5 243 8-2 1-250 1230 271 '461 

j8, 21-79 220 39-8 218 3-3 

4-4 370 202 15 

o c 

ft, [0] 173-5 [17-45] 182-5 1829 

[20] 186-5 r = 173-24 + 14116(0 --0428) 2 [32-45] 211-3 2119 

[40] 233-8 [5606] 296"9 296"8 

&, [0] 173-5 [-12-57] 181-0 181-4 

[-20] 191-2 r = 173-29 + 11818(0 --0424)2 [-2857] 207-6 207"9 

[-40] 238-0 [-5606] 295-9 29645 



II. 

N R H C T D 

22-4 3061 12192 29-6 00162 190 

22-5 131-5 45-2 247 8"9 

237 403 220 36 

ft 22-2 4-9 38-5 210 1-6 

ft, [0] 174-8 

[20] 1890 r= 174-7 + 144-44(0- -0244) 

[40] 238-3 

&, [ ] 174-8 
[-20] 193-8 r= 174-6 + 124-75(0- -0408) 2 [-56-35] 3057 305-5 

[-40] 243-6 

III. 

N R H C T D A 1 A 2 e 

O C c 

2275 3210 12192 30-2 0-0160 18-8 0-414 0385 1107 1167 -374 

22-8 128-2 47-0 249 87 1-226 1-249 2-633 -465 

238 42-1 223 36 

(3,22-47 4-9 39'2 208 16 

o c 

ft, [ ] 192-0 

[20] 2065 r = 191-8 + 147-73(0- -0340) 2 [55'3] 321 3199 

[40] 257-0 

&, [ ] 192-0 
[-20] 211-0 r=191-8 + 128O3(0- 0380) 2 [-553] 3209 321-6 

[-40] 261-0 

VOL. XXXVI. PART I. (NO. 8). 2 O 



At 


A, 


e 


c 


o c 




0-394 0-373 


1065 1106 


•37 


1-204 1196 


2-578 


•467 







c 


4) 2 [56-35] 306-5 


306-5 



•242 PROFESSOR TAIT ON IMPACT. 

IV. 



N R 


H 


C 


T D 




A, 

c c 


A 2 
c 




e 


2225 3291 


12192 


31-2 


00157 18-5 0427 0405 1126 1-195 


•379 




1375 


503 


254 91 1-257 1263 2611 




•481 


ft 21-94 


260 
5-4 


45 
416 


227 37 
210 1-65 










MO] 

[20] 
[40] 


1916 
204-8 
252-1 


r = 191-38 + 139-85(0- -0393) 2 


[32-25] 
[58-5 ] 




229-9 
328-4 


c 

229-7 
326-2 




A.[0] 

[-20] 
[-40] 


1916 
2100 
258-5 


r = 191-4 + 123-ll(0--O394) 2 


[-27-74] 
[-58-5 ] 


225-5 
329-8 


2252 
329-8 




28/7/90. Vulcanite, I. 














N R 


H 


C 


T D A 


i A 2 




e 











c 


c 






21-6 2959 


12192 


35 


000190 2-5 0-394 


0-388 0-649 


0-745 




•607 




300-8 


4-4 


240 21 0-768 


0-780 1297 


1-404 




•592 


/8, 21-42 


85-2 


4-9 


267 0-95 1-426 


1-435 2-264 


i 




•630 


7, 21-6 


320 

150 

7-3 

4-0 


50 
51 

5-8 
65 


272 05 
278 0-3 
316 02 
354 015 




/-\ 






MO] 


-5-2 






[20 ] 


U 


c 
7-76 




[40] 


520 


r= - 


•5-02 + 131-31(0 -0370) 2 


[60 ] 


128-0 


128-98 




[80] 


237-5 






[88-72] 


295-8 


29496 




MO] 


-5-2 






[-20 ] 


140 


128 




[-40] 


600 


r— - 


-5-41 + 119-49(0 --0417) 2 


[-60 ] 


1360 


136-3 




[-80] 


241-8 






[-88-72] 


296-5 


296-7 




Vi.[0] 


210-7 














[20] 


225-9 


r = 


210-7 + 130(0 --0007) 2 


[46-57] 


296-5 


296-4 




[40] 


272-8 














y 2 >[0] 


2107 














[-20] 


2270 


r = 210-7 + 124-75(0 --0126) 2 


[-46-57] 


295-5 


295-7 




[-40] 


273-6 















II. 

N R 

220 313-2 

/3, 21-91 
y, 2183 



H 


C 


T 


D 


A, 

o c 


A 2 
o c 


e 


1219-2 


30 


000157 


1-5 


0396 039 


0-714 0-779 


•5o5 


292-8 


40 


209 


1-3 


0-833 0-821 


1338 1-436 


•623 


88-0 


4-4 


231 


•95 


1-458 1-491 


2-264 


•644 


350 


41 


215 


•4 








160 















PROFESSOR TAIT ON IMPACT. 243 



M m 8 2 0°0 6 , = 20-35 + 138-53(0-0420) ^ ] 160 ° 1603 



[80] 274-5 



[85-53] 313-2 311-9 



^ C 4° 0] ] ™ , = 2O-32 + 123-76(0-O479) 2 ["^J^^ 

[-80] 278-5 [_8553] 3132 3141 

Vi,[0] 2251 

[20] 2405 r = 225-l + 134-92(0--OHO) 2 [4692] 313-2 313-2 

[40] 288-8 

y 2 ,[0] 225-1 

[-20] 242-0 [r = 225-06 + 125-40(a--0185) 2 [-46-92] 313-2 3130 

[-40] 289-5 

III. Double Mass. 



N R 


H 


C 


T 


D 


A x 
o c 


A 2 
o c 


e 


21-8 3267 


609-6 


43 


000214 


21 


0583 0-58 


0-971 1-087 


•600 




172-2 


4-7 


233 


1-2 


1086 1-113 


1-857 


•585 


8, 21-75 


52-0 


5-9 


293 


09 










199 


5 


248 


045 










9-2 













c 


A.[0] 


155-1 














[20] 


170-6 


r = 


= 155-1 + 131-97(0 - 


•0063) 2 


[65-62] 326-9 


326-3 


[40] 


218-3 














&,[0] 


155-1 














[-20] 


171-9 


r = 


: 155-07 + 126-39(0 - 


--0159) 2 [- 


-65-62] 326-7 


325-5 


[-40] 


219-5 















IV. 



N R 


H 


C T D A 




i A 2 

COG 


e 


221 3430 


1219*2 


50 000240 3-2 0-425 


0425 0892 0-989 


•476 




228-5 


4-9? 235? 1-4? 0-985? 


0-992 1-706? 


•577 


8, 2202 


469 

22-4 
93 


6-0 288 1-0 
73 350 -65 
10-7 513 -8 






A [0] 
[20] 
[40] 


114-9 
1310 
179-6 


r = 114-9 + 133-28(0 --0015) 2 




[60 ] 261 
[74-62] 343 


c 

260-6 
340-4 


&,[0] 

[-20] 
[-40] 


114-9 
131-9 
181-0 


r = 114-9 + 131-64(0 --0105) 2 


[-60 ] 262-4 
[-74-62] 343-0 


262-1 
341-8 



244 



PROFESSOR TAIT ON IMPACT. 



24/6/90. Vulcanised India-rubber. I. 



N 

21-95 
220 
ft 21-6 
7, 2213 
S, 22-02 



R 



H 



C 



T 



386-8 

1580 

72-3 

34-6 

165 

7-6 

3-5 

1-5 

•6 



20-4 
23-8 
25 3 
250 
25 3 
254 
25-4 
253 



111 
129 
139 
136 
139 
139 
139 
139 



D 



3008 1219-2 14-6 00079 11-7 



6-4 
4-5 
3-2 
21 
1-4 
0-9 
05 



Ax 

o c 

0400 0-374 

0-737 0702 



A 2 

o e 

0607 0656 

1032 0-994 



1-117 1068 1-508 1-484 
1-570 1-570 2-260 



•65!) 
•714 
•741 
•695 



ft,[o 

[80 
[90 

/MO 
[-80 
[-90 

Vi>[0 

[20 
[40 

y 2 , [0 

[-20 

[-40 

S v [0 
[20 
[40 

<5 2 ,[0 
[-20 
[-40 



-86-7 
199 
272 

-86-7 
145 
2065 

142-5 
155-8 
204-0 

142-5 
1606 
2090 

228-5 
243-7 
293-4 

228-5 
245-5 
292-6 



r = 87 + 135-92(0+ -0541) 2 



r= -86-7 + 118-52(0)2 



r = 142-25 + 143-13(0- -0414)2 



r = 142-36 + 124-42(0 - 0338) 2 



r = 228-44 + 141-49(0 - 0206) 2 



r= 228-44 + 123-43(0 - 0227) 2 



[93-5 ] 300-5 299-2 



[-1032 ] 3005 297-8 

[10 ] 144-9 144-8 

[30 ] 175-3 175-5 

[62-97] 300-8 3023 

[-30 ] 181-0 181-0 

[-50 ] 244 5 244-6 

[-62-97] 301-2 3020 

[10 ] 231-8 231-7 

[30 ] 264-4 2642 

[4227] 301-2 3012 

[-10 ] 233-0 2332 

[-42-27] 300-0 3000 



II. 



N 



R 



21-7 310- 
21-6 

ft 21-5 
7, 21-49 
S, 21-39 



H 

12192 
389-3 

159-8 

730 

351 

170 

7-9 

3-6 

1-5 



C 

15-5 
21-3 

25-3 

26-6 
26-5 
26-9 
27-7 
27-5 
27-5 



00080 
111 

131 
138 
138 
140 
144 
143 



D 

11-6 

8-8 

6-3 
4-5 
3-2 
2-2 
1-5 
0-9 
05 



o c 
0-412 0-38 
0-742 0-722 

1132 1132 

1-689 1-682 



A 2 
o c 

0-680 0-683 
1054 1058 



1-600 
2-238 



1-589 



•606 

•704 

•707 
755 



PROFESSOR TAIT ON IMPACT. 



245 



III. 



&.[0 

[60 

[80 

[-80 
[-90 

7i.[0 
[20 
[40 

y 2 ,[o 

[-20 
[-40 

[20 
[40 

S 2 ,[0 
[-20 
[-40 



N 



-78-5 

80 
197-5 

-78-5 
136 
1955 

151-2 
164-0 

2097 

1512 
168-7 

214-8 

238-4 
252-4 

298-7 

238-4 
255-0 
300-2 



R 



r= -78-8 + 132-63(0+-O47l) 2 



r= -78-8 + 119-17(0 + -0536) 2 



r = 151-0 + 134-92(0 --0386) 2 



r= 151-02 + 117-36(0- -0391) 2 



r = 238-32 + 132-53(0--O231) 



r= 238-3 + 117-36(6'- 0281) 2 



H C T D 



[20] -61-5 -65-9 



[ - 60] 37 38-7 

[30 ] 182-3 182-7 

[50 ] 2446 2448 

[64-68] 311-2 311-3 

[-10 ] 1565 15636 

[-50 ] 248-3 248-6 

[-6468] 3103 310-9 

[10 ] 241-4 241-4 

[6355] 310-3 3103 

[-10 ] 243-1 243-1 

[-6355] 3111 311-1 



A, 


















c 





c 




21-75 


3235 


12192 


15-6 


00078 


11-5 


0419 


0407 


0-670 


0-679 


•625 


/3, 220 




392-0 


221 


110 


8-7 


0-765 


0741 


1-087 


1-091 


■703 


7, 21-73 




162-3 


25-8 


129 


6-4 


1-160 


1141 


1-616 


1-581 


•718 


S, 21-66 




750 

360 

173 

8-1 

3-8 

1-6 


27-5 
27-5 
27-8 
28-3 
30-0 
31-0 


138 
138 
139 
142 
150 
155 


45 
32 
2-2 
1-6 
10 
•6 


1-698 


1-726 


2-484 




•683 


a,[o: 


-69-4 

















c 




[80" 


202-4 


r = 


-69-5 + 144-45(0- 


- -0244) 2 




[60] 


87 


81-6 




[90; 


276-0 




















&,[o; 


| -69-4 




















[-80' 


158-2 


T = 


-69-5 + 119-83(0- 


-0314) 2 




[-60] 


56 


54-1 




[-100; 


287'0 




















y!>[o; 

[20" 

[40; 


1609 
173-9 
2200 


r = 


160-7 + 135-81(0 - 


•0374) 2 




[30 ] 

[64-67] 


1930 
323-4 


192-8 
3225 




y 2 ,[o; 

[-20 
[-40' 


| 160-9 
] 178-5 
| 225-9 


T- 


= 160-8+ 122-28(0- 


031 6) 2 


[- 

[- 


-10 ] 

-64-67] 


166-0 
3238 


166-0 
3252 




<5 1; [0' 
[20" 
[40" 


248-3 
2630 
3113 


r = 


248-2 + 137-88(0- 


•0218) 2 




[10 ] 

[43-8] 


251-5 
323-8 


251-4 
324-2 





•246 



PROFESSOR TAIT ON IMPACT. 



IV 



S. 2 ,[0] 248-3 
[-20] 264-7 
[-40] 3100 



r = 248-2 + 118-51(0--O237) 2 



[-30 ] 2837 283-7 
[-43-8] 322 5 321'8 



N 



R 



H 



C 



T 



D 


















c 





c 




21-75 


3335 


12192 


160 


0-0078 


11-5 


0-432 


0-42 


0-722 


0-723 


•59S 


ft 21-6 




392-6 


226 


110 


8-9 


0-771 


0:767 


1-097 


1-088 


•703 


y, 2192 




1640 


26-5 


129 


63 


1170 


1-185 


1-659 


1-652 


•705 


S, 21-81 




74-2 

35-4 

173 

8-2 

3-9 

1-7 

•6 


28-1 
28-6 
29-2 
29-4 
31-5 
31-1 


137 
139 
142 
143 
153 
151 


4-4 
31 
2-3 
1-6 
1-0 
•6 


1-739 


1-759 


2402 




•724 



















c 




A>[o; 


| -60-5 




















[80" 


219 


r = 


-60-7 + 135-26(0- 


-•0419) 2 




[60 ] 


100 


99-7 




[90; 


291 




















&,[o; 


| -60-5 




















[-80" 


1650 


r= - 60-6 + 12016(0- 0262; 


I 2 


[-20] 


-44 


-48-1 




[ - ioo; 


294-5 




















vi. to; 


169-9 












[10 ] 


172-3 


172-3 




[20" 


183-3 


T-- 


= 169-7 + 141-16(0- 


-•0384) 2 




[50 ] 


267 5 


267-9 




[4o; 


231-0 












[64-5] 


3340 


336-6 




y 2J [o; 

[-20; 

[-40! 


| 169-9 
187-4 
234-5 


r= 


= 169-8 + 121-46(0- 


-•0318) 2 


[ 
[ 
[ 

[ 


-10 ] 
-30 ] 
-50 ] 
-64-5] 


174-9 
207-1 
269-7 
3333 


174-9 
207-2 
2691 
332-5 




*.[0 

[20" 

[40; 


] 259-6 

274-5 
| 3231 


r- 


= 259-6 + 138-21(0- 


--0201) 2 




[30 ] 
[42-97] 


2946 
3333 


2946 
3332 




5 2 ,[0 

[-20 
[-40; 


] 259-6 

| 276-8 

3237 


T = 


= 259-5 + 121-79(0- 


--0278) 2 


[- 
[- 


■30 ] 

■42-77] 


296-7 
333-2 


296-5 
333-2 





28/6/90. Vulcanised India-rubber. I. 



N 


R 


H 


C 


T 


D 





A x 
c 





A 2 
c 


e 


2175 


2934 


12192 


13-7 


00076 


11-6 


0370 


0-37 


0601 


0-629 


•616 


ft 220 




4181 


182 


100 


9-2 


0637 


0621 


0-875 


0922 


•72S 


y, 22-28 




182-6 


225 


124 


6-7 


0-954 


0-942 


1-358 


1-326 


•702 


8, 22-31 




89-5 
457 
23-9 
12-5 
63 
30 


24-0 
241 

24'5 
25-2 
250 
25 3 


133 
134 
135 
139 
138 
139 


51 

3-7 
2-7 
1-9 
1-4 
0-9 


1-368 


1-342 


1-836 




■745 



PROFESSOE TAIT ON IMPACT. 



247 



A,[0] 


-1245 


[80] 


158 


[100] 


2935 


&>[0] 


-1245 


[-80] 


123 


[-90] 


1905 


yi.[0] 


1106 


[20] 


125-7 


[40] 


174-7 


7 2 >[0] 


110-6 


[-20] 


128-0 


[-40] 


177-6 


*i.[0] 


204-6 


[20] 


220-2 


[40] 


2695 


S a , [ ] 


204-6 


[-20] 


2214 


[-40] 


270-8 



r= -124-8 + 130-00(0- -0524) 2 



[90] 217 217-8 



r=- 124-7 + 133-29(0 -0332) 2 [-30] -863 -900 



r=HO-55 + 139-12(0--O191) 2 



r=HO-6 + 132-13(0--O141) 2 



r = 204-6 + 1382(0- -01 28) 2 



r = 204-6 + 133-77(0--OO54) 2 



[50 ] 2123 212-0 

[66-68] 293-7 2929 

[-30 ] 148-9 148-5 

[-50 ] 214-0 214-3 

[-66-68] 293-1 293-7 

[30 ] 2408 2406 

[46-55] 293-1 292-9 

[-30 ] 2422 242-0 

[-46-55] 293-7 294-0 



II. 



N 



R 



H 



C 



D 



Ai 



A, 
















c 


c 








21-75 3020 1219-2 


14-4 


00077 


11-9 0384 


0-38 0-618 0-644 


•622 


ft 


21-6 


4230 


195 


105 


9-3 0-652 


065 0914 0952 


•713 


y. 


21-96 


1839 


231 


124 


69 0-983 


0-989 1-428 1-383 


•689 


8, 


21-87 


900 


24-4 


131 


51 1402 


1-411 1954 




•718 






461 


25-9? 


139 


3-7 














24-4 


254 


136 


2-7 














130 


251 


135 


1-9- 














6-8 


26-2 


1.41 


1-4 














3-4 


26-5 


142 


10 












&.[<>: 


|-121 













c 






[80" 


146 


r= - 


-121-2 + 13000(0 -0377) 2 


[ + 20] 


-105- 


-1018 






[90; 


215 


















ft,[0] 


-1210 


















[ — 80 


114-7 


r= - 


-121-1 + 125-41(0 -0251) 2 


[-106-2] 


302-5 


298-5 






[-90; 


178-6 


















yi,[o] 


118-0 








[30 ] 


1530 


1530 






[20" 


1330 


r = 118+ 13624(0 --0168) 2 


[50 ] 


217-5 


217-8 






[4o; 


| 181-2 








[67-72] 


302-3 


302-9 






y 2 .[o; 

[-20" 

[-40; 


| 118-0 

| 1350 

1830 


r = 1180 + 127-21(0- -0169) 2 


[-50 ] 
[-67-72] 


218-8 
301-6 


218-6 
3008 






8 15 [o; 

[20 
[40 : 


| 212-6 


















| 228-2 
| 276-2 


r= 212-6 + 132-95(0 - -0065) 2 


[10 ] 
[47-35] 


216-4 
3016 


216-3 
3020 





248 



PROFESSOR TAIT ON IMPACT. 



III. 



&,, [ ] 2126 
[-20] 228-9 
[-40] 276-5 

Double Mass. 
N R H 



r = 212-6 + 128-36(0--OO74) 2 



[-10 ] 
[-4735] 



C 



T 



D 



216-7 216-8 
3021 301-8 



A, 




















c 


c 






22-45 325-6 1219-2 


16-7 


00086 


13? 


0401 


0-4 0-71S 


! 0744 -563 


a 


225 


350-7 


24-5 


126 


9-9 


0-749 


0-736 1-124 1-149 -667 


Y> 


22-57 


147-2 


310 


159 


80 


1-154 


1-131 l-64i 


\ 1-641 -700 


8, 


225 


705 


351 


180 


60 


1-723 


1-663 2-35( 




•731 






i 


35-6 


36-6 


188 


4-4 














: 


L8-4 


37-2 


191 


3-2 
















9-7 


392 


201 


2-3 
















4-9 


39-8 


204 


1-7 
















2-4 


40-6 
1-2 


209 


10 









c 




A>[0] 
[60] 


-25-3 
1470 




r= - 


•26-1 + 136-57(0 


-•0787) 2 


[50] 100 
[87-2] 325-8 


97-5 
323-8 




[80] 


271-0 




















B 2 , [0] 


-25 




















[-60] 


102 




r= — 


-25-7 + 139-53(0- 


--0879) 2 


[-96-25] 325-8 


327-8 




[-80] 


214 




















7i.[0] 

[20] 
[40] 


178-2 
194-8 
245-0 




r= 178-2 + 137*88(0- 


•0021) 2 


[50] 
[59] 


283? 
3257 


282-7 
323-8 




72,[0] 


178-2 












[-30] 


216-1 


2162 




[-20] 


195-0 




r = l78-2 + 140-34(0- 


•0031) 2 


[-50] 


284-5 


284-2 




[—40] 


246-0 












[-59] 


325-9 


3259 




«i,[0] 


255-3 




















[20] 


272-3 




r 


= 255-3 + 139-52(0) 2 


[40-77] 


325-9 


325-9 




[40] 


323-3 




















«*.[0] 

[-20] 
[-40] 


255-3 

272-2 
322-5 




r = 255 -3 + 137-06(0- 


•0021) 2 


[-10 ] 
[-40-77] 


259-5 
325-4 


259-6 
325-0 



IV. 



N 



R 



H 



T 



D 



A, 



K 


















c 





c 




21-6 


337-5 


1219-2 


17-8 


00085 


13? 


0-434 


0-428 


0-774 


0-787 


■561 


ft 22-0 




360-9 


25-6 


122 


10-2 


0772 


0-759 


1-163 


1-162 


•664 


7, 22-34 




155 


320 


153 


8-2 


1-180 


1160 


1-668 




•707 






74-3 


368 


176 


6-2 


1-741 




2-376 




•733 






38-0 


38-5 


184 


4-6 
















19-7 


396 


189 


3-5 
















105 


40-3 


192 


2-5 
















5-4 


40-3 


192 


1-7 
















2-7 


40-3 


192 


1-2 
















1-3 


40-3 


192 


0-7 













PROFESSOR TAIT ON IMPACT. 



249 



A.[0] 

[60] 
[80] 


-225 

146-5 
2650 


r = -24 + 127-38(0- 


•1094) 2 


[40 ] 
[90-2 ] 


63-5 

337-8 


337 




A,[0] 

[-60] 
[-80] 


-22-5 
101 
209 


r = -21-71 + 136-9(0 


--0928) 2 


[-40 ] 
[-98-6 ] 


30 
337-8 


28-4 
3406 




7i,[0] 


182-7 






[30 ] 


219-7 


219-6 




[20] 


1990 


r = 182-7 + 136-24(0- 


-0031) 2 


[50 ] 


285-5 


285-7 




[40] 


248-5 






[61-27] 


337-5 


337-5 




yi.[0] 

[-20] 
[-40] 


182-7 
1991 

248-8 


r= 182-7 + 136-56(0- 


--0026) 2 


[-50 ] 
[-61-27] 


286-3 
337-9 


286-1 
3381 




24/7/90. Vulcanised India-rubber. I. 












N R 


H 


C T D 





c 


A 2 
c 




e 


21-6 302-9 


1219-2 


14-3 00076 12-0 


0-387 


0-384 0-617 0628 


628 


0, 21-7 


451-4 


196 104 9-6 


0-639 


0632 0-917 0-924 


697 


y, 2206 


1998 


23-2 123 74 


0-960 


0940 1-297 1-310 


740 


<5, 22-42 


97-0 


25-5 135 5-7 


1-309 


1-320 1778 




736 




49-0 


26-2 139 40 














25-5 


270 143 31 














13-3 


280 149 2-3 














6-9 


295 157 16 














3-5 


29-5 157 1-0 














1-6 











c 




A.[0]- 


-148 














[80] 


1245 


r= -148-4 + 12902(0 -0581) 2 


[1036 ] 


303 


3007 




[100] 


2713 














[-80] 
[-100] 


-148 
91 
228-3 


r= -148 + 127-38(0 - 


-0262) 2 


[-40 ] 
[-109-4 ] 


-86 
303 


-905 
304-5 




7!>[0] 
[20] 
[40] 


103-7 
1190 
167-4 


r = 103-7 + 135-81(0- 


0132)2 


[30 ] 
[50 ] 
[60 ] 
[69-97] 


1390 
2041 
249-6 
3031 


1393 
2041 
2490 
3020 




r i*v ~\ 


103-7 
1210 
1700 






[-30 ] 


141-8 


141-6 




7 2 .[°] 
[-20] 
[-40] 


r = 103"7 + 130-0(0 -• 


0161) 


[-50 ] 
[-60 ] 
[-6997] 


2067 
250-8 
302-3 


206-4 
250-7 
302-7 




Si»[0] 


206-3 














[20] 


222-5 


r=2O6•3+139■19(0- 


■0077) 2 


[47-93] 


302-3 


301-7 




[40] 


272-6 














*„[<>] 


206-3 














[-20] 


2240 


r = 2063 + 135-42(0 - 


0127) 2 


[-47-93] 


3036 


303-9 




[-04] 


274-7 














VOL. XXXVI. PART I. (NO 


8). 








2 p 





■250 



PROFESSOR TATT ON IMPACT. 



I. 


Double Mass. 




















N R 


H 


C 


T 


D 


A x 


A 2 




e 

















c 


c 








221 3118 6096 


195 


00103 


11-5 


0-563 


0545 0-814 


0863 




•692 




22-2 


2410 


26-6 


141 


9-2 


0-885 


0-875 1242 


1-253 




•713 






1130 


321 


170 


7-1 


1-294 


1-285 1-831 


1-798 




•707 


ft 


2211 


56-9 


35-9 


190 


5-9 


1-782 


1-791 2-482 






•718 


7- 


2203 


293 


34-8 


184 


4-0 












8. 


22-06 

&,[o; 


15-6 
8-2 
4-3 
23 
1-4 

) 704 


342 
33-6 
330 
275 


181 

178 
175 
146 


2-8 
20 
1-3 
06 




[10 ] 




74-3 


c 
74-1 






[20 


] 86-0 


r= 


= 70-4 + 135-81(0- 


OlOO) 2 


[60 ] 


2160 


2165 






[40 


| 134-7 










[76-87] 


3120 


311-2 






&,[o; 


| 70-4 










[-30 ] 


1081 


1084 






[-20 


| 87-7 


T- 


= 70-4 + 131-31(0- 


--0142) 2 


[-60 ] 


218-8 


218-3 






[-40; 


137-0 










[-76-87] 


312-2 


3118 






yp[o; 


| 1980 




















[20" 


213-5 


r = 


= 1980 + 135-42(0 


--0106) 2 


[53-18] 


3122 


3120 






[40; 


2620 




















y 2 . [ o ; 


198-0 




















[-20" 


214-5 


r = 


: 198 + 12967(0 - 


•0077) 2 


[-53-18] 


3115 


3116 






[—40] 


262-6 




















s p [o; 


| 2551 




















[10] 


259-0 


r- 


= 255-1 + 132-95(0 


--0032) 2 


[37-52] 


311-5 


311-5 






[20] 


271-0 




















8 2 ,[0' 


| 255-1 




















[-10] 


259-2 


r- 


255-1 + 132-95(0- 


•0001) 2 


[-37-52] 


3120 


3120 






[-20] 


271-4 



















III. 



N 



R 



H 



D 



Ax 



A, 
















c 





c 




22-25 3288 1219-2 


16-2 


0-0081 


122 


0417 


04 


0645 


0-704 


•647 


221 


394-8 


242 


122 


104 


0711 


0-710 


1052 


1089 


•67(> 


ft, 22-4 


1696 


30-6 


154 


8-4 


1099 


1-089 


1-553 


1-510 


•707 


y, 22-26 


82-7 


34-5 


173 


60 


1-530 


1-522 


2-087 


2061 


•733 


S, 22-87 


42-2 


36-3 


182 


4-9 




2-102 




2-893 




6,23-12 


220 


37 3 


187 


37 




2917 








£ 2293 


11-6 
61 
31 

1-5 


37-0 
38-9 
38-9 


186 
195 
195 


2-5 
1-8 
L-3 






• 







PROFESSOR TAIT ON IMPACT. 



251 



A, [0] 


-66-9 


[60] 


86-5 


[80] 


205 


&,[0] 


-66-9 


[-60] 


74-6 


[-80] 


188 


7i=[0] 


1590 


[20] 


1751 


[40] 


2240 


y 2 ,[0] 


1590 


[-20] 


175-9 


[-40] 


2256 


«i,[0] 


246-4 


[20] 


263-1 


[40] 


3149 


S,, [ ] 


246-4 


[-20] 


263-8 


[-40] 


315-7 


■ v [0] 


286-2 


[10] 


290-6 


[20] 


3040 


e 2 ,[0] 


286-2 


[-10] 


2905 


[-20] 


303-6 


&.[0] 


3062 


[10] 


3104 


[20] 


323-5 


&.[0] 


3062 


[-10] 


3108 


[-20] 


3240 



r= -66-9 + 13821(0--OO63) 2 



r= -67 + 135-91(0- -0265) 2 



r = 159 + 136-24(0- -0053) 2 



r = 159 + 134-59(0--OO53) 2 



r = 246-4 + 144-O5(0--OO85) 2 



[96-7] 329 3238 



[-99-4] 3290 329-6 



[50 ] 2613 261-5 

[63-87] 329-1 3267 

[-50 ] 262-9 262-7 

[-63-87] 328-2 327-8 



[43-72] 328-2 328-4 



r = 246-4 + 141-49(0--0016) 2 [-4372] 3292 329-1 



r = 286-2 + 147-73(0--OO19) 2 



[31-08] 3292 329-36 



r = 286-2 + 144-44(0- -0020) 2 [-3108] 3282 3284 



r = 3062 + 146-08(0- -0049) 2 



[2253] 328-2 3282 



r = 306-2 + 141-16(0 -0061) 2 [-2253] 3289 3287 



21/8/90. Vulcanised India-rubber. 



(This is the trace reproduced in the plate, and the details are given here to show that fair results can be 
obtained even when the adjustment is very imperfect.) 



N 


R 


H 


C 


D 


T 





A, 
c 





A 2 
c 


e 


2275 


338 


12192 


153 


11-9 


0-0077 


■383 




•636 


•655 


•602 


ft 22-5 




456 


215 


96 


0108 


•660 


•693 


•966 


1066 


•683 


% 22-9 




1975 


250 


7-6 


0125 


•933 


1000 


1-354 


1-42 


•689 


S, 23-4 




950 

48-0 

24-5 

125 

60 


266 
280 
300 
315 
330 


55 
42 
30 
2-4 
1-9 


0133 
•0140 
0150 
•0158 
•0165 


1-418 


1-42 


1-842 




•770 



252 



PROFESSOR TAIT ON IMPACT. 



0i, [0 

[SO 

[100 

/8 2 ,[0 

[-80 
[-100 

yp[0 

[30 
[60 

y 2 -[o 

[-30 
[-60 

S t ,[0 

[20 
[40 

Mo 

[-20 
[-40 



-118 
1682 
3317 

-118 
150-6 
300-1 

1315 
1710 

2890 

1315 
1710 
2900 

2326 
2510 
3058 

232-6 
2508 
3054 



/ = -118 + 146-O9(0) 2 
)■=- 117-8 + 13O-33(0-O368) 2 -75] 

r=131-5 + 14314(0+-OOl7) 2 
r = 131 5 + 14445(0 --0007) 2 
r =232-6 + 149-37(0+ -0019) 2 

r= 232-6 + 14937(0) 2 



[55] 


166 


18 


[70] 


100 


101 


[90] 


242-4 


244 


[-70] 


85-5 


88-6 


[-75] 


116 


118-2 


[-90] 


2175 


2190 


[15] 


1415 


141-5 


[45] 


219-8 


2202 


[-10] 


135-9 


135-9 


[-50] 


241-8 


2413 


[-65] 


3170 


317-2 


[10 ] 


237 


237-2 


[30 ] 


274 


273-8 


[40-5] 


327-6 


327-3 


[-30 ] 


2735 


2735 


[-40-75] 


327-6 


327-8 



DESCRIPTION OF THE PLATE. 

The chief figure is, as above stated, photo-lithographed on the scale of - 3 from the record of a 4-foot 
fall on Vulcanised India-rubber. Even in this reduced scale it shows fairly enough the relative details of at 
least eight of the successive rebounds. These are numbered in order. The original showed several more. 
As its lines were not only very fine, but in blue, they had to be carefully gone over with a photographically 
inactive colour, so that much of the more delicate detail is unavoidably lost. The tuning-fork was kept in 
contact with the disc for a little more than a complete revolution. The consequent overlapping of the trace 
enables us to see that the angular velocity had not sensibly changed during one revolution of the disc. 

The three figures immediately below are (pencil) records of successive impacts on Native India-rubber 
(9/1/89). Time of rotation of disc s -3. 

Then follow records of impacts on Pine Tree (7/11/88) from heights of 8, 4, and 2 feet. These show the 
" wriggles " spoken of in the text. Time s- 3. 

The group of five which follows belongs to the experiment III. of 23/7/90 with Plane Tree, whose details 
are given in the Table. Some of these show traces of wriggles. 

The final group contains details of the first eight successive impacts of IV. of 7/6/90 on Vulcanised 
India-rubber. To save space, the first and third, as also the second and sixth, which took place at the same 
portions of the datum circle, have been drawn together. 

In each of the two later groups the time of rotation of the disc was a little more than one second. 

The disc always had positive rotation; so that the older figures (those in pencil) must be read the 
opposite way to the others, which were reversed in printing from the disc : — i.e., the compression part of the 
impact is to the left on the pencilled figures, to the right on the others. 




Tr s. Roy. Soc. Edin. 



PROF. TAIT ON IMPACT. 



Vol. XXXVI 




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The Transactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh will in future be Sold 







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IV. 


£0 9 





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„ Part 2. 


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1 


V. 


11 





9 





„ Part 3. 


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12 6 


VI. 


11 


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VII. 


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XXVII. Part 1. 


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VIII. 


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„ Part 2. 


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IX. 


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X. 


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XI. 


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XXVIII. Part 1. 


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XII. 


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XIII. 


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1 17 6 


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1 1 





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Part 1. J 


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1 3 6 


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1 11 


XXI. ) 

Part 1. / 


15 





11 


6 


Part 4. 


1 1 





16 


XXXVI. Part 1. 


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6 


16 


Part 2. 


10 





7 


G 










Part 3. 


7 





5 


3 










Part 4. 


18 





13 


6 










XXII. 1 

Part 1. f 


1 5 





1 1 













Part 2. 


10 





7 


6 










Part 3. 


1 5 





1 1 













XXIII. ) 
Part 1. / 


15 





11 


G 










Part 2. 


1 15 





1 8 


6 










Part 3. 


1 18 





1 10 













XXIV. I 
Part 1. J 


1 5 





1 1 













Part 2. 


1 8 





1 3 













Part 3. 


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18 





13 


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* Vol. XXXV., and those which follow, may be had in Numbers, each Number containing a 

complete Paper. 



PKINTED I'Y NKILL AND COMPANY, HDINBUKOJI. 






TRANSACTIONS 



OF THE 



EOYAL SOCIETY OF EDINBURGH. 



VOL. XXXVI. PART II.— (Nos. 9 to 21)— FOR THE SESSION 1890-91. 



CONTENTS. 




l'AOK 

No. IX. Alternate ± Knots of Order Eleven. By Professor C. N. Little. (With Two Plates), . 253 

X. On the Foundations of the Kinetic Theory of Gases. IV. By Professor Tait, . . 257 

XL Anatomical Description of Two New Genera of Aquatic Oligochceta. By Frank E. Beddard, 
M.A. (Oxon.), F.Z.S., Prosector of the Zoological Society of London, and Lecturer on 
Biology at Guy's Hospital. (With Three Plates), . . . . .273 

XII. Professor Kelt and' s Problem on Superposition. By Robert Brodie. (With Two Plates), . 307 

XIII. On the Solid and Liquid Particles in Clouds. By John Aitken, Esq., . . .313 

XIV. On the Relation of Nerves to Odontoblasts, and on the Growth of Dentine. By W. G. 

Aitchison Robertson, M.D. B.Sc. (With a Plate), ..... 321 

XV. The Development of the Carapace of the Chelonia. By John Berry Haycraft, M.D., D.Sc, 

F.R.S.E. (With a Plate), - . 335 

XVI. Strophanthus hispidus : its Natural History, C I temistry, and Pharmacology. By Thomas R. 
Fraser, M.D., F.R.S., F.R.S.E, F.R.C.P.E., Professor of Materia Medica in the Uni- 
versity of Edinburgh. Part IL— Pharmacology. (Plates VIII.-XXIIL), . . 343 

XVII. On the Composition of Oceanic and Littoral Manganese Nodules. By J. Y. Buchanan, Esq., 

F.R.S. (With Map and Plate), . . . . . .459 

XVIII. On Some Relations between Magnetism and Twist in Iron and Nickel (and Cobalt). Parts 
II. and III. By Cargill 'G. Knott, D.Sc. (Edin.), F.R.S.E, Professor of Physics, 
Imperial University, Tokyo, Japan. (With Five Plates), .... 485 

XIX. The Winds of Ben Nevis. By R. T. Omond and Angus Rankin, .... 537 

XX. A Demonstration of Lagrange's Ride for the Solution of a Linear Partial Differential 
Equation, with some Historical Remarks on Defective Demonstrations hitherto Current. 
By G. Chrystal, Professor of Mathematics, University of Edinburgh, . . .551 

XXI. On the Anatomy of Ocnerodrilus (Eisen). By Frank E. Beddard, M.A., Prosector of the 

Zoological Society of London, Lecturer on Biology at Guy's Hospital. (With a Plate), . 563 



(Issued November 10, 1891.) 



( 253 ) 



IX. — Alternate ± Knots of Order Eleven. By Professor C. N. Little. 

(With Two Plates.) 

(Read 21st July ; Revised December 1890.) 

1. A year ago last April, Prof. Tait proposed that I should undertake to derive 
from Mr Kirkman's polyhedral drawings the alternate ± knots of eleven crossings, 
thus doing for order 11 what had been clone so admirably by himself in orders 8, 9, 
and 10. 

2. The work has been a very protracted one, because of the great number of forms 
involved — more than three times as many as in all preceding orders combined. Mr 
Kirkman's manuscript contains 1581 forms, of which 22 are bifilar and 16 duplicates. 
I find from the remainder 357 knots with 1595 forms as shown in the following 
table : — 



Class. 


£ 


6 


CD 
Sh 

H 


O 
fa 


cd" 
> 




e 

cd 
> 

CD 

m 


bo 
fa 


a5 


d 


pi 

CD 
!> 
CD 

fa 


CD 
j> 


a 

CD 
CD 

S3 
O 
fa 


CD 
CD 
eg 

fa 


n 

CD 
CD 

CO 


CD 
CD 

bo 
fa 


J3 
CD 




II 
III. 
IV. 

V. 
VI. 


1 

4 

8 

26 

44 


14 
25 

48 


3 

6 

18 


6 
14 
26 


... 
l 

4 


... 

2 
19 
17 


1 
1 


8 
15 


5 


2 
3 


"l 


3 
16 


1 


2 


1 

3 


6 


3 




Total > 
Knots ) 


83 


87 


27 | 46 


5 38 


2 23 


5 


5 


1 


19 


1 ! 2 


4 


6 


3 


357 



As this is an odd order, perversion doubles these numbers, making 714 elevenfold 
knots, with crossings alternately over and under. 

3. It has been thought unnecessary to show upon the Plates more than one form 
of each knot ; all, however, have been drawn. Knots of each class having the same 
number of forms are grouped together to make more simple the identification of a 
particular elevenfold. A small figure following the series number upon the plates 
indicates how many distinct forms each knot can assume. Knots 84, 357, and 238 6 are 
misplaced. 

4. Below each knot-form figured will be found the number of the corresponding 
form in Mr Kirkman's manuscript, and partition symbols to which the following table 
gives the key : — 

VOL. XXXVI. PART II. (NO. 9.) . 2 Q 



•_\">4 PROFESSOR C. N. LITTLE ON ALTERNATE KNOTS OF ORDER ELEVEN. 





Class VI 






A., 


7-2' 


o 


6 2 2 5 


B, 


7632 :i 


7T 


6532 4 


C a 


7542 :; 


P 


64 2 3 4 


D, 


753 2 2 a 


tr 


643 2 2 3 


E 2 


743 3 2 


T 


63 4 2 2 


F 8 


73 5 


V 


5 2 42 4 


G 2 


74 2 32 2 


<P 


5 2 3 2 2 3 


H 2 


6 2 42 :( 


X 


54 2 32 3 


I 2 


6 2 3 2 2 2 


* 


543 3 2 2 


K, 


65 2 2 ! 


O) 


53 s 2 


L, 


65432 2 


r 


4 4 2 s 


M, 


653 3 2 


A 


4 3 3 2 2 2 


N a 


64 2 3 2 2 


A 


4 2 3 4 2 


s 2 


6 4 3 4 


S 


43 6 


T 2 


5 3 32 2 






U 2 


5 2 4 2 2 2 






v., 


5 2 43 2 2 






w 2 


5 2 3 4 






x 2 


54 3 32 






Y 2 


54 2 3 3 






z, 


4 4 3 2 







Class V. 



A 8 2 2 a 

B 8732 2 

C 8642 2 

D 8G3 2 2 

F 85 2 2 2 

G 85432 

H 853 3 

I 84 3 2 

K 84 2 3 2 

L 7 2 42 2 

M 7 2 3 2 2 

N 7652 2 

.0 76432 

P 763 3 

Q 75 2 32 

R 754 2 2 

S 7543 2 

T 74 ! 3 

U 6 :! 2 2 

V 6 2 532 

W 6 2 4 2 2 

X 6 2 43 2 



v 5 2 2 6 

£ 5432 5 

v 53 3 2 4 

6 4 3 2 5 

k 4 2 3 2 2 4 

X 43 4 2 3 

/* 3 6 2 2 



Class V. — continued. 

Y 65 2 42 

Z 65 2 3 2 

E x 654 2 3 

A l 64 4 

B 1 5 4 2 

C x 5 3 43 

B l 5 2 4 3 



Class IV. 



y 9 2 2 2 

/ 9832 

g 9742 

h 973 2 

i 9652 

j 9643 

k 95 2 3 

i 954 2 

m 8 2 3 2 

n 8752 

o 8743 

p 8653 

g 85 2 4 

r 7 2 62 

s 7 2 53 

t 7 2 4 2 

u 76 2 3 

v 7654 

w 75 3 



y 4 2 2- 

3 43 2 2 B 
e 3 4 2 5 



Class III. 
e 10 2 2 (8 3 2 2« 

6 1084 
c 106 2 
eZ 8 2 6 



Class II. 
a ll 2 a 2 11 



PROFESSOR C. N. LITTLE ON ALTERNATE KNOTS OF ORDER ELEVEN. 255 

5. The manner of using these plates to identify a given elevenfold knot can 
be seen from the following example. Having drawn at 
random the figure in the margin, it is to be noticed that it is a 
reduced, non-composite form of eleven crossings. Mark the 
parts of the leading partition, and write down Listing's type 

symbol — 

f 6 2 3 2 2 2 
1 54 2 32 3 

As the leading partition has six parts, the knot belongs to Class VI. Write now 
a graph of the leading partition showing how the parts are arranged : — 

/2-3x X 

6 -2- 6 

\3/ 




The two 6-gons have six connections, a 3-gon and 2-gon, a 2-gon, a 3-gon, and two 
single crossings, which may be represented, in order, by a, b, c, d, d, and these letters 
have six circular arrangements as follows : — 

abcdd bcdad 
acbdd acdbd 
cabdd abdcd 

But for each of these arrangements a may have three forms since c is asymmetrical, as 
follows : — 

-2-3 = 

-3 = 3- 

= 3-2- 

There are, therefore, eighteen distinct forms of this knot. A glance at Plate II. 
shows that it is the last of the six eighteen-form knots there given — No. 353. 



Trans. Roy SocEdin 1 



[ CLASS !I 





PROF. LITTLE ON ALTERNATE ± KNOTS OF ORDER ELEVEN. PI. I. 

IV 7 



Vol. XXXVI. 




>** _/S 1S 




OC d 1317 j8jb 13Z1 P. C 1322 j3^_e 1323 |3 w 698 6 X 703 € V 70* £ S 1156 E t 1157 £ v 1158 e X 1573 Y y 132S Y 




I 8 g 1245 8 U 1246 5 I n 1250 S I T 1253 8 t 1281 Y h 1285 8 k 1286 8;| 1293 6 If 1308 Y i 1314 Y W 1348 S,u 1406 8 

28,__^ ! 29j _ J7 ! 30 3^ „ I 31 * ^^ 32 *. .„ 33 * _ 34*.. _ 35 t ^_^ 36* ' 37 s 38 6 _ 39 CLASS V 




3 767 k| 769 K 773 K W 926 K G 1107 K Q, 1181 \ j E, 1381 £, , W 1442 £, , H 670 K | 7 7 4-3 X j K 1328 T) S 545 kJ Z 404- 1} 

139^ 140 iz |l«» 14Zi2 i 143,, 




Uz 680 X | La 685 "X. j Tz 699 $ | Ua 70 2 

F.HuQi.Lifh'Eain* 



Trans. Roy. So c. Edm r PROF. LITTLE ON ALTERNATE ± KNOTS OF ORDER E LE V EN . PI. II. 



Vol. XXXVI. 




P.Huft.LitMEain 1 



(257 ) 



X. — On the Foundations oj the Kinetic Theory of Gases. IV. By Prof. Tait. 

(Read Jan. 21, 1889, and April 6, 1891.) 



INDEX TO CONTENTS. 



PAGE 

Preliminary, 260 

Part XIX. The Isothermal Equations of Van der 

Waals and Clausius, . . . 260 
„ XX. The Virial Equation for attracting Spheri- 
cal Particles, 263 



PAGE 

Part XXI. Eelation between Kinetic Energy and 

Temperature, 266 

„ XXII. The Equation of Isothermals, . . 268 

„ XXIII. Comparison with Experiment, . . 269 



[A few words are necessary to explain why the present paper has hitherto been printed 
in Abstract only, and to show what modifications it has undergone since it was read more 
than two years ago. 

In the paper, as it was first presented to the Society, I contented myself with the usual 

practice of extracting from the virial a negative term {—ftp) to represent at least a 

portion of the part due to the molecular repulsion at impact. But, as will be seen by 

the Abstract printed at the time (Proc. Roy. Soc. Edin., 21/1/89), I stated that though 

this procedure is correct when molecular attraction is not taken into account, it requires 

considerable modification when such attractions are introduced. I also stated that its 

main effect would be to alter one of the disposable quantities (A) in my equation. I 

have since seen that the definition, of what we are now to understand by " temperature," 

which I then introduced, leads naturally and directly to the writing of a part of A in the 

form 

-e(E+C/(v+j)), 

where E is proportional to the absolute temperature and to the average energy of a free 
particle. This remark really substitutes the new undetermined quantity e for the /3 
which occurred in my former expression. But the equation in its new form, though 
containing as many arbitrary constants as before, is considerably more simple to deal 
with, as p occurs only in the term pv, in which both factors are directly given by 
experiment. The term p(v — fi) was a source of great trouble in the attempt to deter- 
mine the proper values of the constants. It was recognised by Van der Waals, even 
in his earliest paper, that the quantity fi suffers large changes of value, with changes 
of volume of the gas, so that no formula in which it is treated as a constant could 
suffice to represent more than a moderate volume-range of the isothermals with any 
consistent degree of accuracy. 

When I first read my paper, I had made no serious attempt to attack the formidable 

VOL. XXXVI. PART II. (NO. 10.) 2 R 



L'.'jS PROFESSOR TAIT ON THE 

numerical problem of determining values of the constants which should adapt my main 
formula to Andrews' experimental data. I contented myself with obviously (and pro- 
fessedly) provisional assumptions, which showed that it was well fitted to represent the 
results ; but I also gave the relations among the constants of the formula and the data 
as to the mass, and the critical values of the pressure, volume, and temperature of the 
substance. 

Later, having carefully reduced Andrews' data to true pressures (by the help of 
Amagat's determinations of the isothermals of air at ordinary temperatures), I proceeded 
to try various assumptions as to the values of the quantities v, p, a in my formulas, on 
which (as I = 30° '9 C. was already given by Andrews with great precision) all the constants 
can be made to depend. I at first endeavoured to adjust these so as to make /3 = 0"0017, 
in consequence of a statement by Amagat [Ann. de Chimie, 1881, xxii. p. 397) as to 
the ultimate volume of C0 2 . But I failed to get results giving more than a general 
accordance with Andrews' experiments ; so that I made further guesses without taking 
account of this datum. I had, however, become accustomed to the employment of it, as 
a quantity of the order 10" 3 of the volume of the gas at 0° C. and 1 atm., so that I 
was much surprised to find that one of my chance assumptions, which gave /3 = 0*00005, 
led to a formula far more closely agreeing with Andrews than any I had till then 
met w T ith. The reason for this agreement is now T obvious : — The term — ftp is not the 
proper expression for the part of the virial which it is intended to represent ; and the 
true mode of introducing that part is, as pointed out in my Abstract, to alter the 
value of A from isothermal to isothermal, and from volume to volume. 

In January last I happened to ask M. Amagat if he could give me the value of pv for 
C0 2 at 0° C. and 1 atm., which is wanting in his remarkable table (in the Ann. de 
Chimie, above referred to). In reply he kindly furnished me with a new and extremely 
complete set of determinations of pv, in terms of p, for C0 2 ; the range of pressures being 
1 to 1000 atm., and of temperature 0° to 100° C, some special isothermals up to 258° being 
added. My first step on receiving these data was to try how far they agreed with 
Andrews' results, which I had carefully plotted (to true pressures) from 31°*1 to 41° C, 
and for volumes from '03 to "002. My object was to discover, if possible, by compari- 
son of the results of two such exceptionally trustworthy experimenters, whether any 
modification of the behaviour of C0 2 is (as some theoretical writers have asserted) 
produced by the molecular forces due to the walls of the very fine tubes in which 
Andrews' measurements w T ere made. I could find nothing of the sort. The isothermals, 
plotted from Amagat's numbers (which in no case were for any of Andrews' tempera- 
tures), took their places in the diagram almost as if they had been an additional part of 
the work of one experimenter. The slight discrepancies at the smaller volumes were 
obviously due to the trace (1/500) of air which, as Andrews pointed out, was associated 
with the carbonic acid in his tubes. 

But, although I have got from them only negative information as to the molecular 
effects said to be due to glass, Amagat's isothermals are so regularly spread oyer the 



FOUNDATIONS OF THE KINETIC THEORY OF GASES. 259 

diagram as to be far more readily available for calculation than are those of Andrews. 
I have not, however, the leisure requisite for anything like an exhaustive treatment of 
them ; and all that I have attempted is to obtain values of the constants in my formula 
which make it a fair representation of the phenomena in the experimentally investigated 
range of the gas region of the diagram ; and, more especially, that portion of it 
where the volume exceeds the critical volume. It appears to me that to try to push the 
approximation further at present would be waste of time ; it cannot be attempted with 
any hope of much improvement until certain points, referred to below, have been 
properly investigated. These may lead to modifications of parts of the formula which, 
though unimportant in the regions now treated, may greatly improve its agreement 
with the facts, in the remaining portions of the diagram. Besides, there is in the data 
the uncertainty due to the presence of air, which was not wholly removed (though 
reduced to 1/2500) even in Amagat's experiments. This, as above remarked, begins to 
tell especially when the volume is small. 

It is very much to be regretted that Clausius did not avail himself of Amagat's 
data in reducing Andrews' scale of pressures. He expressly says he rejected them 
because they were not consistent with those of Cailletet. Hence the formula which he 
obtained after great arithmetical labour, though it is in close, sometimes in almost start- 
ling, agreement with the data through the range of Andrews' work, is not properly a 
relation among p, v, and t. If we make it such, by putting in the correction (in terms 
of v) for the pressures as measured by the air-manometer, a new v-factor is introduced into 
the equation, and its simplicity (which is one of its most important characteristics) is lost. 
I tried to obtain hints for the values of the constants in my own formula by making this 
change in that of Clausius. But I found that the factor l/t which Clausius introduced 
into the virial term (in order to approximate to the effect of the aggregation of particles 
into groups at the lower ranges of temperature), made his formula inapplicable to the 
wide regions of the diagram which Andrews did not attack, but which have been so 
efficiently explored by Amagat. There are, no doubt, traces of this systematic divergence 
even in the special Andrews region, but they become much more obvious in the outlying 
parts. 

It is certainly remarkable that my simple formula, based entirely on the behaviour of 
smooth spheres, should be capable of so close an adjustment to the observed facts ; and I 
think that the agreement affords at least very strong testimony in favour of the proposed 
mode of reckoning the temperature of a group of particles. When this is introduced, it 
appears at once that the term of Van der Waals' equation, which he took to represent 
Laplace's K, is not the statical pressure due to molecular forces, but (approximately) its 
excess over the repulsion due to the speed of the particles. And hence the (external) 
pressure is not, as Clausius put it, ultimately the difference between two very large 
quantities, but the excess of one very large quantity over the very large difference between 
two enormously great quantities ; and thus the whole phenomena of a highly-compressed 
gas, or a liquid, are to be regarded as singular examples of kinetic stability. 28/5/91.] 



•260 PROFESSOR TAIT ON THE 



Preliminary. 

In the preceding part of this paper I considered the consequences of a special assump- 
tion as to the nature of the molecular force between two particles, the particles themselves 
being still regarded as hard, smooth, spheres. My object was to obtain, by means of 
rigorous calculation, yet in as simple a form as possible, a general notion of the effects 
due to the molecular forces. My present objects are (1) to apply this general notion to 
the formation and interpretation of the virial equation (in an approximate form), and (2) 
to apply the results to the splendid researches of Andrews and their recent extension by 
the truly magnificent measurements of Amagat. 

Passing over some papers of Hirn and others, in which the earliest attempts were 
made (usually on totally erroneous grounds) to form the equation of the isothermals of 
a gas in which molecular forces are prominent, we come to the Thesis of Van der 
Waals,* who was the first to succeed in representing, by a simple formula, the main 
characteristics of Andrews' results. His process is based upon the virial equation, and 
his special object seems to have been an attempt to determine the value of the molecular 
constant usually called " Laplace's K." Though the whole of this essay is extremely 
ingenious, and remarkably suggestive, it contains (even in its leading ideas) much that is 
very doubtful, and some things which are certainly incorrect. One of these was specially 
alluded to by Clerk-Maxwell^ who, in reviewing the essay, said : — " Where he has 
borrowed results from Clausius and others, he has applied them in a manner which 
appears to me to be erroneous." It will conduce to clearness if I commence with an 
examination of the equation which is the main feature of Van der Waals' Thesis, and 
the modifications which it underwent in the hands of Clausius. 



XIX. — The Isothermal Equations of Van der Waals and Clausius. 

64. The virial equation (§ 30, above) is 

P(mw 2 ) = gpv + ^2(Rr) ; 

where, to save confusion, we employ u to denote the speed of the particle whose mass is 
w. From this Van der Waals derives the following expression : — 



(p+£)(v-{3) = &(mu*); 



and he treats the right-hand member as a constant multiple of the absolute temperature. 
(This last point is of extreme importance, but I shall discuss it farther on ; at present I 
confine myself to the formation of the equation.) 

* Over de continuiteit van den gas- en vloeistoftoestand. Leiden, 1873. t Nature, Oct. 15, 1874. 



FOUNDATIONS OF THE KINETIC THEORY OF GASES. 261 

It is certain (§ 30) that, when there is no molecular force except elastic resilience, the 

term 

£2(Rr) 

in the virial equation takes, to a first approximation at least, the form of a numerical 

multiple of 

S(mu 2 ) 
v ' 

and thus that, if this term be small in comparison with the other terms in the equation, 
we may call it 

Thus the virial equation becomes 

p(v — /3) = }2(mtt 2 ) . 

[So far, all seems perfectly legitimate ; though, as will be seen later, I think it has led to 
a good deal of confusion : — at all events, it has retarded progress, by introducing what was 
taken as a direct representation of the " ultimate volume" to which a substance can be 
reduced by infinite pressure. When this idea was once settled in men's minds, it seemed 
natural and reasonable, and consequently the left-hand member of the virial equation 
is now almost universally written p(v—fi) ; although, even in Van der Waals' Thesis, it 
was pointed out that comparison with experiment shows that /3 cannot be regarded as a 
constant. But its introduction is obviously indefensible, except in the special case of no 
molecular force.] 

Van der Waals' next step is as follows : — Although p, in the virial equation, has 
been strictly defined as external pressure (that exerted by the walls of the containing 
vessel), he adds to it, in the last-written form of the equation (deduced on the express 
assumption of the absence of molecular force), a term a/v 2 , which is to represent 
Laplace's K. Thus he obtains his fundamental equation 



(p+^)(v-®=m™v>*), 



or, as it is more usually written (in consequence of the assumption about absolute tem- 
perature, already noticed), 

_ kt a 

where h is an absolute constant, depending on the quantity of gas, and to be determined 
by the condition that the gas has unit volume at 0° C. and 1 atmosphere. 

I do not profess to be able fully to comprehend the arguments by which Van der 
Waals attempts to justify the mode in which he obtains the above equation. Their 
nature is somewhat as follows. He repeats a good deal of Laplace's capillary work ; in 
which the existence of a large, but unknown, internal molecular pressure is established, 



262 PEOFESSOR TAIT ON THE 

entirely from a statical point of view. He then gives reasons (which seem, on the 
whole, satisfactory from this point of view) for assuming that the magnitude of this 
force is as the square of the density of the aggregate of particles considered. But his 
justification of the introduction of the term a/v 2 into an account already closed, as it 
were, escapes me. He seems to treat the surface-skin of the group of particles as if it 
were an additional bounding-surface, exerting an additional, and enormous, pressure on 
the contents. Even were this justifiable, nothing could justify the multiplying of this 
term by (v — /3) instead of by v alone. But the whole procedure is erroneous. If one 
begins with the virial equation, one must keep strictly to the assumptions made in 
obtaining it, and consequently everything connected with molecular force, whether of 
attraction or of elastic resilience, must be extracted from the term 2(Rr). 

It is very strange that Clausius,"* to whom we owe the virial equation, should not 
have protested against this striking misuse of it, but should have contented himself with 
making modifications (derived from general considerations, such as aggregation of par- 
ticles, &c.) which put Van der Waals' equation in the form 

_ kt a 

P ~v~=p~t(v + a) 2 ' 

65. Van der Waals' equation gives curves, whose general resemblance to those plotted 
by Andrews for C0 2 is certainly remarkable : — and it has the further advantage of repro- 
ducing, for temperatures below the critical point, the form of isothermals (with physically 
unstable, and therefore experimentally unrealisable, portions) which was suggested by 
James Thomson, as an extension of Andrews' work. For a reason which will presently 
appear (§ 67), Van der Waals' curves cannot be made to coincide with those of Andrews. 

The modified equation of Clausius, however, seems to fit Andrews' work much 
better : — but the coincidence with the true isothermals is much more apparent than real, 
because Clausius' work is based on the measurement of pressures by the air-manometer, 
as they were originally given by Andrews, who had not the means of reducing them to 
absolute measure. 

But a further remark of Clerk-Maxwell's (in the review above cited) is quite as 
applicable to the results of Clausius as to those of Van der Waals, viz. : — " Though this 
agreement would be strong evidence in favour of the accuracy of an empirical formula 
devised to represent the experimental results, the equation of M. Van der Waals, pro- 
fessing as it does to be deduced from the dynamical theory, must be subjected to a much 
more severe criticism." 

66. Before I leave this part of the subject, I will, for the sake of future reference, put 
the equations of Van der Waals and Clausius in a form which I have found to be 
very convenient, viz. : — 

*-K i -£3P+iV-» (A > 

* Annalen der Physik, ix, 1880. 



FOUNDATIONS OF THE KINETIC THEORY OF GASES. 263 

^ v-v(l {V ~^ \ 1 ( m I a V- g (V>\ 

In these equations j5, v, £ belong to the critical point, determined by the conditions that 
at such a point p is a minimax in terms of v. The special advantage of this mode of 
representing the isothermals depends on the fact that the first part of the value of p 
belongs to the critical isothermal ; so that by comparing, at any one volume, the 
pressures in different isothermals (as given experimentally) we have a comparatively 
simple numerical method of calculating the values of some of the constants in the 
equation. 

67. But, even if we were to regard the formula of Van der Waals as a purely 
empirical one, there is a fatal objection to it in the fact that it contains only two dispos- 
able constants. Thus, if it were correct, the extraordinary consequence would follow that 
there is a necessary relation among the three quantities, pressure, volume, and tempera- 
ture, at the critical point :— so that, no matter what the substance, when two of these 
are given the third can be calculated from them. I do not see any grounds on which 
we are justified in assuming that this can be the case. Certainly, if it were established 
as a physical truth, it would give us views of a much stronger kind than any we yet 
have as to the essential unity of all kinds of matter. Van der Waals seems to have 
taken his idea in this matter from one of Andrews' papers, in which there is a 
hazardous, and therefore unfortunate, speculation of a somewhat similar character. Any- 
how, it would seem that, at least until experiment proves the contrary, we are bound to 
provide, in our theoretical work, for the mutual independence of at least the three follow- 
ing quantities : — 

1. The diameters of the particles. 

2. The range of sensible molecular force. 

3. The maximum relative potential energy of two particles. 

Besides these, there is the question of the law of molecular force, which we are certainly 
not entitled to assume as necessarily the same in all bodies. This has most important 
bearings on the formation of doublets, triplets, &c, at lower temperatures. 

The modified formula of Clausius has one additional constant, and is therefore not 
so much exposed to the above objections as is that of Van der Waals. Still I think it 
has at least one too few. 

XX. — The Virial Equation for attracting Spherical Particles. 

68. What is required is not an exact equation, for this is probably unattainable even 
when we limit ourselves to hard spherical particles. To be of practical value the equation 
must (while presenting a fair approximation to the truth) be characterised by simplicity. 
And, should the experimental data require it, we must be prepared to give the equation 
of any one isothermal in two or more forms, corresponding to various ranges of volume. 



•J04 PROFESSOR TAIT ON THE 

It is exceedingly improbable (when we think of the mechanism involved) that any really 
simple expression will give a fair agreement with an isothermal throughout the whole 
range of volumes which can be experimentally treated. 

From the general results of Part III. of this paper we see that the term 

J2(mu 2 ) 

in the virial equation must, when molecular forces are taken into account, contain a, 
term proportional to the number of particles which are at any (and therefore at every) 
time within molecular range of one another. Hence if, when the volume is practically 
infinite, we have for the mean-square speed of a particle 

(where n is the whole number of particles), we shall have, when the volume is not too 
much reduced, no work having been done on the group from without, 

i2(mu 2 ) = E + 



v + y ' 

where C and 7 may be treated as constants, the first essentially positive if the 

molecular force be attractive, the second of uncertain sign. Even if the volume 

be very greatly reduced it is easy to see, from the following considerations, that 

a similar expression holds. The work done on a particle which joins a dense group 

is, on account of the short range of the forces, completed before it has entered much 

beyond the skin, and is proportional, ceteris paribus, to the skin-density. Hence 

the whole work done on the group by the molecular forces is (roughly) proportional 
to 

Vp.p , 

the first factor expressing the number of the particles, the second the work done on 
each. But, as we are dealing with a definite group of particles, the first factor is 
constant, so that the whole work is directly as p , or inversely as (say) v + y, because 
p <p. But the work represents the gain in kinetic energy over that in the free 
state, so that this mode of reasoning leads us to the same result as the former for 
the average kinetic energy of all the particles. 

In so far as R depends on the molecular attraction, the term 

JE(Rr) 

is evidently proportional, per unit volume of the group, to the square of the 
density : — for the particles, in consequence of their rapid motions, may be treated 
as occupying within an excessively short time every possible situation with regard 
to one another. Thus, as regards any one, the mass of all the rest may be treated 



FOUNDATIONS OF THE KINETIC THEORY OF GASES. 265 

as diffused uniformly through the space they occupy. In volume v, therefore, the 
amount is as vp 2 . But, in the present case, the quantity vp is constant, so that, 
ao-ain, the approximate value of the term is directly as p, or inversely as v. But, 
once more, we must allow for the bounding film (though not necessarily to the same 
exact amount as before), so we may write this part of the term as 



V + a 



But there is another part (negative) which depends on resilience. This is (§ 30) pro- 
portional to the average kinetic energy, and to the number of particles and the number 
of collisions per particle per second. The two last of these factors are practically the 
same as those employed for the molecular attraction. Hence the whole of the virial term 
may be written as 

A-e(E + C/(i;+y)) 
v + a 

Thus if we write again A and C for 

A-\ and C+- 



a — y a~y 

respectively, the complete equation takes the form 

C A-eE 



pv = E + 



V + y v + a ' 



which is certainly characterised by remarkable simplicity. 

69. We must now consider how far it is probable that the quantities in the above 
expression (other than p and v) can be regarded as constant. E, of course, can be altered 
only by direct communication of energy ; but the case of the others is different. 
Generally, it may be stated that there must be a particular volume (depending 
primarily upon the diameters of the particles) at and immediately below which the 
mean free path undergoes an almost sudden diminution, and therefore we should ex- 
pect to find corresponding changes in the constants. In particular, it must be noted 
that some of them depend directly on the length of the free path, and that somewhat 
abrupt changes in their values must occur as soon as the particles are so close to one 
another that the mean free path becomes nearly equal to their average distance from 
their nearest neighbours. For then the number of impacts per second suffers a sudden 
and large increase. Thus, in consequence of the finite size of the particles, we may be 
perfectly prepared to find a species of discontinuity in any simple approximate form of 
the virial equation. From this point of view it would appear that there is not (strictly) 
a " critical volume " of an assemblage of hard spheres, but rather a sort of short range 
of volume throughout which this comparatively sudden change takes place. Thus the 
critical Isothermal may be regarded as having (like those of lower temperature) a finite 

VOL. XXXVI. PART II. (NO. 10). 2 S 



2(36 PROFESSOR TAIT ON THE 

portion which is practically straight and parallel to the axis of volume. That this 
conclusion is apparently borne out by experimental facts (so far at least as these are not 
modified by the residual trace of air) will be seen when we make the comparison. 

In fact we might speak of a superior and an inferior critical volume, and the portions 
of the isothermals beyond these limits on both sides may perhaps have equations of the 
same form, but with finite changes in some at least of the constants. 

Another source of a species of discontinuity in some, at least, of the constants is a 
reduction of E to such an extent that grouping of the spheres into doublets, triplets, &c, 
becomes possible. Thus we have a hint of the existence of a " critical temperature." 

It must be confessed that, while we have only an approximate knowledge of the length 
of the mean free path (even among equal non-attracting spheres) when it amounts only to 
some two or three diameters, we practically know almost nothing about its exact value 
when the volume is so much reduced that no particle has a path longer than one diameter. 

[It might be objected to the equation arrived at above, should it be found on com- 
parison with experiment that a and y are both positive, that it will not make p infinite 
unless v vanish. To this I need only reply that the equation has been framed on 
the supposition that the particles are in motion, and therefore free to move. What 
may happen when they become jammed together is not a matter of much physical 
interest, except perhaps from the point of view of dilatancy. If the equation 
represents, with tolerable accuracy, all the cases which can be submitted to experi- 
ment, it will fully satisfy all lawful curiosity.] 

XXL' — Relation between Kinetic Energy and Temperature. 

70. Before we can put the above virial equation into the usual form of a relation 
among p, v, and t, it is necessary that we should consider how the temperature of 
an assemblage of particles depends upon their average kinetic energy. 

Van der Waals and Clausius, following the usual custom, take the average kinetic 
energy as being proportional to the absolute temperature. Clerk-Maxwell is more 
guarded, but he says : — " The assumption that the kinetic energy is determined by 
the absolute temperature is true for perfect gases, and we have no evidence that 
any other law holds for gases, even near their liquefying point." 

On this question I differ completely from these great authorities, and may err 
absolutely. Yet I have many grave reasons on my side, one of which is immediately 
connected with the special question on hand. To take this reason first, although it 
is by no means the strongest, it appears to me that only if E above (with a constant 
added, when required, as will presently be shown) is regarded as proportional to 
the absolute temperature, can the above equation be in any sense accurately con- 
sidered as that of an Isothermal. If the whole kinetic energy of the particles is 
treated as proportional to the absolute temperature, the various stages of the gas 
as its volume changes with E constant correspond to changes of temperature with- 



FOUNDATIONS OF THE KINETIC THEORY OF GASES. 267 

out direct loss or gain of heat, and belong rather to a species of Adiabatic than 
to an Isothermal. Neither Van der Waals nor Clausius, so far as I can see, calls 
attention to the fact that when there are molecular forces the mean-square speed of 
the particles necessarily increases with diminution of volume, even when the mean- 
square speed of a free particle is maintained unaltered ; and this simply because the 
time during which each particle is free is a smaller fraction of the whole time. 
But when the whole kinetic energy is treated as a constant (as it must be in an 
Isothermal, when that energy is taken as measuring the absolute temperature), it is 
clear that isothermal compression must reduce the value of E. It further follows that 
the temperature of a gas might be enormously raised if its volume were sufficiently 
reduced by the process (capable of being carried out by Clerk- Maxwell's Demons) of 
advancing, at every instant, those infinitesimal portions of the containing walls on which 
no impact is impending. This is certainly not probable. If, on the other hand, we were 
to look at the matter from the point of view of intense inter-molecular repulsion (such as, 
for instance, Clerk-Maxwell's well-known hypothesis of repulsion inversely as the fifth 
power of the distance, which was so enthusiastically lauded by Boltzmann), we should be 
led to the very singular conclusion that such an assemblage of particles might possibly 
be cooled even by ordinary compression ; certainly that the Demons could immensely 
cool it by diminishing its volume without doing work upon it. 

If this mode of reasoning be deemed unsatisfactory, we may at once fall back on 
thermodynamic principles ; for these show that a gas could not be in equilibrium if 
either external, or molecular, potential could establish a difference of temperature from 
one region of it to another. For it must be carefully remembered (though it is very often 
forgotten) that temperature-differences essentially involve the transference of heat, on the 
whole, in one direction or the other between bodies in contact : — so that if there be a 
cause which can produce these temperature-differences, it is to be regarded as a source of 
at least restoration of energy. Let the contents of equal volumes at different parts of a 
tall column of gas under constant gravity be compared. In each the pressure may be 
regarded, so far as it is due to the external potential, as being applied by bounding* 
walls. But the temperature is the same in each, and the only other quantity which is 
the same in each is E. For, as the particles are free to travel from point to point 
throughout the whole extent of the group, the average value of E must be the same for 
all ; and, therefore, in regions where the density is small, it must be that of free particles : 
— i.e., absolute temperature. 

71. For the isothermal formation of liquid, heat must in all cases be taken from the 
group. This must have the effect of diminishing the value of E. Hence, in a liquid, the 
temperature is no longer measured by E, but by E + c, where c is a quantity whose value 
increases steadily, as the temperature is lowered, from the value zero at the critical point. 
Thus, since of course we must take the physical fact of the existence of liquids as a new 
datum in our calculations, and with it the agglomeration into doublets, triplets, &c. 
(whose share of the average energy differs in general from that of their components when 



268 PROFESSOR TAIT ON THE 

free), we see that the state of aggregation which we call liquid is such that, as it is made 
colder and colder, a particle which can escape from it requires to have more and more 
than its average share of the non-molecular part of the energy. 

We might be tempted to generalise further, and to speculate on the limiting condi- 
tions between the liquid and the solid states. But these, and a host of other curious 
and important matters suggested by the present speculation, prominent among which 
is the question of the density of saturated vapour at different temperatures (with the 
mechanism of the equilibrium of temperature between the liquid and the vapour), must 
be deferred to the next part of this paper. It is sufficient to point out here how 
satisfactorily the present mode of regarding the subject fits itself to the grand facts 
regarding latent heat, and to its steady diminution as the pressure under which ebulli- 
tion takes place is gradually raised to the critical value. What we are called upon to do 
now is to justify, by comparison with experiment, the hypothesis which we have adopted 
as to the proper physical definition of temperature, and the form of the virial equation to 
which it has led us. If we have any measure of success in this, we may regard the 
main difficulty of at least the elements of these further problems as having been to 
some extent removed. 

What has been said above leads us, in the succeeding developments, to write (so long 
at least as we are dealing with vapour or gas) 

where t is the absolute temperature, and R (whose employment is now totally changed) 
is practically the rate of increase of pressure with temperature at unit volume, under 
ordinary conditions. 



XXIL — The Equation of Isothermals. 

72. Assuming the definition of temperature given in last section, the virial equation 
of § 70 becomes 

1w =r(i+^->+4- — A_. 

\ v + a/ v + y v + a 

For the minimax, which occurs at the critical point, we must have simultaneously 

dv ' dv' 2 
But 



dp _ A-~Re t C 
V dv +P ~(v + af (v+y) 2 ' 

A o.o#_ gA-R e ; 2C 
dv 2 ^ dv (v + o) s " r («+7) s 



FOUNDATIONS OF THE KINETIC THEORY OF GASES. 269 

Denoting by a bar quantities referring to the critical point, these equations give 

_ = A-Re£ _ C 

Q A-Rei C 



(v + a) 3 (v + yf 
whence 

A--Ret= P (d + a)3 , C = P(r ° +ry)S 
a—y a— 7 

But the first equation of this section can be written as 

1T A-Re?. 



pv 



=K(i+^)(t-t) + m- J ^+-SL 

\ v + aP v + a v+<y 



+7 



By the help of the values of A — Ret, and C, just found, and the further condition that 
p, v, t satisfy this general equation, we can easily put it in the form 

p=p h. <?-*Y > R(l + 4-Y— * (C) 

r r \ v(v + a)(v+y)/ V v + a) v v ' 

There are seven constants in this equation : — viz., p, v, t, a, y, e, and B, ; but there are 
two relations among them, one furnished by the usual condition that the gas treated has 
unit volume at 0° C, and 1 atm. ; the other (from the conditions of the minimax) being 

3v + a + y = — - 
P 

73. If we compare (C) with the corresponding forms of the equations of Van der 
Waals and Clausius ((A) and (B) of § 66 above) we see that all three agree in a remark- 
able manner as to the form of the equation of the critical isothermal. In fact, the only 
difference is that in (C) the divisor of (v — v) z contains three distinct factors, while in 
each of (A) and (B) two of the three factors are equal. It is quite otherwise with the 
term which expresses the difference of ordinates between the critical isothermal and any 
other of the series : — so that even if all three equations agreed in giving the correct form 
of the critical isothermal no two of them could agree for any other. 

XXIII. — Comparison with Experiment. 

74. We must now compare our formula with experiment. And here I have been 
exceptionally fortunate, as the kindness of M. Amagat has not only provided me with a 
complete set of values of pv in terms of p for C0 2 between the limits 1 to 1000 atm. and 
0° to 100° C, but has further replied to my request for a set of values of p, at different 
temperatures, for certain special values of v. This important table I give in full, inserting 
columns of differences. It is very much better adapted than the former to numerical 
calculation, as the form of the virial equation requires that v should, for this purpose, 
be treated as the independent variable. 



270 PROFESSOR TAIT ON THE 

Pressure of C0. 2 in terms of Volume and Temperature (Amagat). 

At 0° C. and 1 atm. the volume is unity. After the experiments were completed the C0 2 was tested, and left 

O'000-l of its volume when absorbed by potash. 
The interpolated columns are differences (or average differences, if in brackets) of pressure for 

10° at constant volume. 

Vol. -023S5 -01636 -013 -01 -00768 -00578 -00428 -00316 -0025 -002 -00187 



<5 


31 


o 


34-4 


7-4 




10 




10 




10 




10 


10 


34-4 


10 








307-5 

96-6 


10 


33 


o 


41 -S 


33 


44-4 


6-7 




11-9 




12 




12 


12 


44-4 


12 








404 

111! 


20 


35 




45-1 




51 -1 




56-3 




56-4 










56-4 




64 




300 


520 






2 




32 




5-4 




G-5 




11-9 




143 


14 3 




15 1 




45 


84 


107 5 


30 


37 




48-3 




55-5 




62-8 




68-3 




70-7 






71-5 




109 




384 


627 5 


32 


37-4 




49 




56-4 




64-1 




70 




73-7 




74-6 


77 












35 


38 




49-9 




57-6 




65-8 




72-6 




77-2 




79-5 


84-7 
















2 




3-1 




4 2 




5-8 




8-3 




12-4 


171 




26-5 




46 


86-5 


122 5 


40 


39 




SI -4 




59-7 




68-6 




76-6 




83-1 




87-8 


98 




155 




470-5 


750 






1-9 




31 




4 1 




5-9 




8-2 




11-6 


17-0 




27-3 




40 


S9-5 


106-i 


50 


40-9 




54-5 




63-8 




74-5 




84-8 




94-7 




104-8 


125-3 




201 




560 


856-5 






1-9 




31 




4-0 




5 7 




8-0 




11-5 


17-1 




28-5 




49-5 


91 


97 


60 


42-8 




57-6 




67-8 




80-2 




92-8 




106-2 




121-9 


153-8 




250-5 




651 


953-5 






1-9 




3-0 




4-0 




5-6 




7-8 




11-3 


17-0 




29-4 




48 


94 




70 


44-7 




60-6 




71-8 




85-8 




100-6 




117-5 




138-9 


183-2 




298-5 




745 








1-9 




2-9 




3-9 




5-5 




7-6 




11-3 


17-4 




28-3 




47-5 


88-5 




80 


46-6 




63-5 




75-7 




91-3 




108-2 




128-8 




156-3 


211-5 




346 




832-5 








1-9 




30 




3-9 




5-4 




7-8 




11-4 


17-2 




29 




48-5 


85-5 




90 


48-5 




66-5 




79-6 




96-7 




116 




140-2 




173-5 


240-5 




394-5 




918 








2 




3-0 




4-0 




5-6 




7-8 




111 


17-6 




30-5 




49 


80 




100 


50-5 


[1-73] 


69-5 


[2-8] 


83-6 


[3-7] 


102-3 


[5-1] 


123-8 


[7-2] 


151-3 


[10-6] 


191-1 

[16-4] 


271 


[28] 


443-5 


[46-8] 


998 




137-5 


57 


[l'Sl] 


80 


[2-6] 


97-5 


[3-7] 


121-5 


[5-3] 


151 


[7-2] 


191 


[10-9] 


252-5 

[17 1] 


376 


[29-4] 


619 


[48] 






198 


68 


[1-75] 


97 


[2-5] 


120 


[3-3] 


153-5 


[4-6] 


195 


[6-G] 


257 


[9-8] 


356 

[15-6] 


554 




909 








258 


78-5 




112 




140 




181 




234-5 




316 




449-5 















It is obvious, from a glance at the columns of differences, that the change of pressure 
at constant volume, while the C0 2 is not liquid, is almost exactly proportional to the 
change of temperature. M. Amagat expressly warned me that the three last tempera- 
tures in the table are only approximate, as they were not derived from air-thermometers, 
but simply from the boiling-points of convenient substances. 

They appear to indicate a slow diminution of dp/dt (v constant) as the temperature 
is raised above 100° C, but this is beside our present purpose. 

Leaving them out of account, we find that in the range 31° to 100° C. the fluctuations 
of the changes of pressure per 10° (at constant volume) are very small, and do not seem 
to follow any law. These fluctuations besides are, especially when the volume of the gas 
is small, well within the inevitable errors of observation in a matter of such difficulty. 
Hence we take a simple average in each column ; and thus we have the following table :-- 

Average Change of Pressure per 10° of Temperature at Constant Volume, 
v -02385 01636 013 -01 "00768 -00578 -00428 -00316 0025 002 -00187 



A/> 1-93 


30 


40 


56 


7-9 


11-5 


172 


28-5 


47-8 


877 


108? 


vAp -046 


049 


052 


•056 


•061 


066 


•074 


•090 


•120 


175 


•20? 


Calc. { 046 


•049 


052 


■056 


061 


•068 


•077 


•087 


















•061 


073 


093 


122 


•175 


■20 



FOUNDATIONS OF THE KINETIC THEORY OF GASES. 271 

The numbers in the fourth row are the values of 

and those in the fifth row are from 

It is clear that these formula? give fair approximations to the data, the first for volumes 

down to 0'005 or so, the second for smaller volumes. 

Comparing with formula (C) of § 72, we see that the values of R, Re, and a are 

respectively 

0-00371, 0000021, and 0001 

for the larger volumes, and 

000371, 0000011, and -00012 

for the smaller. The values of y and D can now be determined by the relation in § 72, 
and a few experimental data. After a number of trials I arrived at 

v =0-0046, 

as most consonant with the data for larger volumes ; and I have provisionally assumed 

the value 

u = 0-004 

for the lower range of volumes, in agreement with what was said in § 69 above as to the 
probable existence of a short, horizontal, portion of the critical isothermal. The value 
of y for the first portion of the curve is found to be - 0008 ; and I have assumed it to be 
-0*0008 for the rest, thus ignoring the condition for the minimax at the commencement 
of this part of the curve. I consider this course to be fully justified by the arguments 
given in § 69 above. Thus, taking from the assumption below the value 73 atm. for the 
critical pressure, we arrive at the following equations for the parts of the critical isothermal 
which lie on opposite sides of the short, approximately straight, portion : — 



and 



1 \ t{fl + 0-001)(v + 0-0008)y 

v I2(l fr-0-004) 3 \ 

1 \ v(v-0-0012)(v-0-0008)/' 



In a careful plotting of the isothermals of C0 2 from the whole of Amagat's data 
(including, of course, those given above), I inserted, by means of differences calculated from 
the preceding formulae for dp/dt, the probable isothermal of 31° C. This is only 0°*1 
higher than the critical temperature as given by Andrews, which is certainly a little too 
low in consequence of the small admixture of air. The experimental data in the follow- 



272 PROFESSOR TAIT ON THE KINETIC THEORY OF GASES. 

incr tabic were taken directlv from the curve so drawn. They are, of course, only 
approximate : — especially for the smaller volumes, for there the curves are so steep that it 
is exceedingly difficult to obtain exact values of the ordinates for any assigned volume. 
It is also in this region that the effects of the slight trace of air are most prominent. 



Approximate Isothermal of 31° C. 
The third line is calculated from the first of the above formula?, the fourth line from the second. 

v 1 -024 02 -015 -0125 '01 -0075 006 005 0045 -004 -0035 -003 -0025 002 

p(exp.) 112 371 424 516 572 634 69*6 724 729 73 73 732 768 114 392 

J113 37-2 425 51-4 570 633 69'6 723 7295 73 7316 744 796 964 149 

2H calc -)| 73-0 732 791 117-6 377 

For volumes down to 0*0035 the agreement is practically perfect. The remainder of the 
data, even with the second formula, are not very well represented. The value of p for 
volume 0*003 has given much trouble, and constitutes a real difficulty which I do not 
at present see how to meet. It is quite possible that, in addition to the defects men 
tioned above, I may have myself introduced a more serious one by assuming too high a 
value for the lower critical volume, or by taking too low a temperature for the critical 
isothermal. Had I selected the data for the isothermal of 31°*3 or so, it is certain that 
(with a slight change in v) the agreement with the formula would have been as good as 
at present for the larger volumes, and it might have been much better for the smaller. 
But I have not leisure to undertake such tedious tentative work. As it is, the formula? 
given above represent Amagat's results from 31° to 100° C. for volumes from 1 to 0*0035, 
with a maximum error of considerably less than 1 atmosphere even at the smallest of these 
volumes. And, even with the least of the experimental volumes, the approximations to 
the corresponding (very large) pressures are nowhere in error by more than some 4 or 5 
per cent. This is at least as much as could be expected even from a purely empirical 
formula, but I hope that the relations given above (though still extremely imperfect) may 
be found to have higher claims to reception. 

[Since the above was put in type it has occurred to me that this remarkable agree- 
ment, between the results of experiment on a compound gas. and those of a formula 
deduced from the behaviour of hard, spherical, particles, may be traced to the fact that 
the virial method is applicable, not only to the whole group of particles but (at every 
instant) to the free particles, doublets, triplets, &c, in so far as the internal relations 
of each are concerned. Hence the terms due to vibrations, rotations, and stresses, in 
free particles, doublets, &c, will on the average cancel one another in the complete 
virial equation. How far this statement can be extended to particles which are not 
quite free will be discussed in the next instalment. 5/6/91.] 



( 273 ) 



XL — Anatomical Description of Two New Genera of Aquatic Oligochwta. By Frank E. 
Beddard, M.A. (Oxon.), F.Z.S., Prosector of the Zoological Society of London, 
and Lecturer on Biology at Guy's Hospital. (With Three Plates). 

(Read December 1, 1890.) 

At present our knowledge of the exotic genera of the aquatic Oligochseta is not very 
far advanced. During the last twenty years there has been a considerable accumulation 
of descriptions of exotic Earthworms, but the lower Oligochseta have been much less 
studied. The principal investigations into this group have been carried on by Eisen, who 
has made us acquainted with a number of interesting forms, belonging to the families 
Tubificidse and Lumbriculidse, from North America. Other naturalists, such as Leidy, 
have also dealt with the Oligochsetous fauna of that country ; but their papers have 
chiefly had for their object the discrimination of genera and species, and are not so much 
concerned with the description and delineation of anatomical structure. Beyond the 
series of papers published by the above-mentioned authors, we have only a few scattered 
memoirs by other writers upon exotic species of " Limicolous " Oligochseta. 

Having recently been awarded, by the Government Grant Committee of the Eoyal 
Society, a sum of money to assist me in the investigation of the Oligochseta, I have been 
anxious not to limit myself to Earthworms, but to obtain as many specimens of the 
aquatic forms as possible. In the following pages I describe two new genera from New 
Zealand, and I hope to be able to offer to this Society later an account of the genus 
Ocnerodrilus, of which I have received living examples from British Guiana. 



DESCRIPTION OF PHREODRILUS SUBTERRANEUS, nov. gen. n.sp. 

Concerning the locality and habits of this worm, Mr W. W. Smith of Ashburton, 
New Zealand, to whom I am much indebted for two specimens, writes as follows : — 

"The two examples of the subterranean species came up in the water of a well near 
here. They are occasionally pumped up from various depths, according to the depth the 
pipe is driven to reach the ' flow.' Their habits at great depths in the shingle of the 
Canterbury Plains must be very remarkable, as all their motions are peculiarly snake- 
like, and they are extremely nimble and rapid in moving through the water." 

The worms are described by Mr Smith as being of a " fleshy red " colour during 
life. Each measures about 2 inches in length ; even when preserved they have a 
graceful appearance, due to the delicate, almost transparent, body walls, and to the pro- 
jection of the long setse of the dorsal rows. 

VOL. XXXVI. PART II. (NO. 11). 2 T 



274 MR FRANK E. BEDDARD 

§ External Characters. 

The characters of the setce alone show that this Annelid conforms to no genus of which 
we have any adequate description. As in the majority of the Tubificidse and the 
Xaidomorpha, the dorsal setse are capilliform ; but in Phreodrilus there is only a single 
dorsal seta on each side of the body in the posterior segments. These setse have the form 
which is illustrated in fig. I, a. The portion implanted in the body is straight and of 
some thickness ; the free portion is slightly curved and tapers gradually towards its 
extremity. Each of these setse was invariably accompanied by two reserve setse of the 
same form, one on each side. In no instance did I observe more than a single mature 
seta belonging to each of the two dorsal series. On the other hand, the ventral setse were 
as invariably paired. The setse of the ventral series (see fig. 1, b) are of two kinds, a 
single seta of each kind are found in every pair. In both cases the setse approximate in 
shape to those of the Lumbriculidse and of Earthworms ; the extremity is not bifid, and 
shows no traces of having been worn down. The embedded portion of the seta is nearly 
straight, but the free portion is much curved — more so than in the setse of the two 
groups referred to. This, however, only applies to the larger of the two setse in each 
pair ; the smaller seta has a less marked curvature. I could observe no difference in the 
setse in the different regions of the body ; but as the worm was not fully mature, it does 
not follow that such differences may not be developed later. 

In every case the setse protruded from the apices of well-marked papillse. 

The prostomium is obtuse, ending in a wide truncated anterior margin. 

The clitellum was visible in neither of the two specimens. 

The male genital apertures are paired, and lie on segment XII, in front of the 
ventral setse. 

The oviducal pores occupy a corresponding position in the interval between 
segments XII/XIII. 

The spermathecal pores lie in front of the dorsal setse of segment XIII. 

§ Integument. 

The integument had the same structure throughout. In neither of the specimens 
which I examined was the clitellum developed, nor was there the very least indication of 
the position of this organ, such as is sometimes afforded in immature Oligochseta. It is 
evident therefore, that Phreodrilus, like some other genera, may reach a considerable 
degree of sexual maturity of the internal organs without a corresponding development of 
the clitellum. As Mr Smith has very kindly promised me to look out for some more 
specimens of this very interesting Annelid, I may be able at some future time to fill up 
this and other blanks in the present Memoir. The integument is covered externally by 
the usual chitinoue layer, and the epidermis presents no specially noteworthy differences 
from other Oligochceta. The glandular cells were, however, remarkably clear and free 



ON TWO NEW GENERA OF AQUATIC OLIGOCH^ETA. 275 

from granules, and the interstitial cells seemed to be fewer in number than is ordinarily 
the case. 

The transverse muscular layer is only about two fibres wide. The longitudinal 
muscles consist, as in other of the lower Oligochseta, of a row of muscle-plates, indicated 
in fig. 14. These show in transverse sections a disposition to curl up at the free edge. 
Isolated fragments of the longitudinal muscle lamellae are illustrated in fig. 15. They 
are darkly stained and show no recognisable fibrillation. 

§ Nephridia. 

These organs commence only in the XlVth segment (in the worm with sexual organs) ; 
the whole organ is furnished with the large vesicular cells so commonly found attached 
to the nephridia of the lower Oligochseta. The funnel opens into the segment in front of 
that in which the organ lies; it is small, and is placed to the side of the nerve cord. 

§ Alimentary Tract. 

As no known genus of the aquatic Oligochseta possesses a gizzard,* it is almost 
unnecessary to state that Phreodrilus, which would certainly have been included by 
Claparede in his Oligochceta Limicolce, has no trace of such a structure. The alimentary 
canal of Phreodrilus has in other respects the usual simple structure of the lower 
Oligochseta. It is also, as in the Naidomorpha and Enchytrseidse, ciliated throughout, with 
the exception only of the buccal cavity. The cilia of the pharynx and oesophagus are 
shorter than those of the intestine, but not less obvious. The buccal cavity is dis- 
tinguished by the short columnar cells by which it is lined. It is abruptly marked off 
from the pharynx, particularly on the dorsal side ; the obvious demarcation between the 
two structures is not, however, due to a sudden change in the character of the cells, but 
to their very rapid increase in length ; the dorsal wall of the pharynx is lined by very 
tall cells, which in the space of three or four cells, change their character to the 
comparatively flattened epithelium of the buccal cavity. The posterior limits of the 
pharynx are not at all clearly marked ; the epithelium very gradually decreases in 
height, and it is impossible to fix upon any point which might be termed the junction 
of the pharynx with the oesophagus. The calibre of the intestine is greater than 
that of the oesophagus, and its walls are in the same way highly vascular. The 
transition between oesophagus and intestine is not very abrupt ; the intestine seems 
to commence in segment XIII. 

§ Vascular System. 

The vascular system in these smaller Annelids is most conveniently studied by 
examining the living worm. As, however, I am not ever likely to have an oppor- 

* The so-called gizzard of the Naidomorpha seems to be hardly comparable to the gizzard of Earthworms. 



•276 MR FRANK E. BEDDARD 

tunity of doing this, I do not hesitate to set down the facts that I have been able to 
gather from an inspection of one individual mounted in Canada balsam, and of a 
complete series of longitudinal sections of another. 

Previously to receiving, through the kindness of the author, Dr Stolc's beautifully 
illustrated Memoir upon the Tubificidse of Bohemia [5], I should have been disposed to 
consider that the presence or absence of a supra-intestinal vessel was characteristic of 
Claparede's two divisions of the Oligochceta Limicolce and Oligochceta Terricolce. The 
vessel in question occurs in so many of the former, and had not been noted in the latter. 
However, Stolc figures such a vessel in his genera Lophochceta and Bothrioneuron [5, 
pi. ii. figs. 5 and 6]. In both genera it is closely applied to the dorsal oesophageal wall 
from segment VI.-IX. ; it is furthermore very interesting to note that, as in some Earth- 
worms, # the supra-intestinal vessel is directly connected with the ventral vessel by hearts 
(one pair in LophochcBta, two in Bothrioneuron). 

In longitudinal sections of Phreodrilus two perfectly separate vessels may be 
observed running along the dorsal wall of the oesophagus. Their course is fairly 
straight, as the worm had been fortunately killed in an extended condition. The two 
vessels are different from each other in structure, and cannot therefore be confounded 
in sections, where sometimes only one of the two was visible in a particular segment. 

The vessel, which is closely applied to the dorsal wall of the oesophagus, is extremely 
thin walled and completely filled with coagulated blood. It resembles in these 
particulars the ventral blood-vessel. 

The other dorsal vessel, which is separated by some little distance from the supra- 
intestinal trunk is largely — in some places quite — empty of blood ; it has rather 
thicker walls, and is of less calibre. This latter fact is probably due to the contraction 
of the muscular fibres forming the walls of the tube. There is a certain parallelism 
here to the arteries and veins of the vertebrata. The thick-walled tube less full of blood 
after death is the artery, and the two thin- walled vessels full of blood are the veins. 
The thick-walled vessel appears to be the homologue of the dorsal vessel in Earthworms, 
while the thin wall intimately connected with the dorsal wall of the oesophagus, and 
giving off branches to it, is clearly the homologue of the supra-intestinal vessel in that 
group of worms. The dorsal vessel is lined with a layer of cells of some thickness, and 
its muscular fibres run for the most part in a circular direction. 

I have traced the dorsal vessel from the Vlth segment in front to the XVth segment 
posteriorly. I am not able to make an accurate statement as to the segment in which 
it disappears ; but it does not exist for some distance in front of the tail end, as I 
have been able to prove by transverse sections through some of the posterior segments. 

Another difference which distinguishes the dorsal from the supra-intestinal vessel 
is the fact that the latter is coated with chloragogen cells ; the peritoneal cells of the 
dorsal vessel are flattened, and have no yellowish-green granules in their interior. 

* I state the facts with due reservation. It seems to me far from improbable that the " intestinal heart" may 
ultimately prove to be connected, as they are in Eudrilidse, for example, with both dorsal and supra-intestinal trunk in 
all worms which possess the latter. 



ON TWO NEW GENERA OP AQUATIC OLIGOCH^TA. 277 

In both vessels, particularly in the supra-intestinal, it is easy to see that the blood 
is a corpusculated fluid ; here and there oval bodies, which have in every respect the 
appearance of the nuclei in the endothelial lining, may be seen embedded in the 
coagulated yellow blood. There is little doubt that Lankester's description of 
corpuscles in the Earthworm's blood will be extended to other, to perhaps all the groups 
of Oligochseta, in many of which they have been observed by Vejdovsky. 

Here and there the endothelium lining the blood-vessels — particularly at the points 
where they traverse the intersegmental septa — is thickened to form valve-like structures ; 
Vejdovsky has described and figured something of the same kind [7] in many other 
Oligochseta. These agglomerations of cells may be the localities where the blood cor- 
puscles take their origin through the rapid proliferation of the lining membrane, as 
Vejdovsky has suggested. On the other hand, the mechanical function of these valve- 
like structures, which occur in all Oligochseta that I have examined, both terrestrial and 
aquatic, must not be left out of consideration. The supra-intestinal vessel is connected 
with the blood-supply of the intestines, and it gives off from the lower side numerous 
branches which at once break up and form a plexus lying within the oesophageal or intes- 
tinal walls. The supra-intestinal vessel is also connected in the Xllth segment directly 
with the ventral vessel. This connection is effected by a pair of great coiled vessels, 
which I describe later as blood-glands. Further forward the supra-intestinal vessel ap- 
pears to have no direct connection with the ventral vessel ; there are, however, a number 
of a perivisceral trunks, thin and coiled, which surround the oesophagus and communicate 
with the ventral trunk. These take their origin from the dorsal blood-vessel. We thus 
have in Phreodrilus, as in Lophochceta and Bothrioneuron, a double system of peri- 
visceral trunks — one set connected with the dorsal and the other with the supra-intestinal 
vessel. As in Lophochceta there is only one pair of vessels belonging to the latter set. 

The arrangement of the dorsal and supra-intestinal trunks in Phreodrilus is shown 
in fig. 34 of PL III. The drawing, however, only illustrates a few segments, since I am 
at present uncertain as to the exact segment where the dorsal vessel terminates pos- 
teriorly. I have found that in front of the Vlth segment it is the only dorsally placed 
blood-vessel. In the Vlth segment the supra-intestinal finally disappears, becoming 
gradually of less and less calibre towards its termination. 

It seems to me, however, to be far from certain that the dorsal vessel of Phreodrilus 
is the homologue of the dorsal vessel in Tubifex and some of the lower forms. 
Professor Stolc's important investigations evidently show the need for a more detailed 
study of the vascular system of Tubifex and other Tubificidse ; it may prove that they 
are not without the supra-intestinal vessel of Lophochceta and Bothrioneuron. I make 
this suggestion in entire ignorance of the text of Stolc's paper, which, being in the 
Bohemian language, is absolutely inaccessible to me. In Pelodrilus, however, a new 
genus of Phreoryctidse, of which I give some account further on in the present paper, 
there certainly appears to be no trace of more than one dorsal vessel. 

The question then arises, to which of the two vessels of Phreodrilus does the dorsal vessel 



278 MR FRANK E. BEDDARD 

of Pelodrihts and other of the lower Oligochseta correspond ? The relations of the single 
dorsal vessel, which is present in the posterior segments of Phreodrilus, to the intestinal, 
su^ests that it is the equivalent of the single dorsal vessel of other Oligochseta ; in 
this case the vessel which I have termed " dorsal vessel " in the anterior segments will 
be unrepresented in these Oligochseta. There can, I think, be little doubt that the two 
dorsally placed blood-vessels of Phreodrilus are the equivalents of the two in Perichceta, 
Acanthodrilus, and a large number of Earthworms. In the simpler forms of Oligochseta, 
then, the dorsal vessel in most cases has disappeared, while the persistent supra-intestinal 
takes on its functions as well as its own. 

§ Blood-Glands. 

Many of the Lumbriculidse are provided with peculiar csecal diverticula of the dorsal 
vessel. These have been recently compared by Grobben to the "pericardial glands" 
of the Mollusca. I have myself described in Perichceta a series of "blood-glands" 
formed by a network of capillaries, with frequent dilatations crowded with corpuscles 
and surrounded by a layer of chloragogen cells, which appeared to me to be referable 
to the same category. In Phreodrilus there is a structure which is more plainly of a 
glandular nature than the vascular appendices of the Lumbriculidse or the blood-gland of 
Perichceta. In the Xllth and Xlllth segments is a wide, irregularly coiled tube of which 
a portion is illustrated in fig. 34, b.gl. I cannot be certain of its exact shape, as the 
bending and twisting was so complicated that I have hesitated to attempt a re-construc- 
tion from my sections ; this tube exists on both sides of the gut, and appears to 
connect the supra-intestinal and ventral blood-vessels. It is the morphological equivalent, 
I believe, of the perienteric vascular loop of its segment. But it evidently has a quite 
different function. 

The vessel in question has the comparatively thick muscular coat of the dorsal blood- 
vessel. Its interior is almost entirely solid, but here and there were conspicuous blood- 
clots, about the nature of which there could be no doubt ; these clots are coloured pink in 
my figure (PL I. fig. 6, hi.). 

The solid mass, which occupies the greater portion of the lumen of the tube, is 
made up of cells. The arrangement of these cells seems to indicate that they are simply 
the lining of the vessel which has, for the most part, become so thick as to occlude 
the lumen, or nearly so. The cells are large and vesicular ; they are almost unstained, 
only the nucleus having been acted upon after a fairly long immersion in borax 
carmine ; the cells contain a number of granules. They resemble most nearly the tall 
cells which form the valvular structures in the blood-vessels of the Oligochseta, and like 
them are probably to be looked upon as a local proliferation of the lining membrane of 
the vessel. I am not aware whether there is any special development of the lining 
epithelium of the lateral appendages of the dorsal vessel in Lumbriculus ; but I am 
inclined to believe that the two structures correspond very closely. The immensely 
larger size of the blood-gland in Phreodrilus than in the Lumbriculidae is, perhaps, 



ON TWO NEW GENERA OF AQUATIC OLIGOCH^ETA. 279 

related to the fact that there are not a large number of such bodies in the former 
genus. 

It appears to me also possible that these blood-glands are the physiological 
equivalents of the "Herzkorper" of the Enchytrseidse and some Polyehseta. The cardiac 
body in the former group is seen in two conditions — (1) a distinct, tubular, paired out- 
growth from the alimentary tract lying on its dorsal side in Buchholzia appendiculata ; 
(2) a solid rod in Mesenchytrceus extending through the greater portion of the dorsal 
vessel. Michaelsen, who discovered the body in question in Mesenchytrceus [15], describes 
and figures it as being attached to the ventral median line of the dorsal blood-vessel. He 
makes no definite statement as to its continuity with the intestinal epithelium, but con- 
siders that " it must be looked upon as an outgrowth of the intestinal epithelium into the 
dorsal vessel, and, therefore, as homologous with certain organs in certain other Enchy- 
trseidse, for example, the diverticulum of Buchholzia." In a later paper Miohaelsen [14] 
noted the presence of a similar body in the dorsal vessel of Stercutus niveus. These dis- 
coveries of Michaelsen are of great interest, as they confirm the suggestion of Horst 
[23] that the cardiac body in certain Polyehseta is the homologue of the dorsal diverti- 
culum of Buchholzia appendiculata. The structure of the cardiac body in Mesenchytrceus 
is evidently much like that of Pectinaria belgica. Michaelsen at first [14] inclined to 
the view that the solid cardiac body served the purpose of " purifying the blood from 
useless, perhaps injurious, substances." This was also, as Michaelsen has pointed out, 
the opinion of Claparede. 

A later suggestion of Michaelsen's, although highly ingenious, does not commend 
itself to me as an improvement upon the earlier view. He says [14, p. 485]: — " Concerning 
the meaning of the cardiac body I have lately formed an opinion which I will take this 
opportunity of detailing. It is clear that undulatory contractions of a tube will drive 
forward the fluid contained in that tube with a vigour proportionate to the narrowing 
of the tube during each pulsation. If the lumen is fairly wide at the maximum of 
contraction, a portion of the fluid contents will find a way out in the opposite 
direction ; this backward flow will be completely hindered if the lumen is absolutely 
obliterated during contraction. On the other hand, it is clear that long before this 
point is reached the capability of contraction possessed by the tube will have found 
its limits. To remove this difficulty dependent upon the limitation of contractility 
and preventing a complete pulsation, a compact rod is formed in the tube. By this 
means the walls of the tube, by closing round the rod, can obliterate the lumen of 
the tube without reaching the limits of their power of contracting." 

This argument might, of course, be applied to the explanation of the lateral 
cardiac bodies (or blood-glands, as I prefer to term them) of Phreodrilus ; but the 
unequal distribution of granules, and the large size of the cells, and their apparently 
vesicular nature, is against a purely mechanical interpretation of their function. 

Mr Cunningham has objected [22] to Horst's identification of the " cardiac body" in 
the Chlorhsemidse with the gut diverticulum of the Enchytrseid, on the ground that there 



2S0 MR FRANK E. BEDDARD 

is demonstrably no connection between the " cardiac body" and the gut wall in the 
former. This can, I think, be hardly regarded as an objection, though it has, of course, 
to be proved that this connection does exist at some time or other in Mesenehytrceus and 
Stercutus. 

It seems to me by no means impossible that the paired blood-glands of Phreodrilus 
may have been originally paired diverticula — like the calciferous glands — and connected 
like the latter with a dorsal and ventral vessel. The change of structure has obviously 
been followed by some change of function, and I should consider that both the cardiac 
body, and the structures which I describe in the present paper, have some relation to 
the blood, as Claparede suggested. In relation to this matter I may refer to a highly 
interesting paper by Weldon on the supra-renal bodies of Bdellostoma [18]. The con- 
nection of a portion of the pronephros in that animal with the blood system, and its 
almost complete separation from the rest of the renal organ, is a parallel instance of great 
interest ; but a better analogy with the vascular glands of these Annelids is perhaps to be 
found in the thymus gland wdrich, originally a diverticulum of the gut, is converted to 
some function in relation to the vascular system, and entirely loses its connection with 
the gut. The vertebrate spleen is another organ which may be possibly foreshadowed 
in these Annelid structures. 

§ Nervous System. 

The supra-cesophageal ganglia lie between the first and second segments above the 
dorsal vessel ; a strong nerve leads frOm the fore part of the brain to a patch of 
modified epithelium upon the dorsal wall of the buccal cavity, just in the angle where 
it becomes continuous with the epidermis of the prostomium. In my description of 
the integument, I have not referred to this organ, which appears to be of a sensory 
nature. 

The ventral chain commences in the Ilnd segment. In each segment three 
pairs of nerves are given off at approximately equidistant intervals, which at once 
perforate the integument, into which they can only be followed for a very short 
distance; besides these, separate branches supply the dissepiments. The branches of 
the nerve cord furnish characters which appear to be of a certain value for systematic 
purposes. 

Three equidistant pairs of nerves have been stated to be given off in each segment 
of Tubifex rivulorum [see d'Udekem, pi. i. fig. 8], and the same number in several of the 
genera of Tubificidas described by Stolc [5] with the addition of dissepimental nerves 
which were overlooked by d'Udekem in Tubifex, as Vejdovsky has pointed out [7, see 
pi. viii. fig. 4]. In Lumbriculae, on the other hand, Vejdovsky could only discover a 
single pair of nerves in each segment. 

Eisen has mentioned [3 J the very anomalous fact of the absence of any branches at 
all from the ventral cord of Eclipidrilus, and has lately made the same statement with 
regard to Sutroa [4]. 



ON TWO NEW GENERA OF AQUATIC OLIGOCH^TA. 281 

I believe that the reason why Eisen discovered no lateral branches of the ventral 
cord is simply due to the fact that the worms were dissected, and not studied by 
the section method. A dissection of Phreodrilus would certainly reveal no lateral 
nerves, for these arise from the ventral surface of the cord, and at once become lost 
in the subjacent body-wall. In longitudinal sections they are easy enough to see. 

Perhaps some of the other nerves of Lumbriculus escaped Vejdovsky's notice for 
the same reason. In any case, it is noteworthy that it is in the Lumbriculidse only 
where observers have partially (?) or entirely failed to find the lateral branches ; and 
as in the remaining families they have been figured as projecting some way from the 
ventral cord [cf. for Chcetogaster, Vejdovsky [7], pi. v. fig. 4, and for Dero, Stolc, 
[6], pi. i. fig. 6], this fact is so far an indication of affinity to certain Lumbriculidse. 

As to the minute structure of the ventral nerve cord, I may mention that the 
"neurochord" is a single tube which I traced for a considerable distance forwards. 

The connection of the neurochords in Lumbricus with the processes of nerve cells, 
and the demonstration of their nervous nature, has been recently the subject of some 
admirable investigations by Friedlander. I am not aware that these discoveries 
have, as yet, been extended to the lower Oligochseta, and I may, therefore, direct 
attention to fig. 8 of Plate I., which illustrates a branch of the neurochord passing 
down at right angles to the axis of the chord. I have not, however, traced these 
branches into ganglion cells, and they seem to occur at the points where nerves are 
given off. 

§ Testes. 

The testes of Phreodrilus lie partly in segment X, but chiefly in segment XL In 
the semidiagrammatic sketch of the genitalia (fig. 5), the testis of each side is repre- 
sented as perforating the intersegmental septum between segments X and XL In 
longitudinal sections I have found a perfect continuity between the portions of the testis 
which lie in front of and behind this septum. When a section is examined that passes 
considerably to one side of the median axis of the testis, an appearance is presented of two 
distinct testes, such as Claparede described in Pachydrilus [1], depending into the ccelom 
from opposite sides of the same septum. There is, however, no doubt that in Phreodrilus 
the germinal tissue is perfectly continuous through the septum. At both extremities 
each testis is frayed out into irregularly shaped processes, which contain the germinal 
cells in the most advanced stage of development. The body cavity in the neighbourhood 
of the gonad is occupied by a quantity of developing and fully developed spermatozoa. 
I did not observe anything remarkable about the spermatozoa or their development, 
except the important fact that all stages of this development are found in the general 
body cavity. There was no trace of a sperm sac, which is a nearly universal structure 
among the Oligochseta. As ripe spermatozoa were abundant in the body cavity and in 
the circumatrial sac (see below, p. 263), I think it probable that no sperm sac other than the 
circumatrial space is ever developed. However, as the worm possessed no recognisable 

VOL. XXXVI. PART IT. (NO. 11). 2 U 



282 MR FRANK E. BEDDARD 

L'litcllum,* it is not possible to be certain about this point, though the male organs had 
every appearance of having arrived at full maturity. 

§ Vas Deferens. 

Phreodrilus is furnished with only a single pair of vas deferens funnels situated in 
segment XL The funnel of one side is illustrated in fig. 2. It is comparatively small 
and markedly cup-shaped. The funnel is lined by a single layer of epithelial cells, 
which are furnished with particularly long cilia. The length of the cilia is only paralleled 
in the case of ChcBtogaster. The funnel on each side of the body is connected with the 
vas deferens, which is a narrow tube lined by comparatively few cells (see fig. 2). In each 
case the vas deferens passes back from the funnel, and then bends round towards the septum 
separating segments XI and XII ; from this point it runs obliquely backwards, and then 
is bent upon itself and runs forwards along the side of the sac surrounding the atrium ; 
near to the ventral side of the body (see fig. 7), where the atrial sac terminates, the 
vas deferens perforates the muscular sac of the atrium ; in the atrial sac it becomes greatly 
convoluted, and I have found it impossible to make an accurate diagram of these 
convolutions. Near to the opening of the vas deferens into the atrium the cilia disappear, 
and the cells become slightly different in character. This portion of the vas deferens is 
illustrated in figs. 11, 12. 

In longitudinal sections, a large portion of the Xlth segment lying anterior to the 

circumatrial sac, is occupied by a highly convoluted tube of a different histological 

structure from the vas deferens. This tube is, in the first place, of considerably greater 

calibre than the vas deferens, and cannot, therefore, be confounded with it ; its diameter 

is perhaps three times that of the vas deferens. The structure of the tube is as follows : — 

The outer coat is formed by a layer of muscles arranged in a circular direction, and 

covered externally by a peritoneal layer, or at least by a number of nuclei, which in all 

probability belong to peritoneal cells ; inside is a single layer of epithelium, which is so 

thick as to leave for the most part only a very restricted lumen. The width of the lumen 

was found to vary in different parts of the tube. The epithelial cells are very granular, 

and thus contrast with the epithelium of the vas deferens, which is not at all granular. 

This tube ends blindly in the neighbourhood of the vas deferens funnel ; not, however, in 

the Xlth segment, but in the Xllth, just behind the septum. It is a little dilated 

at the blind extremity, and the cells are here a little more unevenly granular. The tube 

is entirely confined to the Xllth segment. When followed out it is seen to approach the 

ventral extremity of the circumatrial sac. At this point it becomes narrower, and the 

epithelium lower ; it perforates the sac, and becomes continuous with the vas deferens, 

lying in the interior of the sac close to the junction of the latter with the part that lies 

outside the sac. Here and there the interior of this blind sac contains a small mass of 

darkly stained refracting substance, which is probably the excretion of the epithelium. 

* See, however, p. 290, footnote. 



ON TWO NEW GENERA OF AQUATIC OLIGOCH^TA. 283 

The structure of this diverticulum of the sperm duct is precisely that of the spermathecse, 
which lie in the following segment — the XHIth. It is, however, of somewhat less calibre, 
otherwise it might have been supposed to be a second pair of spermathecse lying in 
the XHIth segment. 

§ Atria. 

The transition between the vas deferens and the atria is quite abrupt as regards the 
character of the epithelium lining the two tubes. But the diameter of the atrium is at 
first exactly equal to that of the vas deferens ; it becomes gradually wider, and then 
narrows again towards its external aperture, which is situated upon the Xllth segment. The 
external pores of each side of the body are quite evident in the specimen, which was 
mounted entire in Canada balsam, lying in front of the ventral pair of setae of the Xllth seg- 
ment. One remarkable point about the atrium of Phreodrilus is its great length; but instead 
of extending through a large number of segments, as in Sutroa [Eisen, 4], the entire atrium 
is contained in the Xllth segment. It is, however, coiled upon itself several times, and 
is thus able to be stowed away in one segment. The structure of the atrium is the same 
throughout. It is illustrated in fig. 4 of Plate I. ; the atrial epithelium is apparently 
composed of columnar cells, the boundaries of which were not visible in my preparations. 
The individual cells could only be separated by the nuclei, which were much more darkly 
stained than the surrounding protoplasm. The epithelium of the whole atrium was 
thrown into folds. I could detect no trace of cilia anywhere ; and, as the cilia of the 
vas deferens and other organs were beautifully preserved, I am disposed to think that the 
atrium of this genus is not ciliated during life. At the external pore the atrial epithelium 
passes without any break into the epidermis. There was no trace of a penis, or any 
specialisation in the distal section of the atrium. As has been already remarked, the 
only difference between the distal and middle region of the atrium is the less calibre of 
the former. 

The distal section of the atrium, which passes obliquely backwards from the external 
pore, in addition to its epithelial lining, is covered externally with a layer of muscular 
fibres and a thin layer of peritoneum outside of this. The muscular fibres run in a circular 
direction ; inside of them is a recognisable membrane by which they are separated from 
the epithelium. The peritoneal layer which covers the muscular layer is extremely thin. 
In sections this layer can be only detected by the nuclei, which are quite as large as the 
nuclei of the epithelium. 

At some distance from the external orifice of the atrium the muscular and peritoneal 
coats become widely separated from the epithelial layer. At this point the lumen of the 
atrium becomes suddenly contracted, as is shown in fig. 30 of Plate II. The muscular 
layer, and the peritoneum which covers it externally, becomes completely detached from 
the epithelium, and a wide space is thus left (see fig. 30, sp., and 9, sp.), which is filled 
with spermatozoa. Besides spermatozoa, which lie separately, and are not in any way 
aggregated into bundles, this space contained numerous free nuclei, which appear to have 



•Js| MR FRANK E. BEDDARD 

no connection whatever with the spermatozoa. These nuclei (fig. 16, n.) bear the closest 
possible resemblance to the nuclei of the peritoneal cells, but how they have managed to 
get into the sac in question is unintelligible to me. There is, of course, no lining of 
peritoneum to the circumatrial space, since it is simply caused by the separation between 
the muscular layer and the epithelium. There is no doubt, however, that they are merely 
nuclei, and not cells. The muscular coat surrounds the convoluted portion of the atrium 
and the greater part of the vas deferens, which lies coiled up in the same cavity. Fig. 32 
represents a longitudinal section through the space which surrounds the atrium, near to 
the periphery. The section, therefore, does not show the convolutions of the atrium or 
the vas deferens. The space is seen to be filled with spermatozoa and the mysterious 
nuclei already referred to. The section happens to have been cut rather obliquely, and in 
consequence the muscular coat is partly shown in longitudinal section. A more highly 
magnified section through the muscular layer is illustrated in fig. 33, which shows the single 
layer of circular muscular fibres in the membrane which separates them from the space. 

In many Oligochseta the vas deferens is enclosed for a greater or less extent within the 
sperm sac — for example, in Pelodrilus, to be described presently. But in Phreoclrilus there 
appears to be no question of a sperm sac surrounding the vas deferens. The space which 
I have described is simply due to the separation between the muscular coat of the atrium 
and its epithelial lining. The only other type which I can compare with Phreodrilus 
is Eclipidrilus — a most remarkable genus of Lumbriculidse which has been made known 
by Eisen. Eisen's description of the organs in question runs as follows [3, p. 6] : — " The 
efferent ducts are two, of enormous size, occupying the segments IX-XIV. The exterior 
porus of the duct is situated in the IXth segment, just behind the ventral spines. Each 
efferent duct consists of two large, rather cylindrical, saclike ducts of nearly equal size, which 
at the extremities are connected by a narrow, short tube of the same general structure as 
the rest of the organ, except being surrounded by spiral muscles. The interior extremity 
of the ducts is free, suspended in the perigastric cavity of the body, but the exterior 
extremity is, as usual, attached to the body wall, and a part of it projects beyond the 
same, forming a retractile exterior penis proper. The longest of the two bags, which con- 
stitute the efferent duct, is the one directly connected with the body wall, and is nearer 
its interior end, furnished with three very minute circular openings, through which the 
spermatozoa evidently enter. 

" Inside, and freely suspended within this exterior duct, we find another interior one, 
of very much the same form and size as the former, only it is somewhat shorter, its exterior 
extremity being free and not attached to the body wall, nor being able to be projected 
through the same. This extremity is furnished with a large circular opening. The 
inner extremity of this interior duct ends blindly, and is always full of spermatozoa, and 
serves accordingly as a true seminal vesicle, in which the spermatozoa are stored before 
they are ejected through the sexual porus. 

" The exterior duct consists of at least three different layers — one exterior epithelial 
layer ; one middle layer, much thicker than the others, consisting of heavy longitudinal 



ON TWO NEW GENERA OF AQUATIC OLIGOCH^ETA. 285 

muscles ; and one interior membranous layer, which at the exterior extremity is separated 
from the two former ones, and forms by itself a pellucid membranous penis at times 
found projected through the sexual porus. The two exterior ones of these layers connect 
directly with the body wall, of which they seem to be a mere continuation. This 
structure of the exterior duct is the same throughout the organ, except at the narrow 
tube, which connects the two sacs (the seminal vesicle and the atrium), which former is 
surrounded by numerous spiral muscles very similar to those found in Camptodrilus. 

" If we therefore consider the course a spermatozoon can take, after having escaped 
from the testes, we find that the efferent duct is most admirably adapted to the purpose 
of transmitting and storing spermatozoa. A spermatozoon after having entered the 
efferent duct, through one of the three small circular openings, passes down the exterior 
duct towards the sexual porus, but is on its way intercepted by the exterior opening of 
the inner duct, and attracted by the ciliated epithelium of its inner surface, ascends 
through the exterior part of the duct up through the narrow tube, and is finally lodged in 
the seminal vesicle, and is here stored until of future use. The spiral muscles round the 
narrow tube, which can easily be contracted, serve evidently to keep the spermatozoa in 
the seminal vesicle, and prevent them from escaping in undue time. From the form and 
free suspension of the inner duct, it may easily be seen that its free exterior extremity 
can be considerably extended clear down to the penis proper at the moment of copulation." 

The account given by Eisen is in some respects incomplete, owing to the fact that his 
investigations were made upon the living worm. It appears, however, that in Ecli- 
■pidrilus the vas deferens and atrium is entirely surrounded by a sac, which is of a 
muscular nature, and may possibly be the exact equivalent of the sac which has been 
described in this paper in Phreodrilus. 

But Eisen has not described in Eclipidrilus any funnel such as I have described in 
Phreodrilus ; on the other hand, he has figured three ciliated apertures leading directly 
from the body cavity into the circumatrial space. Since making myself acquainted with 
Eisen's very interesting paper, I have carefully examined my sections, with a view to 
discovering if any apertures of this nature exist in Phreodrilus. I cannot, however, 
find anything of the kind, and the difficulty of understanding how the spermatozoa get 
into the space which surrounds the atrium, and how the spermatozoa get to the exterior, 
is still for me unsolved. 

The male efferent apparatus of Phreodrilus thus differs in many details from that 
of any other genus of Oligochseta. It may present points of agreement with Ecli- 
pidrilus, but I am inclined to agree with Vejdovsky when he says that the data 
given by Eisen require confirmation, as the facts described are so very extraordinary. 
Nevertheless the account given by Eisen, and quoted in full above, is clear and agrees 
plainly with his figures. As to Phreodrilus, in the first place, the great length of the 
atrium coiled up itself several times is peculiar, at any rate among the aquatic 
Oligochseta. The absence of any structure comparable to a penis removes Phreodrilus 



2$$ MR FRANK E. BEDDARD 

from the neighbourhood of the Tubificidse and brings it nearer to the Lumbriculidse, 
or the Naidomorpha and some of the lowest groups. 

The presence of a diverticulum of the vas deferens is a perfectly unique character 
among the Oligochasta. I am inclined to suspect that it may serve as a sperm reservoir ; 
but this is only conjecture, as no trace of spermatozoa were discovered in the tube. 

The fact that this diverticulum is connected with the vas deferens suggests that it 
may be possibly the representative of the second vas deferens, present in the Lumbriculidse 
and most Earthworms, converted to another function. 

In some Oligochaeta, for example in Perichceta, Pontodrilus, &c, the atrium is a 
diverticulum of the vas deferens, but there can be no question of any such condition in 
Phreodrilus, since a structure evidently corresponding to the atrium is present in addition 
to this diverticulum. 

The coiling of the diverticulum is just as striking as the coiling of the vas deferens, 
but it does not extend into the following segment as the second vas deferens of a 
Lumbriculid would. However, Sutroa, which is clearly a member of the latter group, 
though a somewhat aberrant one, has two pairs of vasa deferentia, which all open into 
the same segment. 

This interpretation of the diverticulum acquires a fresh significance when its resem- 
blance in structure to the spermathecse is borne in mind ; a separation from the vas 
deferens and the acquirement of an independent opening would result in the formation of 
a structure which would be undoubtedly regarded as a spermatheca. There is not, how- 
ever, at present any Oligochset known in which the spermatheca opens into the same 
segment as the atrium. 

The development of spermathecse as appendages of the male and female ducts seems to 
be a reasonable conception of their origin, but a great many more facts are required before 
they can be satisfactorily connected with these ducts. In the meantime I would again 
emphasise the peculiarities of the vasa deferentia in Phreodrilus, which seem to offer a 
hint that this is the direction in which the explanation of the origin of the spermatheca is 
to be sought. 

One of the most remarkable features about the atrium is the development of a special 
sac round the junction of the atrium and the vas deferens, including the greater part of 
both tubes. The structure in question does not appear to me to be a ccelomic sac, but 
simply a space caused by the separation of the muscular wall from the atrium, which has 
then undergone an increase in length resulting in the coiling of the tube within the 
muscular sac. Apart from Eclipidrilus, which I have already mentioned, there is no 
other Oligochset which shows anything analogous to this very extraordinary state of 
affairs. If my interpretation of the nature of the circumatrial sac be correct, it is clear 
that there are no grounds for comparing it with the ccelomic spaces surrounding the 
genitalia in certain Eudrilids, notably in Hyperiodrilus and Heliodrilus [Beddard, 11]. 
For in these cases there can be no doubt whatever that the sacs which enclose the sper- 
matheese and other organs are ccelomic spaces which have been differentiated round them. 



ON TWO NEW GENERA OF AQUATIC OLIGOCHSETA. 287 

The numerous free nuclei which lie in the circumatrial sac are very remarkable. They 
agree very closely in general appearance with the nuclei of the peritoneal cells which 
cover the sac externally ; but I have not found any such a layer of nuclei lining the 
internal wall of the sac. Although the nuclei lie among the spermatozoa, it has not 
appeared to me that there is any connection between the two. And as the spermatozoa, 
which I found abundantly in all stages of development in the Xth and Xlth segments, 
develop in the usual way in which the spermatozoa of Earthworms and other Oligochseta 
have been shown to develop, I cannot see how any such nuclei can be traced to the 
germinal cells. Moreover, I could detect no such nuclei among the sperm polyplasts so 
abundantly present in segments X and XI. 

Another noteworthy point about the atrium of this Annelid is the total absence of 
cilia from its lining epithelium ; the vas deferens is of course ciliated, but not the atrium 
or the appendix of the vas deferens. The ciliation of the atrium is so constant a feature 
of the lower Oligochseta that it is remarkable to find an exception to the rule in a form 
like Phreodrilus, which perhaps comes nearer to the Naidomorpha than to any other group. 

§ Ovaries. 

These gonads (fig. 5, ov.) are paired, and arise from the intersegmental septum between 
segments XI/XII in a position corresponding to that of the testes ; they lie therefore in the 
Xllth segment below the funnel of the vas deferens ; but they do not also extend into the 
segment in front as the testes do. The ovaries are limited to the Xllth segment. 

I have been able to observe certain stages in the development of the ova, which shows 
a remarkable parallelism to the development of the spermatozoa. 

Towards the attachment of the ovary, the cell outlines were indistinguishable, and the 
nuclei alone indicated the separate cells ; the rest of the ovary was made up of spherical 
groups of cells presenting the structure shown in fig. 37, a ; each of the cells is pear- 
shaped, the nucleus being in every case embedded in the wide end of the cell ; the 
apices of the cells nearly meet in the centre of each sphere, where there is a minute 
portion of non-nucleated protoplasm, more plainly to be seen in the later stages of develop- 
ment. These spherules become detached from the ovary, and undergo their further 
development in the body cavity. 

Many clumps of developing ova were to be seen lying in various parts of the ccelom of 
segment XII. I found others (not so many) in segment XI among the developing sper- 
matozoa. This may possibly be due to the presence of an additional pair of ovaries belonging 
to the Xlth segment, but I have no other evidence which points to such a conclusion. 

There was no trace of any egg sac other than a pushing out of the intersegmental sep- 
tum between segments XII and XIII, and this is illustrated in fig. 31. Later, it may be 
that this pushing out of the septum results in the formation of a nearly closed egg sac. 
But in my specimen it opened by a very wide mouth into the cavity of segment XII. 
The interior of this sac was nearly full of groups of developing ova. 



288 MR FRANK E. BEDDARD 

The further stages in the development of the ova are as follows : — The central mass of 
protoplasm is always without a nucleus, but soon comes to be clearly separated from the 
cells surrounding it ; it assumes a polygonal form, which is illustrated in fig. S7,b,c. The 
surrounding cells, which form a complete investment for the centre mass, lose their 
pear-shaped outline, and become angular when they are in contact with the neighbouring 
cells and with the central mass of protoplasm. The outer surface is rounded and convex. 

The nuclei of the cells are very large and unstained, except for a number of rounded 
granules, of which one is markedly larger than the rest, and corresponds in all probability 
to the nucleolus. The protoplasm of the cells is, on the contrary, deeply and uniformly 
stained. 

One of the cells then (see fig. 37, c) begins to enlarge, and eventually becomes larger (d) 
than the entire mass of the remaining cells with which it rests in contact. I presume that 
all of the cells become ova in time, but only one (rarely two) was developed at the 
same time. I have no facts relating to the further development of the ova, which pro- 
bably become a good deal larger, and filled with yolk. 

Each sphere of developing germinal cells is covered externally by a few nuclei 
(n, fig. 37), which form a kind of follicle. 

In the early and middle stages, the resemblance of the sphere to a sperm polyplast 
is extremely close. In both we have a central mass of non-nucleated protoplasm sur- 
rounded by a single layer of germinal cells, which become ova or spermatozoa, as the case 
may be. 

The mode of development of the egg in the Oligochseta is treated of by Vejdovsky 
[7] in his Monograph, chiefly from his own observations, which are the most important 
in this subject. The development of the ova in Phreodrilus is in most respects 
similar to the development of the ova in certain Enchytrseidse, which is briefly referred to 
by Vejdovsky in the work mentioned, and more fully in his " Monographic der 
Encliytr widen." The cells of the ovary in certain Enchytrseids are arranged in groups 
exactly as they are in Phreodrilus, but there is only a single string of these groups 
of cells instead of a large mass, such as I describe in the present paper. 

The development of the ova in the genus Ilyodrilus appears from the figures of Stolc 
[5] to be very similar to Phreodrilus. 

§ Oviduct. 

The oviduct, as in the Lumbriculidse and Tubificidse, is very short, and consists of little 
more than the funnel ; the duct leading to the exterior is very short. The oviduct 
funnel opens into the Xllth segment, and the external pore lies on the boundary line 
between this segment and the XHIth. In the only specimen (see fig. 18) which I 
studied by means of sections, the oviduct was not ciliated, and the funnel also had 
evidently not arrived at maturity. It is interesting to note that the female organs 
of this worm are not fully mature at the same time as the male organs ; there appears 
to be here, as in other hermaphrodite organisms, a dichogamy. 



ON TWO NEW GENEKA OF AQUATIC OLIGOCH^TA. 289 

§ Spermathecce. 

There is only a single pair of spermathecse in this genus, which are situated in the 
Xlllth segment (fig. 5, sp.) ; at least, their external orifice is placed in this segment, in 
front of the dorsal setae. The pouches themselves are extraordinarily elongated, and 
extend into the XVth segment. 

Each spermatheca is coiled upon itself once or twice ; the lumen is at first tolerably 
wide and the external pore is large. At this point the epidermis can be seen to be con- 
tinuous with the cellular lining of the spermatheca. One spermatheca had the form 
illustrated in figs. 5, 10. The former figure represents the genitalia of Phreodrilus 
as they would be seen on a dissection of the worm ; it is, however, compiled from a 
single continuous series of longitudinal sections, of which not a single one was missing. 
Fig. 10 represents the spermatheca in longitudinal section. The wider portion of the 
spermatheca referred to passes back towards the posterior end of segment XIII ; it is 
then bent upon itself, and runs back to a point about opposite to the external orifice. 
The spermatheca then passes down to the ventral side of the body with a gradually 
decreasing lumen ; arrived at this point it comes to lie between the ventral blood- 
vessel and the nerve cord ; the tube is then directed backwards, running still between 
the blood-vessel and the nerve, and perforates septum XIII/XIV ; in the XlVth 
segment the spermatheca again becomes wider, and lies no longer beneath the ven- 
tral blood-vessel ; its course is nearly perfectly straight, and after perforating inter- 
segmental septum XIV/XV without any decrease of its width, it terminates 
blindly in the interior of the XVth segment at a little distance from the septum last 
traversed. The constriction of the spermatheca in the middle, which amounts to an 
actual occlusion of the lumen in the individual studied by me, recalls the spermatheca of 
Anachceta Eiseni figured by Vejdovsky [8, pi. vii. fig. 22]. 

I could not discover any spermatozoa in either of the two spermathecse, and they pre- 
sent an appearance of immaturity, owing to the non-glandular character of the lining- 
epithelium. The immaturity of the spermathecse, therefore, corresponds to the immature 
condition of the ova and oviducts. 

The minute structure of the spermatheca presents no character of any particular 
importance. It is covered externally by a circular layer of muscles, and has a lining of a 
single layer of cells. Its structure corresponds exactly to that of the diverticulum of the 
vas deferens. 

The position of the spermathecse is that of certain of the Lumbriculidse. In all the lower 
groups of Oligochseta, as well as in all Earthworms excepting only Microchcela, Brachy- 
drilus, and some of the Eudrilidse, the spermathecse lie in front of the ovarian segment. 

Furthermore, the great length of the spermathecse, and the fact that they extend 
through more than one segment, is a peculiarity almost confined to the genus Phreodrilus. 
The only other example that I can recall is the Eudrilid Heliodrilus [see Beddard, 11], 
where the spermatheca extends through three or four segments. 

VOL. XXXVI. PART II. (NO. 11). 2 X 



290 MR FRANK E. BEDDARD 



AFFINITIES OF PHREODRILUS. 



This very remarkable genus does not fit in perfectly with any single one of the 
known families of Oligochaeta. The characters of the setae remove it from any of these 
families, and are alone sufficient far the creation of a new family. 

The elongated setae of the dorsal rows agree fairly closely with the " Haarborsten" 
of the Tubificidae, many Naids and Aeolosoma, but the ventral setae have an altogether 
peculiar form. 

Turning to internal characters, the same difficulty is met with in referring Phreo- 
drilus to any of the seven well characterised families into which the aquatic Oligochaeta fall. 

The single pair of funnels opening into the Xlth segment, recalls the Enchytraeidae ; 
but, as Michaelsen has pointed out the variability of the position of these essential 
organs in closely allied forms, Phreodrilus may be also compared in these particulars to 
the Tubificidae and the lower forms generally. The long atrium, apart from the curious 
sac in which it is enveloped, is perhaps more like that of the Tubificidae, but it is not 
furnished with a prostate, nor with a penis. # However, in Ilyodrilus both these structures 
appear to be wanting. Although this latter genus is included by Stolc in his recent 
Monograph of the Bohemian Tubificidae [5], it is placed in a special sub-family. I 
imagine that if it were not for the position of the genitalia, the worm would be referred 
to the Naidomorpha. 

The ciliation of the entire alimentary canal, with the exception only of the buccal 
cavity, is an important point of resemblance between Phreodrilus and the Naidomorpha, 
as well as other lower families of Oligochaeta. 

In short, it does not seem to me to be possible to refer this genus to any known 
family, without extending the definition of that family so as to include many of the 
peculiar characters of Phreodrilus. 

I therefore propose the following definition of a new family, which is compiled on 
the same lines as Vejdovsky's definitions of the remaining families of aquatic Oligochaeta. 

Fam. Phreodrilidce, n. fam. 

Setae in four rows ; the dorsal setae long and capilliform, two to each bundle in the 
anterior segments ; only one posteriorly. Ventral setae of two kinds — one of each kind in 
each row — curved and S-shaped without notched extremity. 

Testes in X and XI forming a continuous mass on each side, perforating septum 
X/XI ; ovaries in XII ; development of ova as in Enchytraeidae and Ilyodrilus ; 
sperm duct much coiled, opening by an atrium also much coiled on to segment XII ; 
atrium and the greater part of sperm duct inclosed in a muscular sac derived from 

* Since the above was written, I have received a more fully adult specimen, in which one of the segments in the 
neighbourhood of the Xlllth was furnished with a pair of tubular processes. An unfortunate accident in the prepara- 
tion of this specimen for section cutting prevented me from ascertaining whether these are merely the everted atria, 
as I believe, or are penes. The clitellum in this specimen apparently occupied about four segments, commencing at 
the Xllth or Xlllth. 



ON TWO NEW GENERA OF AQUATIC OLIGOCHvETA. 291 

muscular tunic of atrium ; sperm duct furnished with a long convoluted diverticulum ; 
oviducts opening on to intersegmental groove XII/XIII ; alimentary tract ciliated 
throughout the entire length with the exception of the buccal cavity. 

Genus Phreodrilus, nov. gen. 

A single pair of very elongated and coiled spermathecse, opening on to exterior in 
front of dorsal setse of segment XIII. Septal glands present, connected with pharynx. 
Nephriclia wanting in anterior segments. No special sperm sacs or egg sacs. (?) 

Phreodrilus subterraneus, n.sp. 

Long, slender worm about 2 inches long ; chloragogen cells upon oesophagus com- 
mence towards end of segment VI. Habitat, New Zealand. 

The above definitions must naturally be considered as very temporary ; they will no 
doubt require revision in the event of the discovery of an allied form. 

I should regard the Phreodrilidse as a very low form of Oligochseta greatly 
specialised in certain directions. I should explain, however, that in using the expression 
" low," I do not mean that this genus is in any way near the ancestral form of the 
Oligochseta. The simplicity of structure in this and other aquatic genera is rather to 
be looked upon as evidence of degeneration. The almost complete ciliation of the 
alimentary tract is a feature that Phreodrilus shares with the simpler forms ; so also is 
the very complete internal metamerism of the body ; I mean as regards the interseg- 
mental septa. Whether it actually propagates by the asexual method, is a question upon 
which I may possibly have the opportunity of reporting later ; but I am in the mean- 
time inclined to suspect that Phreodrilus will prove to be one of the " Gemmipares" 
of d'UDEKEM. Another character by which Phreodrilus shows its low position among 
the Oligochseta is the absence of spermsacs or ovisacs. There are some indications, to 
which I have duly referred above (p. 267), that an egg sac is formed by a dragging back 
of the septum bounding posteriorly segment XII. However, in the not fully mature 
Stylaria lacustris, Vejdovsky figures (7, pi. iv. fig 2, v.) an egg sac totally distinct from 
the septa, and apparently bearing no relation to them. On the other hand, in Mesen- 
chytrceus there is an impaired egg sac very like that of Phreodrilus, but longer. 
Whatever may be the case as regards the egg sac in specimens of Phreodrilus with 
more matured female sexual organs than my example, it appears highly probable that 
a sperm sac is never developed. 

I should place the Phreodrilidse nearer to the Naidomorpha than to any other group 
of Oligochseta, though I admit that the position of the genital organs suggests an 
affinity to the Enchytrseidse. But what their exact position with regard to these lower 
groups is, I regard as a matter which cannot be at present satisfactorily determined. 
There are, however, a few points in which Phreodrilus recalls the higher among the 



292 MR FRANK E. BEDDARD 

aquatic 01igocha3ta ; for instance, the ventral setse, with their non-bifurcate extremity. 
At present setse of this description are only met with in the Enchytrseidse among the 
lower forms. The form of the setse in question in Phreodrilus is certainly different in 
some details from the setse of the Lumbriculidse, but they conform to the same general 
type. I have described in some detail (p. 258) the curious " blood gland" of Phreodrilus, 
and have compared it with the dilated branches of the dorsal vessel, which are so 
characteristic of the Lumbriculidse. Phreodrilus also agrees with some members of that 
family in the position of the spermathecse ; and if I am right in my supposition that the 
csecal appendage of the sperm duct is the metamorphosed equivalent of the second sperm 
duct of the Lumbricidus, there is an interesting point of affinity to that group. The 
non-ciliation of the atrium, however, removes Phreodrilus from the neighbourhood of 
the Lumbriculidse no less than from the neighbourhood of the Tubificidse and the lower 
forms ; indeed this organ is altogether peculiar. 

A survey of the structure of Phreodrilus leads me to the conclusion that it should 
be placed some way off the line leading from the more highly developed Lumbriculidse 
to the lower Naidomorpha, but that its precise relationships require further study, and 
cannot be determined with any probability of success at the present time. 

DESCRIPTION OF PELODRILUS VIOLACEUS, nov. gen. n.sp. 

The Annelids which form the subject of the present communication, were, like the 
last, collected and preserved by Mr W. W. Smith of East Belt, Ashburton, New Zealand, 
to whose kindness I have been for some years past greatly indebted for specimens of 
New Zealand Oligochseta. 

They were collected about a mile from Ashburton, in rich wet soil, at a little distance 
from a swamp. They are described by Mr Smith as " flesh-coloured" during life. The 
worms were fixed with corrosive sublimate and hardened in alcohol ; their colour in the 
preserved state is bluish-grey, caused by the transparent walls and the opaque contents 
of the alimentary tract. 

The length of the specimens varies from 1 to 2 inches ; they are very slender, 
and resemble a Phreoryctes or Lumhriculus. Most of them have the clitellum well 
developed ; and this fixes the period of maturity to the month of August, when they 
were collected. 

I find that they belong to a distinct generic type, for which I propose the name 
Pelodrilus. They have affinities both to the Lumbriculidse and Phreoryctidse. 

§ External Characters. 

(1.) Prostomium. — The prostomium of Pelodrilus is short and blunt, and very in- 
conspicuous in the preserved specimens ; it has no resemblance to that of Phreoryctes, 
which is divided by a furrow into two portions. 



ON TWO NEW GENERA OF AQUATIC OLIGOCHSETA. 293 

(2.) Setce. — The setse exist upon all the segments of the body except the first. They are 
arranged in four couples, both of which are, in the anterior part of the body at any rate, 
rather lateral in position. I could detect no difference of size between the setse of the 
more dorsal and of the more ventral couples, such as I have shown to occur in 
Phreoryctes [12]. 

The shape of the setse is in no way distinctive ; as shown in fig. 20, s, they agree with 
those of Phreoryctes, the Lumbriculidse, and most Earthworms. 

There is, furthermore, an agreement with the two first-mentioned families in the fact 
of there being no modification of the setse upon the clitellum or of those in the neigh- 
bourhood of the spermathecal apertures. They are present, and are perfectly normal in 
shape, as well as in arrangement, upon all the segments of the clitellum. 

It appears, therefore, that the setse of Pelodrilus are more like those of the Lumbri- 
culidse than of any other family or group of Oligochseta. 

(3.) Clitellum. — The data with regard to the number of segments occupied by the 
clitellum in the Lumbriculidse are not very numerous. With regard to Rhynchelmis, 
Vejdovsky says (9, p. 34), " Ein solcher [wurm] ist in der Kegel im Begriif einen 
cocon alzulegen, was sich ausserlich nach einem weisslichen Auflage am 8-16 segmente 
kenntlich ist." I take this to imply that the Vlllth to the XVIth segments are occupied 
by the clitellum, as he has also said (7, p. 67), " Bei Rhynchelmis der Giirtel eine 
bedeutende Anzahl von segmenten einnimmt." 

In Phreoryctes the clitellum is much more limited, and extends over four segments 
only, viz., from XI-XI V. 

In Pelodrilus the clitellum occupies segments XI-XIII. It is only developed on the 
dorsal side of the body. In the region of the clitellum the body is much swollen, owing 
to the tension caused by the genital products. 

So far, therefore, as can be said at present, Pelodrilus comes nearer to Phreoryctes 
than to the Lumbriculidse. I shall refer to the minute structure of the clitellum under 
the heading " Integument." 

(4.) Nephridiopores. — These are situated in front of the ventral pair of setse. 



§ Integument. 

The most interesting fact relating to the structure of the body wall in Pelodrilus is 
its great thickness in the anterior, as compared with the posterior, segments. This is 
frequently met with among terrestrial Oligochseta (cf., for example, figs. 4 and 3 in the 
plate illustrating my memoir upon Moniligaster [13]), where it appears to have an 
obvious relation to the density of the medium in which they live. Increased muscular 
power in the anterior segments is not so much needed by worms which swim in water, 
and is not developed. Pelodrilus, however, does not live in water, like most of its 
allies, but in marshy land ; and its structure bears evidence of its mode of life, not only 



•294 MR FRANK E. BEDDARD 

in the thick longitudinal muscular coat of the anterior segments, but also in the greatly- 
increased thickness of some of the anterior inter-segmental septa. These latter structures 
will be again referred to later (see p. 276). 

The epidermis consists of the usual oval glandular cells, between which lie tall inter- 
stitial cells. 

The circular muscular layer is not more than two fibres thick in the anterior thickened 
region of the body. 

In connection with the epidermis I may mention the presence of two sucker-like 
structures, which lie, one behind the other, in the middle ventral line of segment X. 
These bodies seem to be possibly organs of sense connected with the generative function. 
I should compare them to the " Wollustorgane " described by Michaelsen [17] in 
Acanthodrilus georgianus. 

One is shown in longitudinal section in fig. 20, g. The epidermal cells are here seen 
to be somewhat elongated, and to converge towards a point situated in the middle of the 
modified area. The cells are, some of them, very granular, and it may be that they have 
a glandular function. The integument was not sufficiently well preserved to permit of a 
more decisive opinion as to the nature of these bodies. 

The clitellar epithelium is one cell thick. These cells are elongated and laden with 
granules. The glandular part of the clitellum is only developed dorsally ; on the ventral 
side an area surrounding the generative openings appears quite different when the body 
wall of the worm is examined from below in a glycerine or Canada balsam preparation. 
A number of lines shown in fig. 22 radiate out from the male generative pores. These 
lines suggest muscles connected with the widening or narrowing of the genital pores. In 
sections I have found it difficult to make out the structure of the integument in this 
region ; fig. 28, therefore, which illustrates the opening of the vasa deferentia as seen in 
longitudinal section, must be taken to be only very diagrammatic as regards the epidermis. 
In any case it is certain that the tall granular columnar cells present on the dorsal 
surface of the clitellum are here absent. A darkly-stained area divided into cubical 
blocks underlies the epidermis, which is not greatly developed. I take these structures 
to represent a series of muscular masses peculiar to this region of the integument, and 
concerned with the movements of the clitellar segments during coitus, and perhaps also 
with the closure or opening of the genital pores. The structure wants working out on 
material that has been specially preserved to this end. 



§ Alimentary Canal. 

This presents the characters that are usually met with in the lower 01igocha3ta, that 
is, there is no gizzard, and no glands appended to the canal. The buccal cavity occupies 
the first segment of the body. Its walls consist of little else than a layer of somewhat 
flattened cells. The pharynx also occupies a single segment — the second. It is chiefly 



ON TWO NEW GENERA OF AQUATIC OLIGOCH^TA 295 

distinguished by the thickened epithelium, developed only on the dorsal side, which 
begins and ends abruptly. A few muscles attached to the pharynx connect it with the 
body wall. The oesophagus is narrow, but the commencement of the intestine is hardly 
wider. The latter is distinguished by its epithelium being ciliated. 

The chloragogen cells commence in the Vth segment. It was Claparede who first 
noticed that the commencement of the chloragogen layer covering the intestine was a 
fixed point often characteristic of the species. 

§ Nephridia. 

The nephridia, instead of being, as is the rule in the aquatic Annelids, absent in the 
genital segments, are present in all the segments of the body, commencing with the Vllth 
and excepting the Xlth and Xllth. 

At present the only instance of an Oligochset, included by Claparede in his group 
" Limicolse," where the nephridia are not absent from the genital segments, is Lumbri- 
culus. This fact has been recently discovered by Vejdovsky, who has, however, only 
stated that the nephridia persist in the spermathecal segments. A fuller account of this 

v 

form is promised by Dr A. Stolc. Now that two genera are known in which the 
nephridia persist in the genital segments after the worm has attained sexual maturity, it 
is obviously impossible any longer to retain a group " Limicolse," distinguished by the 
absence of nephridia in those segments. Vejdovsky suggested that the disappearance 
of the nephridia in the genital segments of aquatic Oligochseta on the development of the 
sexual organs and ducts might be due simply to want of space in these small Annelids. 
In support of this suggestion it may be noted that both Lumbriculus and Pelodrilus 
are large worms as compared with the majority of the aquatic forms ; but as they are 
equalled or exceeded in size by many Lumbriculidse, and even by certain Tubificidse, and 
a species of Pachydrilus, some other cause must be sought for the comparatively rare 
persistence of the nephridia in the aquatic Oligochseta, and their almost universal persist- 
ence in the generative segments of the terrestrial forms. 

I should regard it myself as simply a further illustration of the structural simplifica- 
tion which is so frequently associated with smallness of bulk, and which Dohrn and 
Lankester regard as degeneration. On this view we should expect to meet with this 
simplification of structure less marked in those forms which approach nearest to the 
higher Oligochseta. And that is precisely the position occupied by the Lumbriculidse and 
Phreoryctidse, in the neighbourhood of which families Pelodrilus should undoubtedly be 
placed. 

A very convenient method of studying the anatomy of this worm, which I found too 
small to dissect, is to cut the anterior end of the body in half by a longitudinal cut ; the 
ventral and dorsal halves are then mounted in glycerine, and the relative position of the 
organs, as well as to a certain extent their minute structure, may then be very easily 
studied. This forms a good way of checking the results obtained by continuous series 
of longitudinal sections. 



296 MR FRANK E. BEDDARD 

In such preparations the nephridia are seen to occupy a relatively small space in the 
body cavity of their segment ; each lies coiled up closely approximated to the anterior 
septum ; the duct to the exterior passes off from the ventral surface of the nephridium, 
and after a relatively long course opens on to the exterior in front of the ventral pair of 
setae. This position in front of the ventral pair of setae is also found in Phreoryctes [12], 
though apparently not in Phreoryctes filiformis, and in Phreatothrix among the 
Lumbriculidse. 

The nephridial funnel, as in all Oligochseta in which there are paired nephridia, except 
Plutellus, lies in the segment anterior to that in which the nephridia itself is placed. A 
single funnel depending into the IXth segment is shown in fig. 24 ; they lie near to 
the junction of the septum with the body wall, on a level with the ventral setae. 

A single nephridium in situ is illustrated in fig. 2. The coils of which it is composed 
are closely pressed together, and under a low power it looks almost as if the nephridium 
were simply formed by a comparatively short and broad tube bent a few times upon 
itself. A closer examination shows that each coil is really composed of a bundle of fine 
nephridial tubules closely pressed against each other, and occasionally anastomosing. They 
run for the most along or at right angles to the long axis of the mass. There is hardly 
any development of peritoneal cells round the nephridia ; certainly the large vesicular 
cells, which are so often found in the aquatic Oligochseta, are absent. 

§ Body Cavity. 

The septa which separate the ccelom into a series of cavities corresponding to the 
external segments are replaced in the four anterior segments by irregularly- placed fibres 
and bundles of fibres passing between the alimentary tract and the parietes ; after the 
Vth segment the regular septa begin. It is interesting to find that the first five of these 
are very thick, and consist of two distinct muscular coats, whose fibres run in opposite 
directions. The relative thickness of one of these anterior septa, as compared with one 
of those that immediately follow, will be seen by a comparison of figs. 25 and 26, which 
were drawn with the aid of a camera lucida. The septa are cup-shaped, with the concavity 
directed forwards, and in the segments which contain the sperm sacs and ovisacs this con- 
cavity is much emphasised by the stretching of the septa, caused by the growth of the 
sacs in question. 

As far as I am aware, Pelodrilus is the only instance of an Oligochset, which Claparede 
would undoubtedly have referred to his group of Limicolse, where this increase in thick- 
ness of the anterior intersegmental septa is met with. It may very possibly have 
a relation to the habitat of the worm in soil, and not in the softer mud at the bottom 
of a lake or river ; and in any case it shows that no importance can be attached to the 
presence of these thickened septa in Earthworms as a character distinguishing them from 
the lower Oligochseta. In view, however, of other points in which Pelodrilus resembles 
the higher Oligochseta, this character, perhaps, gains an additional importance. 



ON TWO NEW GENERA OF AQUATIC OLIGOCH.ETA. 297 

Septal Glands. — A few Oligochseta are provided with peculiar glandular structures 
attached to a certain number of the anterior intersegmental septa, which are usually 
regarded as glands appended to the oesophagus. They have been hitherto found in the 
Enchytrseidse, in some Naidomorpha, and in Phreatothrix among the Lumbriculidee. 
They occur also, as I have already pointed out in this memoir, in my new genus 
Phreodrilus. 

The septal glands are found in segments V-VII ; they form a series of paired structures 
lying on the anterior face of the cup-shaped septse which lie between these segments. I 
could not find any evidence of their possessing a central lumen such as has been described 
by various writers. In all my sections the septal glands were undoubtedly solid structures, 
though often furnished with a fibrous core. The cells which compose these glands appear 
to have no particular arrangement. They have a glandular appearance, and are pear- 
shaped. The extremity of the cell passes into a fine prolongation ; the prolongations of 
all the cells unite to form solid strands, which are bound up in a darkly staining sheath, 
which is continuous with the sheath of the gland. The fibrous core that has been 
mentioned is simply produced by the processes of these cells. In fig. 36 I have sketched 
a portion of one of the septal glands showing the fibrous core, which is really a bundle 
of the ducts of the unicellular glands, which are associated together to constitute the 
septal glands. The fibrous core passes forward towards the pharynx, and then gives off 
branches of various sizes, which end in close contact with the basis of the epithelium of 
the pharynx on the dorsal side. The dorsal blood-vessel is also shown in the figure 
lying just above the " apertures " of the septal glands. The fibrous strands which 
connect the septal glands with the pharynx have a few nuclei interspersed. It appears 
to me that, at any rate in this Annelid, the septal glands are simply to be regarded as 
masses of unicellular gland- cells — each gland-cell being prolonged into a duct which 
reaches the pharyngeal epithelium. 

The structure of these glands, in fact, is very much like that of the " capsulogenous " 
glands in Perichceta. In many species belonging to that genus — probably in most — there 
are little, white, pear-shaped, glandular bodies opening on the ventral side of the body in 
the neighbourhood of the reproductive apertures — both the vasa deferentia and the 
spermathec£e. # The structure of these bodies is very simple ; they consist of groups of 
unicellular glands bound together in a common sheath, whose ducts can be traced through 
the epidermis to the exterior. In Pelodrilus I must confess to having been unable to 
trace the ducts of the septal glands through the pharyngeal epithelium. They appeared 
to end at these bases of these cells. I am, nevertheless, decidedly of opinion that the 
septal glands should be referred to the same category as the integumental glands of 
Perichceta, and that both structures are seen in their least specialised condition in the 

* I notice that Eosa, in a recent paper, still speaks of the small second appendage of the spermatheca in 
Perichceta Houlleti (and P. campanulata) as a diverticulum of the spermatheca. If the structure of the body in question 
is the same in Perichceta campanulata as in the species which I investigated, and believed to be identical with 
Perrier's P. Houlleti, the term is hardly applicable. 

VOL. XXXVI. PART II. (NO. 11). 2 Y 



298 MR FRANK E. BEDDARD 

single glandular cells which open on to the body surface in Leeches, and appear also, 
according to Benham [20, pi. xvi. bis, fig. 39], to occur in the Earthworm Microchceta ; 
though here the numerous nuclei probably indicate that the glands in question are really 
multicellular. It is almost unnecessary to point out that there is every probability of 
the pharynx being in Pelodrilus of stoniodaeal origin. 

§ Testes. 

There are two pairs of testes placed in segments X and XI (see fig. 27), and attached 
to the anterior septa of their segments. They are of considerable size when fully 
developed, and are branched at their free extremities. In the mature worm the testes 
are nearly always incomplete in number, owing presumably to the fact that the germinal 
cells of one or more of the gonads have been transferred to the interior of the sperm sacs. 
Something of this kind possibly accounts for the statements that there are only a single 
pair of testes in certain genera of the Lumbriculidae, whereas in these very forms there are 
two pairs of funnels, and two pairs of testes might therefore be expected to exist. In any 
case, a correspondence between the number of gonads and funnels is always met with 
among Earthworms. If there are only a single pair of funnels, the testes are reduced to 
a single pair, while in the vast majority two pairs of vasa deferentia correspond to two 
pairs of testes. 

§ Vasa Deferentia. 

The characters of the vasa deferentia are, so far as is known at present, very different 
in the Pkreoryctidae and in the Lumbriculidae. From the Lumbriculidae I exclude 
Ocnerodrilus, which, as I shall point out to this Society in a forthcoming paper, really 
shows no particular affinities to the family in which Eisen first placed it. Eclipidrilus 
also is a genus which requires further investigation before its claims to be placed with 
family Lumbriculidae can be fully recognised. The family contains at present only seven 
well-marked genera, viz., Rhynclielrnis , Stylodrilus, Claparedilla, Lumbriculus, Tricho- 
drilus, Phreatoihrix, and Sutroa. 

In all of these, with the exceptions of Lumbriculus and Sutroa, the vasa deferentia 
have the following arrangement : — There are two pairs of funnels which open respectively 
into the IXth and Xth segments. The vasa deferentia open separately on each side of the 
body into the atrium, which lies in the Xth segment. It follows, therefore, that the vasa 
deferentia belonging to the second pair of funnels perforate the intersegmental septum 
X/XI twice. 

As to Lumbriculus, our knowledge is at present confined to a very short note by 
Vejdovsky [7, p. 150, footnote], which runs as follows : — "Neuerdings aber erhielt ich 
eine grossere Anzahl der mit vollstandigem Geschlechtsapparate angeriisteten Exemplare, 
an denen ich sichergestellt habe dass die vermeintlichen Samentaschen des 8 Segmentes 
voluminose mit ausstiilpbaren Penisrohren verschene Atrien vorstellen, in welche 
ungemein diinne Samengange einmunden." It is not, therefore, at present quite clear 



ON TWO NEW GENERA OF AQUATIC OLIGOCH^TA. 299 

whether Lumbriculus does or does not agree with other Lumbriculidse in the relations of 
the vasa deferentia. 

Sutroa is a somewhat aberrant Lumbriculid, quite recently described by Eisen 
[4]. Each atrium is furnished with two vasa deferentia, the funnels of which both open 
into the Xlth segment (? Xllth). 

Phreoryctes shows no affinities with the Lumbriculidse, except in possessing two pairs of 
vasa deferentia. The atrium is entirely absent, and the vasa deferentia open separately on 
to the Xlth and Xllth segments [see No. 12]. In Pelodrilus the conditions differ from both 
the Phreoryctidse and the Lumbriculidse, and approach to a certain extent the Lumbricidse. 

There are two pairs of funnels which open into segments X. and XL The funnels 
are of large size, and the arrangement of the septa is such (see fig. 39) that they face 
upwards. In both cases the funnels are completely enclosed by the sperm sacs, which 
almost completely fill the segments in which they lie. The cilia are very long, as is 
usually the case with the Lumbriculidse [cf. Claparede, 1, pi. iii. fig. 1, Vejdovsky, 7]. 
The position of the funnels agrees with that of the Phreoryctidse and most Earthworms. 
They are both a segment farther back than in most of the Lumbriculidse. 

The vasa deferentia are remarkably long and greatly coiled. Fig. 38 illustrates the 
coils of one of the second pair of vasa deferentia, which are, like those of the first pair, 
almost entirely included within the sperm sac. The vas deferens is for the most part 
extremely thin, though it widens out just before joining the funnel, and also for some 
little distance in front of the external orifice. 

In the extremely thin and much coiled vasa deferentia, Pelodrilus differs from all the 
Oligochseta, to which it presents other points of affinity. In both the Lumbriculidse and 
Phreoryctidse the vasa deferentia are almost straight, or at most slightly sinuous. The 
Enchytrseidse are more like Pelodrilus in this particular than any other family. The 
structure of the vasa deferentia is not in any way peculiar ; they are, as is always the 
case, composed of a single layer of ciliated cubical cells, and are covered by a delicate 
layer of peritoneum. 

The communication of the vasa deferentia with the exterior is effected in a way 
which is unique among the Oligochseta. 

There is, in the first place, no trace of an atrium — a structure which is present in all 
the Lumbriculidse. The vasa deferentia open directly on to the exterior, as in Phreoryctes 
and the Lumbricidse. 

The male apertures are situated within the clitellum, and are conspicuous when this 
region of the body is examined in a specimen mounted entire. The cells of the clitellar 
epidermis are seen to have an arrangement which is illustrated in fig. 35. They radiate 
outwards from a conspicuous orifice placed upon the Xllth segment. In such preparations 
I have been able to recognise two pairs of orifices upon the Xllth segment corresponding 
in position to the orifices of the spermathecse upon the VHIth segment. In longitudinal 
sections (fig. 28), two distinct male apertures are to be found upon each side of the body, 
placed one in front of the other and on a line with the oviducal pores, as well as with the 



300 MR FRANK E. BEDDARD 

apertures of the spermathecse. The two male pores of each side of the body are very 
much nearer to each other than the posterior of the two is to the oviducal pore. 

It follows, therefore, that, while the posterior of the two funnels is connected with a 
vas deferens which opens upon the following segmeut, the anterior vas deferens traverses 
two segments before it communicates with the exterior. This is the only instance known 
to me of an Annelid which would obviously belong to Claparede's division of the Limicolce, 
in which the aperture of the vas deferens is situated further behind its funnel than the 
following segment ; and this genus forms an unique instance of the vasa deferentia of 
each side opening on to the same segment, but by separate orifices. 

In the position of the funnel and male orifices this genus appears to be intermediate 
between Phreoryctes, on the one hand, and JEisenia ( = Tetragonurus) on the other. In 
Phreoryctes, each vas deferens opens separately on the segment behind that which con- 
tains the funnel. In Pelodrilus, the anterior male pore has receded until it has come to 
lie in the same segment with the posterior pore. In Eisenia — probably, we cannot say 
certainly, for the worm has never been studied anatomically — both vasa deferentia open by 
a common pore on segment XII. 

§ Ovaries. 

There are a single pair of ovaries (fig. 27, ov) in segment XII. Each is attached close 
to one side of the ventral nerve cord. The ovary, as shown in fig. 41, a, is of an oval, some- 
what pear-shaped form ; it is for the most part made up of small germinal cells, and con- 
tains one or two ova in advanced stages of development. The ova, however, do not undergo 
their entire development in the ovary ; masses of cells consisting of developing ova are 
apparently from time to time broken off, and undergo their further development in the egg 
sac. The fully mature ova (see fig. 41, a) are laden with yolk granules, and are of very 
large size ; a single ovum will extend through two or three segments. I never observed 
(in three specimens investigated by longitudinal sections) more than two or three mature 

ova in a given worm. 

§ Oviducts. 

The two oviducts open on to the intersegmental groove XII/XIII. One of these is illus- 
trated in longitudinal section in fig. 40. What strikes one about the oviducts of this and 
other " Limicolce " is the small size, as compared with the gigantic ova which have to find 
their way out of the body cavity through them. The epithelium is of course ciliated — the 
cilia being short ; the funnel is, as in the Lumbriculidse, " sessile " upon the ventral body 
wall just in front of the septum separating segments XII and XIII. The duct is thus 
reduced to the smallest dimensions. 

§ Spermathecce. 

Pelodrilus is furnished with a single pair of spermathecae in segment VIII. 

Each spermatheca opens close to the boundary line between segments VII and VIII, 
at a spot corresponding to the male apertures, i.e., between the dorsal and ventral 
setae, though nearer to the latter. 



ON TWO NEW GENERA OF AQUATIC OLTGOCH^ETA. 301 

The spermathecse are very large, and each is doubled upon itself (see fig. 14). The 
portion which lies nearest to the external aperture is long and narrow, and lined with 
a columnar epithelium of a non-glandular character, which is shown by its being readily 
stained by borax carmine ; further back (fig. 23) the spermatheca widens out, and the 
epithelium becomes laden with secreted granules, and have not been stained to any extent 
by the same colouring reagent. I usually found clumps of small spherical granular 
cells, each with a minute but darkly staining nucleus near to the blind extremity of the 
spermatheca. I am uncertain whether or not to regard these as parasites. 



AFFINITIES OF PELODBILUS. 
This Annelid my be characterised as follows : — 

Genus Pelodrilus, nov. gen. 

Moderately long, thin worms, inhabiting marshy soil. Setae simple in shape and strictly 
paired ; absent only from the Xllth segment in the sexually ripe individuals. Clitellum 
extending over segments XI-XIII (inclusive). Testes, two pairs in X and XL Vasa 
deferentia opening by two distinct pores on each side, placed one in front of the other 
upon the Xllth segment, greatly coiled, with funnels in the Xth and Xlth segments. No 
atria. Sperm sacs occupying segments IX-XII. Ovaries in XIII ; oviducts consisting 
of little more than a funnel opening immediately on to the exterior in groove between 
segments XII/XIII. Ova large and few, enclosed in thin-walled egg sac. Spermathecse, a 
single pair in VIII. Septal glands present. Nephridia in all segments after the Vlth 
with the exception of XI and XII. Some of anterior septa thickened. 

Species Pelodrilus violaceus, n.sp. 

Prostomium short. Nephridiopores in front of ventral setse. Habitat, New Zealand. 

In the above description I cannot, of course, pretend to distinguish between generic 
and specific characters ; I select as a specific character the position of the nephridio- 
pores, for the reason that that appears to be a specific character in Phreoryctes — 
the most nearly allied genus. 

There can be, I think, little doubt that Pelodrilus should be included in the family 
Phreoryctidse. 

It agrees with Phreoryctes in the following assemblage of characters : — 

1. Testes in X and XL 

2. Sperm ducts, two pairs opening separately. 

3. Atrium absent. 

4. Spermathecse anterior to testes. 

5„ Hearts long, thin, and much convoluted, 



302 MR FRANK E. BEDDARD 

as well as in a number of minor points which need hardly be recapitulated, as they 
are found in many of the aquatic Oligochaeta. I refer to such points as the shape and 
arrangement of the setae, the absence of gizzard, &c. The five points of agreement 
between Pelodrilus and Phreoryctes enumerated above are stated in such a way as to 
refer only to the families of aquatic Oligochaeta ( " Limicolce " in the sense of Claparede), 
which I consider alone for the present. The more important points of difference between 
Pelodrilus and Phreoryctes are these : — 

1. Sperm ducts greatly coiled ; both on each side opening upon the Xllth segment, 
though separately. 

2. Only one pair of ovaries in XII, and one pair of oviducts opening between 
XII/XIII. 

3. The presence of septal glands. 

4. Nephridia present in some of the genital segments. 

5. Clitellum occupying only three segments (XI-XIII), and developed only ventrally ; 
setae of segment XII absent. 

6. Some of anterior septa thickened. 

These structural characters of Pelodrilus do not indicate much affinity to any other 
group of the lower Oligochaeta. The Lumbriculidae are the only other group with 
which any comparisons suggest themselves, and these are really limited to the 
characters of the setae, and of the oviduct, which has pretty much the same form. It 
is true that Lumbriculus is the only other genus of aquatic Oligochseta where the 
nephridia persist in the genital segments ; but this fact, though important enough in 
another aspect, is, perhaps, hardly one upon which considerations of affinity can 
be based. 

The greatly coiled sperm ducts recall those of the Tubificidae and Enchytraeidae, 
but other characters do not permit of the establishment of any close relationship 
between Pelodrilus and either of these two families. 

On the other hand, it does seem possible to indicate some relationship between 
Pelodrilus and the higher Oligochaeta (earthworms), though these are not sufficiently 
pronounced to admit of a comparison between Pelodrilus and any particular family 
or families of that group. 

The general resemblances to the higher forms, other than those shared by 
Phreoryctes, are as follows : — 

1. Persistence of nephridia in certain of the genital segments. (This is shared by 
Lumbriculus.) 

2. Several of anterior intersegmental septa greatly thickened. 

3. One of the pairs of vasa deferentia traverses two segments between the internal 
and external orifice. 

Phreoryctes itself comes nearer to Earthworms than does any other genus among 
the lower Oligochaeta, and Pelodrilus serves to increase the closeness of the family 
Phreoryctidae to the higher Oligochaeta. 



ON TWO NEW GENERA OF AQUATIC OLIGOCHJETA. 303 



LIST OF AUTHORITIES QUOTED. 

1. Claparede, Ed. Recherches Anatomiques sur les Oligochetes, M&m. Soc. Phys. et d'Hist. 

Nat. de Geneve, 1862, 75 pp., 4 pis. 

2. D'Udekem, Jules. Histoire Naturelle du Tubifex des Ruisseaux, Mdm. cour. et Mem. des 

Sav. 6tr. Acad. Roy. Belg., torn, xxvi., 37 pp., 4 pis. 

3. Eisen, Gustav. Eclipidrilidae and their Anatomy: a new Family of the Limicolide Oli- 

gochaeta, Nova Acta Reg. Soc. Upsala, ser. iii., 1881, 10 pp., 2 pis. 

4. Eisen, Gustav. On the Anatomy of Sutroa rostrata, a new Annelid of the Family 

Lumbriculina, Mem. Galifom. Acad. Sci., vol. ii., No. 1, 1888, 8 pp., 2 pis. 

5. &TOLC, Antonin. Monografie ceskych Tubificidu Morfologicka a Systematicka Studie, Abhandl. 

k. Bohm. Ges., Bd. vii. Pt. 2, 1888, 45 pp., 4 pis. 

6. Stolc, Antonin. Dero digitata, O. F. Miiller, Anatomicka a histologicka Studie, S. B. Bohm. 

Ges., 1885, pp. 65-95, 2 pis. 

7. Vejdovsky, F. System und Morphologie der Oligochseten. Prag., 1886. 

8. Vejdovsky, F. Beitrage zur vergleichenden Morphologie der Anneliden. I. Monographie der 

Enchytrseiden. Prag., 1879. 

9. Vejdovsky, F. Entwickelungsgeschichtliche Untersuchungen, Heft i.-ii., Prag., 1888 and 

1890. 

10. Beddard, F. E. Abstract of Investigations into the Structure of some Oligochseta, Ann. 

and Mag. Nat. Hist, Jan. 1891. 

11. Beddard, F. E. On the Structure of Two New Genera of Eudrilidse, &c, Quart. Jour. Micr. 

Sci., vol. xxxii. pp. 235-278. 

12. Beddard, F. E. On the Anatomy, Histology, and Affinities of Phreoryctes, Trans. Roy. 

Soc. Edin., vol. xxxv., No. 16, pp. 629-640, 1 pi. 

13. Beddard, F. E. On the Structure of a Genus of Oligochseta belonging to the Limicoline 

Section, Trans. Roy. Soc. Edin., vol. xxxvi., No. 1, pp. 1-17, 1 pi. 

14. Michaelsen, W. Beitrage zur Kenntniss der deutschen Enchytraeiden-Fauna, Arch, mikrosk. 

Anal, Bd. xxxi. pp. 483-498, 1 pi. 

15. Michaelsen, W. Enchytrseiden-Studien, Arch, mikrosk. Anat, Bd. xxx. pp. 366-378, 

lpl. 

16. Michaelsen, W. Ueber Chylusgefassystem bei Enchytrseiden, Arch, mikrosk. Anat., Bd. 

xxviii. pp. 292-304, 1 pi. 

17. Michaelsen, W. Oligochseten von Siid-Georgien, Jahrb. Hamb. wiss Anstalt, v. pp. 55-73, 

2 pis. 

18. Weldon, W. F. R. On the Head Kidney of Bdellostoma, &c, Quart. Jour. Micr. Sci., 

vol. xxiv. pp. 3-14, 1 pi. 

19. Rosa, D. Viaggio di Leonardo Fea in Birmania e regioni vicine xxvi. Perichetidi, Ann. 

Mus. Civ. Genova, ser. 2a, vol. x., 16 pp., 1 pi. 

20. Benham, W. B. Studies on Earthworms (I.), Quart. Jour. Micr. Sci., vol. xxvi. pp. 213- 

361, 3 pis. 

21. Benham, W. B. An Attempt to Classify Earthworms, Quart. Jour. Micr. Sci., vol. xxxi. 

pp. 201-315. 

22. Cunningham, J. T. On some Points in the Anatomy of Polychaeta, Quart. Jour. Micr. 

Sci., pp. 239-278, 4 pis. 

23. Horst, R. Ueber ein rathselhaftes Organ bei Chlorhsemiden, Zool. Anz., 1885, pp. 12-15. 



Fig. 


1. 


Fig- 


2. 


Fig. 


3. 


Kg. 


4. 


rig. 


5. 


Fig. 


6. 


Fig. 


7. 


Fig. 


8. 


Fig. 


9. 



304 MR FRANK E. BEDDARD 

DESCRIPTION OF PLATES. 
Plate I. 

Phreodrilus suhterraneus. 

Setae, a, dorsal ; h, ventral. 

Funnel of vas deferens. 

Transverse section of narrow part of atrium. 

Longitudinal section through atrium where lumen is wider. 

Semidiagrammatic view of genitalia, te, testis ; /, funnel of vas deferens ; eff, efferent canal ; s, setae ; 

od, oviduct ; ov, ovary ; sp, spermatheca. 
" Bloodgland." hi, blood-clots. 
7. Male efferent apparatus. /, funnel ; spt., septum ; v.d, vas deferens ; sp', blind appendix of vas 
deferens ; /, their junction within periatrial sac (sac) ; £ , external orifice. 
Longitudinal section through nerve-cord, nc, neurochord branching where nerve is given off. 
Longitudinal section through external aperture of atrium, showing adjacent parts of efferent duct. 
£ , external pore ; at, distal section of atrium ; at' , portion of atrium lying within periatrial space 
(p.sp) ; v.d, vas deferens ; sp, appendix of vas deferens. 
Fig. 10. Longitudinal section through spermatheca. 
Figs. 11, 12. Longitudinal and transverse section through appendix of vas deferens, a, secreted matter in 

lumen of tube. 
Fig. 13. External ventral view of genital segments which are numbered and show position of orifices. 
$ , male apertures ; od, oviduct pores ; sp, spermathecal pores ; the nerve-cord is indicated as 
showing through the body walls, and the setae are shown. 
Fig. 1 4. Transverse section through body wall, s, seta sac ; ep, epidermis ; tm, transverse muscles ; Im, longi- 
tudinal muscles. 
Fig. 15. Separate lamella? of longitudinal muscular coat. 



Plate II. 

Fig. 16. Phreodrilus suhterraneus, a portion of the contents of periatrial sac. vd, vas deferens in transverse 

and longitudinal section ; sperm, spermatozoa ; n, nuclei lying between them. 
Fig. 17. Pelodrilus violaceus, natural size, showing clitellum (d). 
Fig. 1 8. Phreodrilus suhterraneus, oviduct. 

Fig. 19. „ „ longitudinal section of body wall. 

Fig. 20. Pelodrilus violaceus, section of epidermis to show glandular papilla (g). s, seta?. 
Fig. 21. „ „ nephridium as seen on dissection. /, funnel ; spt., septum ; o, external orifice ; 

s, setae. 
Fig. 22. „ „ ventral view of genital segments which are numbered, sp, spermathecal pore ; 

$ , male pores; ? , oviducal jpore. The extent of the clitellum is indicated 

by the dotted portion. 
Fig. 23. „ „ spermatheca transverse section, n, nucleus of glandular cells ; a, parasites (1). 

Fig. 24. „ „ nephridial funnel, hi, blood capillary. 

Figs. 25, 26. „ „ septa to show relative thickness of specially thickened anterior septa (fig. 20) 

and posterior septa (fig. 25). 
Fig. 27. „ „ dissection to show genitalia, semidiagrammatic. sp, spermathecae ; sps, sperm 

sacs ; these are cut open in segments X and XI to show the testes and vasa 

deferentia lying within them ; t, testes ; /, funnel of vasa deferentia ; ov, 

ovary; od, oviduct. 
Fig. 28. „ „ longitudinal section through external orifices of vasa deferentia of one side of 

the body. 
Fig. 28a. „ „ spermatheca. 

Fig. 29. „ ,, supra-cesophageal ganglia, lateral view, dv, dorsal blood-vessel ; com, peri- 

cesophageal commissure. 



ON TWO NEW GENERA OF AQUATIC OLIGOCH^TA. 305 

Fig. 30. Phreodrilus subterraneus, longitudinal section through atrium at region lettered a in fig. 7, to show 

commencement of periatrial sac. sp, space, filled with spermatozoa, pro- 
duced by the splitting off of the muscular coat of the atrium. 

Fig. 31. „ „ egg-sac containing developing ova. s, walls of sac, which are simply formed 

by a pushing back of the septum ; o, clumps of developing ova. 

Fig. 32. „ „ periatrial space containing spermatozoa and nuclei. 

Fig. 33. „ „ muscular wall of periatrial space in transverse section. 



Plate III. 

Phreodrilus subterraneus, chief vascular trunks in four of the anterior segments, d, dorsal vessel ; 
h, hearts ; bgl, blood-gland ; v, ventral vessel ; si, supra-intestinal ; n, network upon oesophagus. 
Pelodrilus violaceus, dissection showing apertures of vasa deferentia of one side, opening by separate 
pores, 6 1 , 6 2 . s, setae. 
„ „ section through commencement of oesophagus to show septal glands (sg), and 

their ducts (d) ; bl, dorsal blood-vessel ; sp, septum. 
Phreodrilus subterraneus, developing ova at different stages. 

Pelodrilus violaceus, interior of portion of sperm sac to show the coiling of the vas deferens (v.d) 
within the sac ; bundles of developing spermatozoa (sp) are also shown ; 
sps, wall of sperm -sac. 
Fig. 39. „ „ dissection to show vasa deferentia and oviduct. /, funnels of vasa deferentia ; 

$ , external orifices ; spt, septum ; od, oviduct ; s, setse. 
Fig. 40. „ „ oviduct in longitudinal section. 

Fig. 41. „ „ a, ovary ; b, nearly mature ovum ; c, fully mature ovum. 



Fig. 


34 


Fig. 


35 


Fig. 


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Fig. 


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Fig. 


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VOL. XXXVI. PART II. (NO. 11). 2 Z 



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XII. — Professor Kelland's Problem on Superposition. By Eobert Beodie. 

(With Two Plates, L, II.) 

(Read February 16, 1891.) 

From a given square one quarter is cut off; to divide the remaining gnomon into 
four such parts that they shall be capable of forming a square. 

[See Trans. Roy. Soc. JEdin., xxi. 271.] 

Preliminary problem, viz. : To cut a rectangle into three parts capable of forming a 
square (Figs. 1, 2). 

Lay off AX and CY = side of square, join BX, draw YZ II AB, and 1, 2 and 3 will 
be the required pieces, as is evident. 

The problem will be impossible when the length of the rectangle is greater than four 
times its breadth; four or more pieces may then be required. The problem can be solved 
in four different ways by drawing the sloping line BX from each of the four angles. 

The above is a particular case of the more general problem, viz., to cut a rectangle 
or a parallelogram into three pieces so as to form another with a given side, as AB 
(Figs. 3, 4). 

In the gnomon (Figs. 5, 6), suppose the square EC placed below in the position BK, 
then the rectangle AK is formed, and can be divided into three pieces by FX and YZ, 
so as to form a square as before. 

YZ + AF = side of square = KG + G Y ; .-. YZ = G Y and GZ bisects L G 

If the piece HXZYK be turned round on ZG it will occupy the position DEZSC, and 
will cut a portion off piece 2 exactly the same as BXZS. This is Professor Kelland's 
Case V. 

If piece 2 be left untouched, then BXZYG must be so cut that when EDCGZ is 
turned upon ZG it will coincide with the lower square. 

It is manifest that any lines, straight or curved, drawn from S and Y symmetrical 
with ZG will give solutions and an indefinite number (Figs. 7, 8). 

If YZ and SZ be drawn giving maximum of 4, this is Case II. ; YS joined is Case IV. ; 
YG and SG or maximum of 3 is Case I., &c. 



Case I. considered. 

In Case I. (Fig. 9) EY a portion of 4, coincides with 2, and it will also coincide in 
the square if 4 be turned over (Fig. 10). There will here also be an indefinite number 
of solutions by any number of lines drawn symmetrically from E and Y. 

VOL. XXXVI. PART II. (NO. 12). 3 A 



:I0S MR ROBERT BRODTE ON 

The maximum of 2 will be seen in Figs. 11, 12. The symmetrical lines may be 
drawn to cut portions off 2, as shown by the dotted lines. 

Referring to Fig. 9, it is plain that 4 might be placed on the opposite side of 3 as 
in Fig. 13. 

As in Figs. 9, 10, it is plain that an indefinite number of solutions can be obtained by 
laying off BN = BX, and drawing lines symmetrical to XN from X and N (Figs. 13, 14). 

The maximum of 4 is seen in Figs. 13, 14. Joining XN or ZP will give two other 
solutions. Another solution will be seen in Figs. 15, 16. 

This last gives the same shape to 4 as could be got by cutting a portion off 3 
in Figs. 9, 10. 

Returning to Figs. 9, 10, the portion 4 may be placed alongside of 2 as in Figs. 17, 
18. 4 is against 2 both in gnomon and square. If FS be cut off=EY, then any lines 
drawn from S and E, straight or curved and symmetrical with SE, will give solutions. 
The semicircle gives one solution. 

The maximum of 2 is seen in Figs. 19, 20, and is Professor Kelland's Case VIII. 
Considering this fig., it is manifest that 4 might be cut off the bottom of 3, as in Figs. 
21, 22, which is Professor Kelland's Case IX., and here the original 4 has vanished 
altogether. 

Considering this last figure, 3 and 4 may be joined into one, and a piece cut off 2 as 
in Figs. 23, 24, which is Professor Kelland's Case XL In this example 3 has taken quite 
a new position in the square. 

Returning to Figs. 17, 18, and drawing symmetrical lines so as to give the maximum 
of 4, Figs. 25, 26 are obtained, and 2 is an equilateral triangle. 

As ACE is in contact with 1, if AD = CB, an indefinite number of solutions are 
obtained by drawing lines from C and D symmetrical with CD. 

The maximum of 2 is seen in Figs. 27, 28. The lines marked x are all the same 
length. 

The minimum of 2 is shown by dotted line in Figs. 25, 26. 

Considering Fig. 25, it appears that if EAbe produced a triangle will be cut off equal 
to 2, and if 2 be added to 4 and cut off from 1 the solution of Figs. 29, 30 is obtained. 

If SF be laid off equal to OL, an indefinite number of solutions are obtained by 
symmetrical lines from F and S. The dotted line shows the maximum of 4. 

In Figs. 31, 32, 2 is annexed to 1, which is the same as Professor Kelland's Case 
VII. There are four solutions according to the corner of 3 cut off. 

In this arrangement the original piece 2 is absorbed altogether. 

If 2 be annexed to 3 and cut off from 1, Figs. 33, 34 are obtained, which are Pro- 
fessor Kelland's Case X. 

The following are varieties :— Figs. 35, 36 ; 37, 38 ; 39, 40 ; 41, 42. 

Professor Kelland's Case VI. gives the maximum of 4. 

The solution in Professor Kelland's Case XII. is obtained on a different system, 
and does not appear to admit of any distinct variety. 



PROFESSOR KELLAND'S PROBLEM ON SUPERPOSITION. 309 

It is manifest that many of the preceding solutions, for example, Figs. 9, 10 ; 33, 
34 ; 41, 42, would apply to gnomons where the breadth of one leg is equal to the length 
of the other. 

The solutions in Figs. 7, 8 ; 13, 14 ; 15, 16 will apply when the legs of the gnomon 
are equal in breadth. 



On Cutting Rectilineal Figures by Straight Lines into Pieces that shall be capable of 

forming other Rectilineal Figures. 



To cut a parallelogram, ABCD, into another with the same angles, but with a side 
equal to EF (fig. l). First, when EF is less than one of the sides. Lay off DK, BG, 
GH, HI, &c, each equal to EF, join AK, and draw parallels. It is manifest the pieces 
1, 2, 3, 4, 5 will form the required figure. Second, when EF is longer than either of the 
sides. Find by geometrical construction the other and short side, and proceed as before. 
Hence to cut a rectangle into a square, (fig. 2), lay off DK, BE equal to side of square, &c, 
and BEFG is evidently equal to the square. If length of rectangle exceeds four times 
the breadth, four pieces are required; if exceeding nine times, five pieces are required, 
and so on. 

II. 

To cut two parallelograms having the same angles into one. Cut one so as to have a 
side = one of the sides of the other, and place them together. 

Or place the parallelograms ABCD and BEFG as in fig. 3, lay off EK = AB, join DK, 
KF, draw DH parallel to KF meeting BC produced in H, join HF, make GL = AB and 
LMllBH. The sides of the triangles DCH, KEF are parallel, and side DC = CK, .*. 
DH = KF, and . \ KH is a parallelogram, and the five pieces of which it is composed 
are those of the given parallelograms. N.B. — If DK cut BC between G and C, another 
piece will be required. 

To cut two squares into one, proceed as in fig. 4 ; and in the same way two similar 
rectangles may be cut into a similar rectangle. 



III. 

To cut a parallelogram, ABCD, (fig. 5), into another, ABEF, on the same base and of 
the same height but with a given L BAF, or a given side AF not less than the height of 
the parallelogram. Lay off L BAF, or insert the line AF, and proceed as in fig. 5. The 
proof is manifest. N.B. — The above illustrates Euclid, i. 35, by superposition. 



MR ROBERT BRODIE ON 



IV. 



To cut a parallelogram, ABCD, (fig. 6), into pieces so as to recompose into a parallelo- 
gram, OCFH, similar to a given parallelogram. Find by usual geometrical construction, 
Euclid, vi. 25, the length of the sides OC, CF. From B or C insert BE = CF, one of 
the above-found sides, produce AE to F, draw CF II BE, and the parallelogram is obtained 
having CF = one of the required sides. If E comes on one of the sides AD or DC, then 
this first step is done with one cut, BE. Next, taking CF as the base of the parallelogram 
EBCF, make i FCO = one of the given angles, or insert CO = the other required side, 
and complete the parallelogram OCFH, which is = ABCD, and has the required sides. 
As the areas are equal, the angles at and H must be = those of the given parallelo- 
gram. Hence a parallelogram can be cut into a square. 

V. 

To cut a triangle ABC, (fig. 7), into a parallelogram, or vice versa. Bisect AB, AC, in 
D and E, cut in line DE, and place the triangle to right or left as in the figure, and FBCE 
and DBCG are obtained. There are evidently six solutions — two for each side of the 
triangle. The cutting a parallelogram into a triangle is manifest. 

VI. 

To cut a A ABC, (fig. 8), into a rectangle. Bisect AB, AC in D and E, and proceed 
as in the figure, and FBCG, FHKG are obtained. There are six solutions for an acute- 
angled triangle, but only two in an obtuse-angled triangle, and four for a right-angled 
triangle. 

VII. 

To cut any rectilineal figure into a parallelogram with given side and given angle. 
Divide the figure into triangles, cut each triangle into a parallelogram, each parallelogram 
into another with given angle (Case 3), and this parallelogram into another with the 
given side (Case 1) ; then place all the parallelograms together, and it is done. N.B. — 
This is nearly the same as Euclid, i. 45. 



VIII. 

To cut a rectilineal figure into a square. Ascertain the length of the side of the 
square, cut the figure into triangles, each triangle into a rectangle, and each rectangle 
into another whose length = side of the square, place them together and the square 
must be produced. 



PROFESSOR KELLAND'S PROBLEM ON SUPERPOSITION. 311 

IX. 

To cut a rectilineal figure, A, so as to be similar to another rectilineal figure, B. 

It is manifest that all the preceding processes are reversible. By Euclid, vi. 25, con- 
struct C = A and similar to B, cut A and C into squares, and from the square obtained 
from A, which is = that obtained from C, work backwards to C from the square derived 
from C. 

Examples. 

To cut a A ABC (fig. 9) into another, IKL, with same base and height, and with 
the L K = a given angle or side IK = a given line not less than the height of ABC. 

Bisect the sides in D,E, cut DE, and complete parallelogram DC. Draw BF, making 
L FBC = K, or the line BF = ^IK, complete the parallelogram HB. Bisect FH in G, cut 
from C to G, turn over AGCH, and IKL is obtained. Or bisect the sides, (fig. 10), 
in D and E. Through D draw MDN, making the required angle at N, or the line 
DN = ^ given side, draw AM II BC, draw MEF through E, and proceed as in the 
figure, and IKL is obtained. This illustrates Euclid, i. 38, by superposition. 

To cut a A ABC, (fig. 11), into pieces, so as to recompose another Aabc, of equal 
area. Cut off ADE, ade, and form the parallelograms DC, dc. Cut parallelogram DC 
into dc, as in Case 4, proceed as indicated in the figures, and the pieces obtained in ABC 
compose abc. 

To cut a triangle into a square. Cut into a rectangle, (fig. 8), and then into a 
square (figs. 1 and 2). 

To cut a regular pentagon into a square (fig. 12). Cut off ECD and place it at BCF, 
bisect BF in H, draw KHL II AE, and the parallelogram EK is obtained = pentagon. 
Insert EM = side of required square, complete the parallelogram LMNE and the square 
EP, &c. The six pieces of the pentagon compose the square EP. 

To cut a regular hexagon, ABCDEF, (fig. 13), into a square. Cut off AFED and 
place it at CDHG. Insert AI = side of required square. Draw HK || AI, and com- 
plete the square HL, &c. The five pieces of the hexagon compose the square. 



VOL. XXXVI. PART II. (NO. 12). 3 B 



Trans. Roy. So c. Edin^ 



M 1 ? R.BR0D1E on SUPERPOSITION. Plate I. 



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M?R.BRODIE on SUPERPOSITION. Plate II. 



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( 313 ) 



XIII. — On the Solid and Liquid Particles in Clouds. By John Aitken, Esq. 

(Read 6th July 1891). 

Towards the end of May of this year I made my third visit to the Eigi Kulm, for 
the purpose of continuing my observations on the amount of dust in the atmosphere and 
other meteorological phenomena. It was with a feeling of no little satisfaction that I 
found myself at that elevated situation during broken weather, and under conditions 
very different from any previously experienced by me. On this occasion I had come 
in the hope of finding opportunities for making some observations on the conditions 
existing in clouds, in addition to the usual dust observations, and had brought with me 
the small instrument for observing the water particles in a fog, described in a previous 
communication to this Society. As the weather continued to be variable during the 
week of my visit, I was fortunate enough to succeed in making a number of interesting 
observations on the water particles in clouds, and also of comparing the conditions 
in clouds at this elevated situation with those previously observed in fogs at a low level. 

Before giving the results of my observations on the water particles, it may be 
desirable to make a few remarks on the solid or dust particles. When making the 
ordinary dust observations this year, it was frequently noticed that, when surrounded 
by clouds, the number of particles varied greatly at short intervals of time. Even when 
making, in quick succession, the ten tests from which the average was obtained in the 
usual way, it was sometimes observed that the ten numbers varied more than usual. I 
had previously found when working at elevated situations, that the numbers were fairly 
constant for intervals of an hour, and often for many hours, whereas in clouds they 
were observed to vary every few minutes. 

There are two ways of investigating the cause of this variability in the number of dust 
particles in the different parts of the same cloud. By the first we may proceed by 
observing the number of particles, and noting the condition of the clouds at the same 
time as regards density, &c. This plan, however, requires two observers, one counting 
the particles, the other observing the other conditions. The other and simpler plan is to 
select extreme conditions, and to observe the air in a cloud and the clear air immediately 
outside of it. For my first observations of this kind I had to descend the hill some 
distance to get the required conditions, the top being covered with a continuous mass of 
cloud. Near the lower limit of the cloud the difference in the amount of dust in the 
clear air underneath and in the cloud was quite marked. There were about twice as 
many particles in the cloud as in the clear air. On this occasion the clouds were 
clearing away, and there would therefore previously have been a good deal of mixing of 
the cloudy with the clear air ; no very great difference could therefore be expected, 
though there was quite enough to encourage further investigation. 

VOL. XXXVI. PART II. (NO. 13.) 3 C 



:n4 



Mil JOHN A1TKEN ON THE 



A much more favourable opportunity of testing the relative proportions of dust 
particles present in clouds and in clear air occurred on the 25th of the month. The sun- 
rise on that morning had been cloudless, and the air clear ; but as the morning advanced 
the air gradually thickened, and clouds began to form in different directions and at 
different elevations. These newly formed clouds occasionally passed over the mountain 
top. It was therefore unnecessary to change the site of making the observations. All 
that was necessary was to observe the amount of dust while the cloud surrounded the 
observer, and again when the cloud had passed. Readings were taken in this way, from 
time to time, between the hours of 9 a.m. and 10.30 a.m.; the numbers so obtained are 
entered in the following table, each of them being the average generally of ten tests. In 
the table is also entered the state of the air at the time. Many more tests were made, 
but as they were taken in more or less clouded air, and the number of particles was 
intermediate between the extremes given, it has not been thought necessary to enter them 
in the table. After 10.30 a.m. the clouds closed quite in, and the mountain top was in 
dense cloud for the rest of the day. 

Table showing the Number of Dust Particles in Cloud and in Clear Air on the Rigi on May 25th. 



Hour. 


Number of Particles 
per c.c. 


State of the Air. 


9 


1225 


Haze 




1625 


In cloud 




1025 


Clearing 




2450 


In cloud 




3250 


In dense cloud 




3450 


>) » 




1250 


Clearing 




700 


Clear 




1850 


In cloud 


10.30 


4200 


>> 



The above figures show that on this occasion there was a vast difference in the number 
of dust particles in the clouds and in the clear air surrounding them. In this case, as in 
all clouds hitherto tested, a greater number of dust particles was observed in the cloud 
than in the clear air surrounding it. It may be as well, however, to note here that these 
observations were all made in cumulus clouds, and the remark applies only to that form 
of cloud. It seems probable that other conditions may exist in stratus and other clouds. 

When the above observations began at 9 a.m., it seems very probable that the valley 
air had already begun to ascend, as the upper air had thickened a good deal since early 
morning, and though no clouds had yet formed, the upper air was rapidly approaching 
saturation. Another reason for supposing that the lower air had already begun to ascend, 
is that the number of particles on the previous evening was only about 500 per c.c, and 
had been about that number for a considerable time. Further, it will be observed 
from the figures in the table, that a mass of clear air outside the cloud had only 



SOLID AND LIQUID PARTICLES IN CLOUDS. 315 

700 particles per c.c. The probability seems to be that on this occasion the upper air had 
about 500 particles per c.c, while the lower air which was rising and forming the clouds may 
have had somewhere about ten times that number, the ascent of this impure valley air, 
and its mixture in different proportions with the purer upper air resulting in the forma- 
tion of masses of air having degrees of impurity varying between 500 and 5000 particles 
per c.c, as indicated by the numbers in the table. Neither extreme number was, of course, 
observed, as the conditions would not continue while the whole ten tests were being taken. 

As already stated, the number of particles was always greatest in the clouds. 
This simply means that the ascending air was both moist and dusty ; and when little of 
the valley air was mixed with the upper air, the amount of dust was not greatly increased, 
and the humidity was not sufficient to cause condensation. But when the pro- 
portion of lower air was large the number of particles was great, and the humidity 
sufficient to cause condensation. 

It may be mentioned here, that on testing the lower air at the surface of the lake on 
the afternoon of the same day, the number of .particles was a little under 3000 per 
c.c It would seem as if the accumulated impurity of the previous day, which had been 
nearly calm, had risen to the mountain top, and a purer air taken its place, as the 
maximum observed in the clouds was rather higher than that observed at the level of the 
lake after the air forming the clouds had risen. 

That there should generally be more solid particles in cumulus clouds than in the air 
surrounding them, is a result which might have been expected from the conditions. The 
clouds which form during the day on hill tops are composed mostly of valley air, which 
has ascended to the upper regions, expanded, cooled, and condensed part of its vapour. 
The dust in clouds thus acts as a kind of ear-marking, which enables us to trace to 
its source the air forming the clouds. 

It may be as well to give a word of caution here regarding the observations made 
of the dust in the clouds and that in the air surrounding them. In all cases there was 
more dust in the clouds than in the surrounding air. But it by no means follows that 
this is always the case. It seems quite possible there may be valleys where the air is not 
polluted, and from which the moist ascending air may be purer than the air at the time at 
a greater elevation. 

And now a few words as to the water particles in clouds. To those who have been in 
clouds, especially when they are not dense, and who have felt the glow of heat which 
radiates from every side, and have seen the surfaces of all exposed objects quite dry, it is 
difficult to realize that the air is saturated with moisture, and full of suspended drops of 
water, although those who have thought about the subject may have realized that the 
thickness is really due to suspended water particles. Yet, so far as I am aware, no one 
has previously seen, far less attempted to count these drops ; while now, with the aid of 
the instrument already referred to, these particles can be seen and counted with ease. 

The instrument for observing these water particles consists of a glass micrometer 
ruled into small squares of 1 mm. or other convenient size. The micrometer is 



316 ME JOHN AITKEN ON THE 

illuminated by means of a spot-mirror, and viewed through a magnifying lens. The 
instrument is held in the clouded air with the micrometer horizontal, the observer 
watching its surface through the lens, when little drops of rain are seen falling in 
rapid succession on the micrometer and rapidly evaporating. One small square is 
selected, and the number of drops that fall in a measured time are counted. 
The number falling will be found to vary greatly from time to time. If any difficulty 
is experienced in counting the drops owing to their rapid evaporation, it will be 
found of great assistance to cool the micrometer, either by fixing a piece of wet paper or 
a little snow to the metal mounting ; or if this is inconvenient, then a similar effect, 
though somewhat short-lived, may be obtained by breathing on the surface of the 
glass. It was only after observing with this instrument that I realized the true state 
of matters in certain clouds, and saw that though all exposed surfaces were dry, they 
were really exposed to a continuous shower of immense numbers of fine drops of rain. 

The general result of the observations made in clouds on the Bigi is very similar to 
that derived from the observation of fogs at low levels. The size of the particles 
and the number falling are about the same in both cases. Of course both the 
size and the number vary greatly at both places under different conditions. As 
already pointed out, the number of dust particles varies greatly at different parts 
of a cloud, and when we are in the midst of clouds and examine them closely, we 
find that most of them vary greatly in density or thickness from time to time, 
or, more correctly, in their different parts. At one time the passing cloud may be 
so dense that we cannot see beyond 30 yards ; in a minute or two the limit may 
be extended to 100 yards, when it may again close in to its original density. This 
variability in the density of clouds is probably greatest in clouds formed of the 
air rising from the valleys, where the mixture of the pure and impure air is 
necessarily imperfect. Stratus and other forms of cloud probably do not have this want 
of uniformity. All the clouds observed on this occasion varied greatly from point to 
point, and it was also observed that the number of water particles falling varied greatly. 
At times they showered down so quickly that it was impossible to count the number that 
fell on one square millimetre ; but generally it was easy to count the number falling on so 
small an area, and occasionally they were so few that they only fell at considerable 
intervals. 

It was observed that the more dense the cloud the greater was the number of 
drops falling, and that as the cloud thinned away the number gradually decreased. The 
greatest number actually counted was 60 per square m.m. in 30 seconds. If they had 
been counted for a shorter time a quicker rate would have been obtained, as they did not 
fall so quickly during the last half of the time as during the first. Very heavy falls 
seldom lasted more than a few seconds ; a rate of 30 drops to the minute was, 
however, frequently observed. The maximum rate of 60 drops per square m.m. per 
half minute gives 12,000 drops per square centimetre per minute, or 77,400 drops per 
square inch per minute. This does seem an enormous rate of fall, yet the particles are so 



SOLID AND LIQUID PARTICLES IN CLOUDS. 317 

extremely small, they evaporate so quickly, that never more than two or three are ever 
visible at a time on one square of the micrometer. As the cloud gradually thins away, 
the number of drops diminishes and their size at the same time decreases. 

The maximum number of water particles actually observed in a cloud is four times as 
great as the maximum yet observed in a fog. We cannot, however, from this draw any 
conclusion, as the recorded observations are too few to found upon. 

There is an interesting point connected with the conditions existing in some clouds, 
which I have not yet been able to study as fully as is desirable. The point to which I 
refer is, What is the state of the air with regard to humidity in a cloud when all exposed 
surfaces are dry ? We have seen, that while the fog-counter showed the air to be full of 
water particles, showering down at the rate of thousands of drops to the square inch in a 
minute, yet all exposed surfaces were frequently quite dry. Not only were they 
dry, but if wetted they soon dried again, showing that the air was absorbing moisture 
while it was at the same time packed full of water drops. Further, wet and dry bulb 
thermometers hung in the open may show a difference of a degree or two, proving that 
evaporation is going on. 

What, then, is the explanation of this apparent contradiction ? Simply this : radiant 
heat. The sun's rays, falling on the upper surface of a cloud, are partly absorbed and 
spent in heating it and evaporating some of the suspended water, but a good deal of 
the heat penetrates the cloud, and falling on the surface of bodies heats them ; while 
these heated surfaces in turn heat the air in contact with them, and the small cloud 
particles, when they fall into this hot stratum of air, are either evaporated before reach- 
ing the surface of the bodies, or are rapidly evaporated after they touch. 

In all cases in which I had an opportunity of testing the humidity of the air in a 
cloud, it was found to be saturated. Though the wet and dry bulb thermometers 
may have shown a difference of a degree or more, when not properly protected from 
radiation, yet they read alike when radiation was completely cut off. That a vast 
amount of radiant heat may penetrate through clouded air is easily proved by exposing a 
thermometer with black bulb in vacuo. An instrument of this kind exposed while 
these observations were being made, indicated 40 and 50 degrees above the tempera- 
ture of the air, and it was always above the temperature of the air when surfaces were 
dry. Further, when the clouds overhead get thin, a glow of heat can be distinctly 
felt on the hands and face. It is this radiant heat passing through the clouded air, 
and absorbed by exposed surfaces, which heats them and keeps them dry, though 
surrounded by saturated air and exposed to a continuous shower of fine rain. 

Although this conclusion has been arrived at by the aid of the fog-counter and the 
vacuum thermometer, yet the same conclusion was drawn from some observations I 
made on the summit of Pilatus, which I visited last year, while it was in cloud. The 
result of the observations made at that time I had incorporated into my dust observa- 
tions of last year, which are only yet in preparation, but as they properly belong to the 
present subject I have transferred my remarks to this paper. 



318 MR JOHN AITKEN ON THE 

During this visit to Pilatus the top of the mountain was entirely surrounded by 
cloud, and the air was thick with fog particles ; and though one might naturally conclude 
from this that the air was saturated with moisture, yet wooden seats, walls, and all 
exposed surfaces, were quite dry. In a previous communication, from observations 
made on the Rigi, I have stated reasons for supposing that this dryness of exposed sur- 
faces in a cloud does not necessarily prove that the air is not saturated. That is to say, if 
the air is saturated, it docs not necessarily follow that all surfaces will be dripping with 
the fog particles falling on, or .being driven against them. I therefore made on this 
occasion as many observations of the conditions of the different surrounding objects as 
possible while attending to the usual dust counting. The following facts were observed : 
seats, wall tops, wooden posts, nails projecting from the posts, and stones on the ground, 
were all quite dry. But thermometers hung up rapidly got wet, and the pins driven into 
the wooden post for hanging the thermometers rapidly got covered with beads of water. 

It was of course natural to suspect radiation to be the cause of this difference. It is 
true the mountain top was surrounded by a dense mass of clouds, and the sun could not be 
seen, nor even a preponderance of light in one direction more than another to indicate its 
position ; yet as light penetrated, it seemed possible that a perceptible amount of radiant 
heat might do so also. A thermometer placed on a wooden seat showed that a considerable 
amount of heat penetrated the cloud, as it rose to 60°, while one hung up registered 
only 48°. As has been explained in a previous communication, bodies exposed to radiant 
heat are heated in proportion to their size, the larger bodies being heated to a higher 
temperature than the smaller ones. Now the effect of this radiant heat on objects 
exposed in clouded air is to heat them above the temperature of the air, and if the 
objects are of any size they are considerably heated, and become surrounded by a layer 
of hot air, and the water particles are either evaporated in this hot layer before they 
touch the surface, or they are evaporated after they have come in contact with it. 
This is the reason why the seats, walls, posts, &c, were dry, though surrounded by 
saturated cloudy air. These large bodies received so much heat by radiation that they 
were able to evaporate the water particles falling on them, but small bodies, such as 
thermometers, not being heated to the same degree, on account of the passing air 
taking away more heat from them, they did not keep themselves surrounded with 
a layer of hot air, and the cloud particles fell on and wet them. It is true that nails, 
which were smaller than the thermometer, were quite dry. But they were driven 
into wooden posts which were hot, and from this supply the nails drew enough 
heat to keep them dry. The pins for hanging the thermometers did not do this, 
though driven into the wood, on account of their small cross section compared 
with their length not being sufficient to conduct the necessary amount of heat. 
These few observations of different objects exposed in a cloud, showed that the air 
was saturated, though most of the exposed surfaces were quite dry, and that if it had 
not been for the radiant heat everything would have been dripping wet. This 
conclusion, written out last year from observations made on Pilatus without 



SOLID AND LIQUID PARTICLES IN CLOUDS. 319 

special instruments, agrees with the result of our last observations made on the 
Rigi. 

While on the Rigi this year I tried to find whether the density of cloudy condensa- 
tion depends on the number of dust particles present, or on the number of water particles. 
The question was, however, much more difficult of solution than I expected, owing to 
the great rapidity with which the constituent parts of the passing clouds changed. To 
have answered the question satisfactorily in the case of the clouds tested, three observers 
would have been required, one observer noting the density of the cloud, one counting the 
dust particles, and the third observing the water particles, — all three making their 
observations at the same moment. I had, however, to depend on my observations alone, 
and so far as they go they point to the conclusion that the density of a cloud depends 
principally on the number of w T ater particles. Wherever the water particles fell at the 
rate of about 100 drops per square mm. per minute, the limit of visibility in the cloud 
was about 30 yards, and as the limit of visibility increased the rate of fall decreased. 

There were too few opportunities of testing the effect of the number of particles of 
dust on the density of the air in a cloud, as on most occasions the numbers were far too 
variable to offer satisfactory results. But on comparing the density of a fog and a cloud 
when the same number of drops fell, it would appear that the number of dust particles 
has a much smaller effect than the number of water particles. For instance, in a fog 
last winter, as stated in a previous paper, drops were observed to fall at the rate of 
30 per minute per square mm., and the limit of visibility at the time was about 100 
yards. Now this is not very far from the limit of visibility observed on the Rigi when 
the rate of fall was the same. But on the Rigi there were only a few thousand dust 
particles per c.c, while in the fog there were about 50,000. It would thus appear that in 
cloudy condensation the thickness depends chiefly on the number of water particles, 
and only in a secondary way on the number of dust particles. The observations are, 
however, as yet too few to warrant a definite conclusion. 

Although in all the cases of foggy or cloudy condensation investigated by me the air 
was saturated, though it may have appeared to be dry, I do not, however, wish it to be 
understood that there is no such thing as a dry fog, only that in my experience I have 
not observed one. 

We see from the observations made with the fog-counter, that whenever a cloud is 
formed, it at once begins to rain, and the drops shower down in immense numbers, 
though small in size. These drops fall into the air under the cloud, where they 
evaporate if the air is dry, and the distance they fall will depend on their size 
and the dryness of the air underneath. So that on a summer day, with white clouds 
passing overhead, it is really raining, but the drops being very small, they evaporate in 
the air under the cloud long before they reach the earth. It seems probable, therefore, 
that much of the melting of clouds is produced in this way, the particles falling from the 
saturated air in which they were formed and dissolving in the drier air underneath. 



( 321 ) 



XIV. — On the Relation of Nerves to Odontoblasts, and on the Growth of Dentine. 
By W. G. Aitchison Robertson, M.D., B.Sc. (With One Plate.) 

(Read 16th March 1891.) 

Clinical and pathological observation both show that the dentine of the tooth is 
very closely connected with the nervous system, and is in consequence highly sensitive. 
Upon what structures does the sensibility of the dentine depend ? In what manner is 
the dentine connected with the nerves of the pulp so as to become so sensitive to external 
stimuli ? 

Perhaps there is no other structure in the body which is so largely supplied with 
nerves as the pulp of the tooth ; even in the smallest fragment we find many nerve fibres. 
If we take the pulp from the incisor tooth of an ox and examine it after having allowed 
it to lie in a solution of osmic acid for a few minutes, we can see clearly through the 
darkened semi-transparent tissue a large blackened nerve trunk passing up the centre of 
the pulp, giving off on its way innumerable lateral branches, and dividing in a brush- 
like manner near the upper part of the pulp. All the fine branches are directed towards 
the periphery of the pulp. In longitudinal sections of the pulp we can see the same in 
greater detail ; many large bundles of medullated and non-medullated nerve fibres run- 
ning longitudinally near the centre and giving off lateral branches, which are found in 
great numbers near the periphery and divide into single nerve fibres just under the 
odontoblastic layer, being specially numerous at the apex of the pulp. The separate 
nerve fibres enter the layer of odontoblasts and are lost in it. Teased specimens of osmic 
acid preparations of pulp also show its richness in nerves. I may note in passing that in 
many of the teased specimens the axis cylinder of medullated fibres was often found 
projecting a long way beyond its medullary sheath (Fig. 1). It appeared as if the 
sheath had broken across at one of the nodes of Ranvier, and had been pulled off the 
axis cylinder. In these fibres, however, the broken end of the sheath was sharp and 
abrupt ; whereas had it given way at a node we should have expected to find its end in- 
verted owing to the natural constriction in the sheath at the node. The presence of 
these long isolated axis cylinders seems to me to completely refute the idea of Professor 
Leydig, that the nerves are tubes filled with a semifluid substance, and also the assertion 
of Engelmann that the axis cylinder is not perfectly continuous, but is, like the medul- 
lary sheath, interrupted at Ranvier's nodes. 

Non-medullated nerve fibres are also seen in such preparations, though not so 
numerous as the white. In some preparations they may be separated from the medul- 
lated fibres and can be recognised by the nuclei at intervals in the neurilemma 
(Fig. 2). 

VOL. XXXVI. PART II. (NO. 14). 3 D 



322 DR W. G. AITCHISON ROBERTSON ON THE RELATION OF 

How do these terminal filaments of the nerves end in the odontoblastic layer ? Why 
should there be such a multitude of nerves in the pulp if they have not a special function 
and definite termination ? In all other parts of the body, the function of nerves is motor 
or inhibitory, sensory, secretory, or trophic, and the fibres mostly end in special ter- 
minal structures at the periphery. Do the nerves of the tooth end in the odontoblasts 
themselves ; or, as Magitot affirms, in a layer of cells beneath the odontoblasts ? Do 
they pass between the odontoblasts and accompany the dentinal fibres into the dentinal 
tubules as stated by Waldeyer ; or do they pass between the odontoblasts and occupy a 
special set of tubules in the dentine, as described by Boll ? To find the true answer to 
these questions was the object of this rather difficult inquiry, and the conclusions I have 
arrived at I will now detail. 

I shall in the first place describe the odontoblasts as I have seen them in the pulp of 
the ox tooth. On examining the microscopic sections of the pulp I was surprised to find 
odontoblasts were absent from their periphery. At first I thought they had merely 
fallen away during the process of mounting, but their absence was so constant that 
another explanation had to be sought. At first I fractured the tooth with a hammer, 
and on separating the fragments, the pulp was usually found lying almost free. These 
were the pulps which showed an entire absence of odontoblasts when cut into sections. 
Professor Haycraft one day happened to pick up a fragment of the tooth thus fractured, 
and noticed on its inner surface a shining membrane. This when examined was found to 
consist of many cells, often closely aggregated, and having a round, oval or pyriform shape 
(Fig. 3). Attached to many of the oval cells there was a long process embedded amongst 
the other cells. Other fusiform or tailed cells lay free, each having a large nucleus situated 
in the centre of the round or oval cells, and at the broad end of the pyriform cells. These 
were the odontoblasts that were missing in the sections. The greater number had remained 
attached to the dentine when the pulp was separated, showing that their connection with 
the dentine is stronger than with the pulp which they invest, and also demonstrating 
the actual existence of the membrana eboris of Kolliker. The tail or elongated process 
of these cells is not the dentinal fibre, for it is directed into the substance of the pulp, 
but is the root, central, or pulp process of the odontoblast. The dentinal fibre or 
peripheral process had been torn off the greater number of the odontoblasts by the act 
of scraping, though in many a small stump of it remained attached to the opposite ex- 
tremity of the cell, and in some cases this proximal part of the dentinal fibre could be 
seen entering a dentinal tubule. These two processes, the long pulp process and the 
dentinal fibre, are the only processes in the odontoblasts of the ox. These cells have no 
lateral processes. 

To see the odontoblasts in situ I sawed through some teeth with great care and 
removed the pulp by means of a sharp knife. I made sections of these pulps after em- 
bedding in paraffin, and found that although not all, yet a very large proportion of 
odontoblasts remained attached to the pulp. These were seen to be arranged in two 
layers. Many dentinal fibres could be seen projecting from the periphery of the pulp to 



NERVES TO ODONTOBLASTS, AND ON THE GROWTH OF DENTINE. 323 

varying distances. These had been drawn out from the dentinal tubules and now lay 
free (Fig. 4). In one case the dentinal fibre could be seen springing from its odonto- 
blast and apparently giving off its lateral branches, the latter, however, being mere 
rudiments. In other situations, odontoblasts were seen which had become separated from 
the other cells and had drawn out along with them their internal or root process. This 
was in some cases of great length and could be traced for some distance into the pulp. 
In other cases part of the dentinal fibre still remained attached to one extremity of the 
separated odontoblast, while from the other extremity the long internal root process was 
seen extending into the pulp. 

I have not in the course of my reading observed any allusion to the great length of 
this internal process of the odontoblast ; on the contrary, Waldeyer's description is gener- 
ally adopted, according to which it is very short and constantly connected with one of 
the cells lying immediately beneath the membrana eboris. According to Hertz the pro- 
cess does not exist. I would therefore again direct attention to its great length, to the 
absence of lateral branches, and to the oval, fusiform, or pear shape of the odontoblasts in 
the tooth of the ox. 

On snipping off small pieces of the outer surface of the pulp, and teasing them in a 
l / o solution of osmic acid, the specimens showed clearly the nerve fibres isolated and run- 
ning amongst the odontoblasts, but the latter adhered closely to one another and could 
not be separated by teasing, and thus it was impossible to trace the nerve fibres to their 
ultimate destination. In order to render the cells more easily separable, some pulps 
were placed in a 0*6°/ o solution of potassium anhydrochromate for 24 hours. Fragments 
from their outer surface were then teased in picrocarmine, with the result that the long 
central process of the odontoblast was rendered very evident (Fig. 5). These central 
processes ran into the pulp towards the nerves, and could often be traced inwards to a 
distance greater than six to twelve or more times the length of the odontoblast itself. 
From the opposite extremity of each odontoblast the dentinal fibre proceeded, and in 
many cases this was also exceptionally long. The central process arises from each 
odontoblast gradually, the proximal end of the cell gradually tapering till it becomes the 
pulp process. The distal extremity of the odontoblast, on the contrary, rapidly narrows 
down to a fine fibre, which is continued onwards as the fibre of Tomes. The nucleus of 
each cell seems to be swollen up, and is in these preparations a large oval body filling up 
a large part of each odontoblast. When examined by a high magnifying power each 
odontoblast appears almost as if a mere fusiform enlargement of the continuous fibre 
formed by the long root process and the dentinal fibre with a large nucleus in the 
dilated part. 

The next point was to trace the further connection of the root process of each odonto- 
blast. Many preparations of pulps treated with the potassium bichromate solution were 
made and carefully examined in order to find if there were any connection between the 
root process and the nerve fibre. I am convinced that the central processes of the 
odontoblasts become continuous with the nerve fibrils. The connection is extremely 



;)L'4 DR W. G. AITCHISON ROBERTSON ON THE RELATION OF 

difficult to make out, on account of the extreme delicacy of the processes and the manner 
in which they are obscured by overlying cells and neighbouring processes. Nevertheless, 
several demonstrations (as in Fig. 7) were obtained, showing that the pulp processes do 
pass into groups of nerve fibres, amongst which they seem to run for some distance 
before they acquire a medullated sheath. The long central process seems to become the 
axis cylinder of a nerve fibre, which gradually acquires a primitive sheath in which the 
medullary or white substance slowly accumulates, till an ordinary medullated nerve 
results. 

In other cases the medullary substance seems to develop to its maximum amount at 
once as soon as the odontoblastic central process becomes continuous with the axial band 
of the nerve. By the potassium bichromate the axis cylinders and grey nerves are 
rendered evident as fine silky yellow fibres, and can be traced as such to the central 
processes of the odontoblasts. It is very difficult to say whether all the odontoblasts 
send in their long pulp processes to join the nerve fibres. Processes are, however, seen 
to pass inwards from both superficial and deep layers of odontoblasts. 

I have been unable to find any evidence in support of the view advanced by the late 
Professor Boll, that nerve fibres pass up between the odontoblasts to the dentine. It 
seems to me probable that the nerve fibres figured by him as passing direct to the 
dentine were central processes of the odontoblasts that had been drawn out from the 
pulp and from which the odontoblasts had fallen off. Certain of my own preparations, 
where this has happened, closely resemble the drawings made by Boll (Fig. 5). Owing 
to the extreme slenderness of the processes connecting the odontoblasts with the nerves 
of the pulp, the former are extremely liable to fall off, and leave fine threads which might 
be mistaken for independent nerve fibres. I cannot agree with Boll when he states that 
some dentinal tubules contain dentinal fibres, while others contain nerve fibres. Nor yet 
can I at all agree with the statement of Waldeyer, that the nerves accompany the 
dentinal fibres into the tubules. What I have already stated I believe to be the true 
explanation, viz., — that the axis cylinders of medullated nerves gradually lose their 
medullary sheath, and after running through the pulp for a longer or shorter distance in 
this way, they become continuous with the central processes of odontoblasts, and that the 
odontoblasts and dentinal fibres are the terminal organs of the nerve fibres. This would 
explain why the dentine is so sensitive. We may regard the odontoblast with its 
peripheral process as an end-organ, which, if not itself sensitive, at once transmits sensory 
impulses to the nerve with which it is connected, as the odontoblast is with the axis 
cylinder of a nerve by means of its long pulp process. Whether all odontoblasts are 
connected with nerves by their root process is a question still unanswered, and con- 
sequently I cannot say whether all are to be considered as end-organs. Reasoning by 
analogy, it is not necessary that each odontoblast should be in direct communication with 
a nerve fibre in order that sensibility may be conferred on the dentine. It is only 
certain cells in the epidermis which are specialized to receive sensory or tactile impres- 
sions, and these, being connected with the axis cylinders of nerves, confer sensibility to 



NERVES TO ODONTOBLASTS, AND ON THE GROWTH OF DENTINE. 325 

the whole skin, the ordinary cells of the epidermis merely acting as conductors to convey 
impressions to these sensory cells. Such may possibly be the case with the odontoblasts. 
It is highly probable also that the nerves of the tooth have a trophic as well as a sensory 
function. Since nerves pass to odontoblasts, their trophic influence probably extends 
alonff the dentinal fibres and influences the nutrition of the tooth. 



Growth of the Dentine. 

While working at the histology of the pulp it was suggested that I might at the same 
time investigate the manner in which the tooth increases in size. How does the small 
tooth of the young mammal grow into the large tooth of the adult animal ? We know 
that the increase in its bulk is chiefly confined to the dentine, so to this tissue I confined 
myself in this investigation. There has been much controversy as to whether the 
enlargement of a bone is to any extent dependent on interstitial growth. To find out 
whether in the nearly-allied dentine there is or is not interstitial growth seemed an inter- 
esting question ; for in this tissue there is no possibility of external deposition, the 
dentine being formed from without inwards. If there were an interstitial growth in the 
dentine, we should expect to find the dentinal tubules becoming further separated in the 
developing tooth by an increased amount of matrix between them, and thus fewer in a 
given area in the adult tooth than in the young tooth. To determine whether or not this 
mode of growth obtains in dentine was one of the questions I have tried to solve. 

Method of Investigation. — I chose for the purposes of this inquiry the lower incisor 
teeth of the rabbit, for these teeth grow from persistent pulps and are therefore never 
shed. To observe their condition at different stages of growth, I examined them in (1) 
a rabbit newly born ; (2) in a rabbit one month old ; and (3) in an adult rabbit. These 
teeth, while still in situ in the lower jaw, were decalcified and sections made in an antero- 
posterior direction parallel to their long axis. The sections from the very centre of each 
tooth were alone used for measurement, as these contained the largest pulp cavity and 
went directly through the centre of the crown. These teeth, as they are worn down in 
front, are always being added to from behind and thus pushed forwards. The enamel is 
only found on the anterior and lateral surfaces, and is always thickest in the former 
position, where also the dentine is harder. Consequently, as the crown of the tooth is 
worn down, the anterior part, being harder, is not worn so fast, and thus the tooth becomes 
chisel-shaped. In each tooth I determined with as great accuracy as possible the 
following : — 

1. The greatest length of the pulp cavity from the root of the tooth to the apex of 

the pulp. 

2. The greatest breadth of the pulp cavity. 

3. The thickness of the wall of dentine at the middle of the tooth. 

4. The greatest thickness of the dentine at the crown of the tooth. 

5. The width of the dentinal tubules at their origin from the pulp cavity. 



:;-j<; 



DR W. G. AITCHISON ROBERTSON ON THE RELATION OF 



6. The average width of the intertubular substance of the dentine. 

7. The course and direction of the dentinal tubules, and if branched. 

The following table contains these measurements in the three rabbits : — 
Measurements of Lower Incisor Teeth in Rabbits. 





Newly-born. 


One Month Old. 


Adult. 


Total length of tooth, 


i inch 0-2 


\ inch - 5 


1J inch 1-12 


Greatest length of pulp cavity, 


i i. 0-17 


M » o-43 


1 „ 10 


Greatest breadth of pulp cavity, 


•rV » °' 033 


A » °-° 4 


tV „ 0-073 


Thickness of dentine at middle of tooth, 


T £ F „ 0-0063 


A » °' 024 


AV >. 0-044 


Greatest thickness of dentine at crown, 


j\ » 0-02 


A „ 0-08 


6 O-l 9 


Diameter of dentinal tubules at origin, 
Width of intertubular dentine, 


i 0-0000416 


i 0-0000416 


1 0-0000416 


•2 4 000 )' vwwiiu 

Woir » 0-000125 


^Vo „ 0-000165 


24oo0 " " wwllu 

Ww » 0-000165 


Character of dentinal tubules, . 


Run obliquely in 
straight lines ; no 
branches; slightly 
wider near origin. 


Wavy course; not 
branched. 


Wavy course ; many 
branches. 



The results of this table may be summarized as follows : — 

1. The fact of the great increase in length of the tooth is evident, it being six times 

longer in the adult than in the newly-born rabbit. 

2. The pulp cavity increases in length in the same proportion. 

3. The width of the pulp cavity increases in a progressive manner. 

4. The thickness of dentine at the middle of the tooth and also at the crown 

increases nearly six times. 

5. The diameter of the dentinal tubules at their proximal end remains the same at 

each stage of growth. They are all slightly larger at their origin and diminish 
in calibre very gradually as they are traced outwards. 

6. The dentinal tubules become gradually more wavy in their course, and their 

lateral branches become evident in the adult tooth. 
The odontoblasts we know form a complete lining to the inner surface of the dentine, 
and thus form, as it were, a bag enclosing the pulp and having its mouth at the inlet of 
the pulp cavity. Dr Haycraft suggested that the ring of odontoblasts which forms the 
mouth of this bag might fitly be called the " formative ring," because it is apparently 
here that new dentine is constantly being formed. The new dentine pushes upwards 
that previously formed, which carries with it the odontoblasts attached to its inner surface 
by the dentinal fibres. The odontoblasts which once composed the "formative ring" 



NERVES TO ODONTOBLASTS, AND ON THE GROWTH OF DENTINE. 327 

are therefore carried up by the rising dentine, for as soon as each has deposited a little 
dentine at the extreme base of the tooth, it becomes fixed as a permanent odontoblast 
and is afterwards lifted up. Fresh cells are continually growing below those engaged 
in the production of dentine, and thus the existence of the " formative ring " is continued. 
From whence do these new cells arise ? Are they derived from odontoblasts, or are 
they derived from the connective tissue cells of the pulp ? I am inclined to believe 
that they arise from the pulp cells. If we trace the layer of odontoblasts downwards, we 
find that as the dentine becomes thinner so the size of the dentine-forming cells decreases, 
till at the lower limit of the dentine they are small spindle-shaped cells attached to the 
dentine by their distal process. Even below the extreme limit of the dentine we can 
still follow the line of odontoblasts downwards as a layer of fusiform connnective tissue 
cells gradually becoming smaller till they fade imperceptibly into the pulp tissue. There 
is no line of demarcation between them and the ordinary small round cells of the pulp. 

The question now is, How are we to explain how the tooth has increased so much in 
size ? Well, there appears to be four processes all at work at the same time in the 
growing tooth. These processes are : — 

(1) Increase in length of the tooth by addition of new dentine at the lower end 

of the fang. This addition more than compensates the loss caused by the 
grinding down of its crown. In adult age, the growth of new dentine and the 
wearing down balance one another, and the tooth therefore remains of constant 
length. 

(2) Increase in width of the tooth by the gradual widening of the " formative ring." 

(3) A slight interstitial increase in the dentine, causing the formation of an increased 

amount of matrix between the tubules. This interstitial increase appears only 
to occur in the very young tooth. 

(4) As the tooth grows, new layers of dentine are deposited on the inner surface of 

the already existing dentine. This deposit is probably due to the influence of 
odontoblasts, since they are concerned in production of dentine from the 
beginning. 

As the entire tooth is pushed onwards by the growth of new dentine at its lower end, 
the crown is continually being worn down in grinding. The upper end of the pulp 
cavity is very narrow and contracted, owing to the large amount of dentine which has 
accumulated on its surface, for in this situation the dentine is of oldest date and so is 
thickest. Unless provision were made to prevent it, the pulp cavity would soon become 
exposed by reason of the grinding down of the crown. It is here, however, at the upper 
part of the pulp cavity, that the dentine reaches its maximum thickness, and so reduces 
the diameter of the pulp cavity that it persists only as a fine channel of considerable 
length leading from the pulp cavity to the free surface of the tooth (Fig. 8). Osseous 
tissue is developed in this channel, which, together with many small round cells and 
capillaries, prevent any direct communication between the surface of the tooth and 



328 DR W. G. ALTCHISON ROBERTSON ON THE RELATION OF 

the pulp (Fig. 9). No odontoblasts remain in this connecting channel ; therefore 
since the dentinal fibres in the crown of dentine have lost their connection with nerves 
the grinding surface of the rabbit's incisor has lost sensitivity. These laminae of bone 
which help to block up the remains of the pulp-cavity at the apex of the tooth may be 
part of the layer of cement which, in the persistently growing teeth of many animals, 
covers over the crown of the tooth, and which may when worn away sink into the almost 
occluded apex of the pulp cavity and grow there. It may, however, be developed directly 
from the tissue of the pulp. 

In the adult rabbit's tooth, then, the growth of dentine at the " formative ring," the 
continual deposition of new dentine on the inner surface of the old, and the extent to 
which the tooth is worn down externally, exactly balance one another, and thus the tooth 
remains of the same size throughout life. In the young growing animal, however, the 
first two of these processes exceeds the third, and so the tooth grows greatly in length, 
diameter, and thickness of dentine. 

Having seen how a simple conical tooth increases in size, the next question which 
naturally arose was, How do flask-shaped teeth, such as the canine tooth of a cat, 
increase in size ? To answer that question I examined the canine tooth of the lower 
jaw in (1) a newly-born kitten ; (2) in a kitten of one month old ; and (3) in the adult 
cat. These teeth in the cat, as in all carnivora, are shed at an early period of existence. 
This introduces a slight fallacy, for it compels us to compare deciduous with permanent 
teeth. I made the same measurements in this case that I had made in the rabbit's 
incisor tooth. 

(1) Total length of tooth. 

(2) Greatest length of pulp cavity. 

(3) Greatest breadth of pulp cavity. 

(4) Thickness of dentine at middle of tooth. 

(5) Thickness of dentine at crown. 

(6) Diameter of dentinal tubules at their origin from pulp cavity. 

(7) Width of intertubular dentine. 



[Measurements. 



NERVES TO ODONTOBLASTS, AND ON THE GROWTH OF DENTINE. 



329 



Measurements of Lower Canine Teeth in Cats. 



Total length of tooth, 
Greatest length of pulp cavity, 
Greatest breadth of pulp cavity, 
Thickness of dentine at middle of tooth, 
Greatest thickness of dentine at crown, 
Diameter of dentinal tubules at origin, 

Width of intertubular dentine, 



Newly-born. 



I inch 0-196 



* » 0-18 
rh » 0-056 
006 



1200 " 

eV „ 00166 

0'0000589 



17 0-0 '> 



fa „ 0-000235 



One Month Old. 



iff inch 0-36,6 
0-32 
0-074 



2 3 V. 



3 7 
500 ' 



2 5(X 



_2 3 
50~<T ' 



17 07JTT ) 



0036 
0-046 
0-0000589 



^Viy » 0-000235 



Adult. 



Jfo inch 0-59 



i 

2 5 » 



0-5 
0-04 
006 
0-09 



at base ia ^ oTr inch 
0-00U0833 



at crown 



OTjTJ 

0-000037 



inch 



at base , ./ . inch 



0-00U235 
0-000166 



at crown $-£$-$ inch 



(1) This table shows that the lower canine tooth of the adult cat is fully three 

times as long as it is in the newly-born kitten. 

(2) The pulp cavity grows longer in the same proportion. 

(3) As regards the width of the pulp cavity, it seems first to increase in breadth, 

but in the adult tooth the breadth is less than in the newly-born kitten ; but I 
shall discuss this later on. 

(4) At the middle of the tooth the dentine increases to a thickness ten times 

greater than in the newly-born kitten ; while at the crown it increases to about 
six times. 

(5) The diameter of the dentinal tubules was the same in the young kittens. In 

the adult cat, however, the tubules at the base of the tooth are one-half larger 
than those of the younger cats ; but near the crown their diameter decreases 
greatly, being a half less than in the younger cats, and even two-and-a-half 
times smaller than at the base of the same adult tooth. 

(6) The width of the intertubular substance remains the same in the canines of 

kittens and also at the base of the adult tooth. At the crown of the adult 
tooth, however, it is only three-fourths of the breadth of what it is at the root, 
or in the younger teeth. 

Before describing how this tooth grows, I must first call particular attention to a 
fact on which the importance of this inquiry rests, viz., this, that the canine tooth of 
young kittens is not flask-shaped, but merely conical, resembling the extinguisher of 
a candle, the sides (Fig. 10) sloping downwards and outwards from the crown. This 
originally conical tooth increases in size as follows : 

VOL. XXXVI. PART II. (NO. 14). 3 E 



830 DR W. G. AITCHISON ROBERTSON ON THE RELATION OF 

(1) By the gradual dilatation of the "formative ring" of cells at the base of the 
dentine it is increased in diameter. 

(2) It is increased in length by the addition of new dentine at the base of the tooth 
and the consequent elevation of the whole tooth. This also is due to the action of the 
formative ring. 

These two processes go on simultaneously, and so the base of the tooth is always 
growing larger while the tooth is growing in length. This outward extension of the basal 
formative ring of odontoblasts goes on till a maximum is reached. This broadest part of 
the pulp in the growing tooth of the kit-ten is at 'the base, while in the adult cat it re- 
mains about the middle of the tooth. Thus in the newly-born kitten the broadest 
diameter of the pulp cavity was at the base of the conical tooth, and measured 0*056 inch. 
In the kitten one month old the basal diameter of the pulp was still the greatest, the 
tooth still being conical, and measured 0"074 inch. It had not yet become flask-shaped, 
but about this time the pulp cavity attains its greatest breadth and afterwards diminishes. 
The elongation of the tooth still continues, but the formative ring now gradually con- 
tracts, and thus forms an inverted basal cone and so leads to the production of the flask. 
The narrowing of this basal ring continues until in the adult it becomes a small ring- 
surrounding the vessels and nerves going to the pulp. The eloDgation of the tooth has 
also caused its broadest part to be situated about midway between crown and base. 
Thus the tooth is made up of two cones joined at their bases, the "crowD-cone" being 
formed by a dilatation of the "formative ring" and the "fang-cone" by the gradual 
narrowing of the ring. 

(3) During the whole time that the tooth is growing in length, a constant deposition of 
new dentine is taking place on the inner surface of the old. Thus the maximum diameter 
of the pulp cavity in the young tooth becomes lessened, till, in the adult, the original 
pulp cavity is much reduced in size compared with its width in the newly-born kitten. 
Having reached this stage the processes of growth cease, and thus we have a typical flask- 
shaped tooth produced. We see now how the apparent anomaly regarding the width of 
the pulp cavity arises. From the table we find that the width of this cavity is less in 
the adult tooth than it is in the new-born kitten. This is due to the large deposit of new 
dentine on the inner surface of the old causing such a narrowing of the pulp cavity that 
the above condition is produced. 

(4) It is also shown that there has been an interstitial change. The dentinal tubules 
are smaller and closer together near the crown of the adult tooth than near the base. At 
the base the amount of intertubular dentine remains the same as it is in the younger 
cat's tooth, though the tubules themselves are a good deal larger in diameter than in the 
earlier conditions. 

Regarding fang-formation, we have seen how a single fanged tooth, as the canine, is 
developed by the gradual narrowing of the basal dentine-forming ring (Fig. 13). If, 
however, this formative ring, having reached its maximum dilatation, becomes con- 
stricted at two opposite points till these meet like a figure of eight, then two smaller 



NERVES TO ODONTOBLASTS, AND ON THE GROWTH OF DENTINE. 331 

formative rings are produced. If these both go on forming dentine and diverging from 
one another, we have two " fang-cones " produced springing from one body and giving us 
a double fanged tooth. In a similar manner, if the formative ring becomes sub-divided 
into three or four rings, we have a three or four fanged tooth resulting. The tooth 
follicles themselves, even of the molar teeth, are quite simple and show no indication of 
roots. It is only after the body of the tooth has been completed that the roots are 
produced. 

This inquiry shows that the growth of a tooth is only to a very slight extent inter- 
stitial. Interstitial growth is seen in the incisor tooth of the rabbit, where the dentinal 
tubules become further separated by an increase of dentinal matrix, but this appears to 
take place only in the young tooth. Probably it causes a slight increase in the size of 
the rabbit's tooth. In the cat, however, it does not cause any increase in the size of the 
tooth, the width of the intertubular substance remains the same. It is only in the upper 
part of the adult tooth that the tubules are smaller and more closely packed. All we 
can affirm in this case is, that the interstitial increase of the matrix simply encroaches on 
the size of the tubules and so does not cause any increase in the size of the tooth. 

Examination of the Teeth of Young Rabbits fed on Madder. 

"While working at this subject Professor Haycraft kindly gave me the teeth of three 
young rabbits which had been fed on madder for a fortnight. I carefully examined these, 
as we thought they might throw some light on the mode of growth in teeth. 

I. The first rabbit was killed after being fed on madder for two weeks. (The diagrams, 
Fig. 14, show by the darker shading the exact localities where the dentine is stained.) 
All the stained part of the tooth is that produced while the madder was added to the 
food. In the section it is seen that this staining reached the very crown of the tooth, 
but only at the centre. This clearly demonstrates what I have already stated, that there 
is a constant deposit of new dentine on the inner surface of the old. At the apex of the 
pulp cavity the colour is deepest, for most of the new dentine was deposited in that 
situation. It is also seen that there is a narrow band of stained dentine which immediately 
surrounds the pulp. These teeth also show that the incisor teeth increase in length much 
more rapidly than the molars ; for, while the incisor is stained in three-fourths of its length, 
the premolar is stained in only half its length. 

II. The second rabbit was fed for two weeks on madder and then on ordinary food 
for a similar period. The lower part (Fig. 15) of the incisor tooth, and also a narrow 
strip of dentine surrounding the pulp cavity and extending up to the grinding surface, 
is now unstained. This is all new dentine, formed during the last two weeks of the 
animal's life. In the premolar the axial staining is hardly yet worn away. The deeper 
staining of the dentine on the concavity of the incisor may be due to the more rapid 
growth which there is in this situation, and the greater consequent absorption of the 
circulating stain. 



332 DR W. G. AITCHISON ROBERTSON ON THE RELATION OF 

III. The third rabbit was also fed on madder for two weeks, then on ordinary food 
for three weeks. The teeth show merely a further development of what No. II. did 
(Fig. 16). The sections hardly require explanation, as they describe themselves. These 
madder-stained teeth corroborate entirely the explanation of the growth of the dentine 
which I have already given. 

The results of this investigation into the growth of teeth may be thus summarised. 
There is — 

(1) Increase in the length of the tooth by addition of new dentine at its base. 

(2) Increase of diameter by dilatation of the basal formative ring. In the case of 
teeth with fangs, these are produced by the gradual contraction of this ring with or 
without subdivision. 

(3) Deposit of new dentine on the inner surface of the old. 

(4) A slight increase in the matrix of the dentine by interstitial growth. 

I have in conclusion to express my warm thanks to Professor Rutherford for the free 
use of his laboratory, microscopical preparations, and other appliances, and for his careful 
revision of this paper, and to Professor Haycraet, who suggested this subject for research 
and who supervised my work personally and helped me with many suggestions in the 
execution of it. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY. 

Muller, J., Archiv, 1836, p. 3. 

Retzius, A., " Bemerkungen tiber der innern Bau der Zahne, mit besonderer Riicksicht auf den im Zahn- 
knochen vorkommenden Rb'hrenbau," Muller 's Archiv, 1837, p. 486. 

Nasmyth, Med. Chirurg. Transact, 1839, vol. xxii. 

Goodsir, Prof., "On the Origin and Development of the Pulp and Sacs of the Human Teeth," Edin. Med. 
and Surgical Journal, 1839, vol. li. 

Tomes, J., Dental Physiology and Surgery, 1848 ; " On Structure of Teeth," Pro. Roy. Soc, 1838 ; " Teeth of 
Rodents," Phil. Trans., 1850, p. 530 ; " On the Presence of Fibrils of Soft Tissue in the Dentinal Tubules," 
Phil. Trans., 1856, p. 515. 

Krukenberg, A., " Beitrag sur Lehre von dem Rbhrensystem der Zahne und Knochen," Mutter's Archiv, 1849. 

Owen, Art. "Teeth, " Todd's Cyclopaedia of Anat. and Physiol., vol. iv, 1852. 

Huxley, Articles on Teeth in Quart. Jour, of Micros. Society, 1854, 1855, 1857, 1872, 1878. 

Magitot, l&tude sur le Develop, et la Structure des Dents, Paris, 1856 ; " Memoire sur la Genese et la Morphologie 
du Follicule Dentaire chez l'Homme et les Mammiferes," Comp. Rend., 1860 ; "De la Structure et du De- 
velop, du Tissu Dentinaire dans la S^rie Animale," Comp. Rend., 1880, p. 1298. 

Kobin et Magitot, Jour, de la Physiologie, 1860, 1861. 

Magitot et Legros, Jour, de I' Anat. etde la Physiol., 1866 ; " Origine et Format, du Follicule Dentaire dans les 
Mammiferes," Comp. Rend., 1873, p. 1000 ; " Greffes de Follicules Dentaires," Comp. Rend., 1874, p. 357; 
"Develop, des Dents," Jour, de I' Anat. etde la Physiol., 1876. 

Tomes and de Morgan, " Observations on the Structure and Development of Bone," Phil. Trans., 1853. 

Furstenberg, "Ueber einige Zellen mit verdickten Wanden im Thierkbrper," Mutter's Archiv, 1857. 

Kmluker, " Manual of Human Histology," translated by Busk, 1860; Centralblatt, 1872. 

Beale, "Structure of the Simple Tissues," Archiv of Dentistry, 1865. 

Hertz, " Untersuch. liber den feineren Bau und die Entwicklung der Zahne," Virchow's Archiv, 1866, Bd. 37. 

EoHL, " Knochenkbrperchen mit eigenthumlichen Kapseln in der Zahnpulpa," Archiv fur Mikrosk. Anat. 
1866. 

Boll, F., " Untersuch. iiber die Zahnpulpa," Arch, fur Mikrosk. Anat, 1868, p. 73. 



NERVES TO ODONTOBLASTS, AND ON THE GROWTH OF DENTINE. 333 

Waldeyer, W., "Human and Comparative Histology," Strieker's Handbook, Syden. Soc, vol. i. p. 463, 1870. 

Gegenbaur, " Elements of Comparative Anatomy" 1878, p. 551. 

Tomes, C. S., " Cuticula Dentis," Quart. Jour. Micr. Sci, 1872; Manual of Dental Anat., 1876; " On the 

Develop, of Teeth," Quart. Jour. Micr. Sci, 1876 ; " On Vascular Dentine," Phil. Trans., 1878, p. 25. 
Frey, Histology, 4th edit., 1879, p. 261. 
Rutherford, Prof. W., Text Book of Physiology, pt. i., 1880. 
Turner, Prof. Sir W., " Introduction to Human Anatomy" 1877. 
Klein and Noble Smith, Atlas of Histology, 1880. 
Balfour, F. M., Comparative Embryology, vol. ii. p. 638, 1881. 
Landois and Stirling's Physiology, 3rd edit., 1888. 
M'Kendrick, Text Book of Physiology, 1889. 
Sharpey, Quain's Anatomy, 9th edit., 1882, vol. ii. p. 552. 
Brunn, Dr A. v., " Ueber die Ausdehnung des Schmelzorganes und seine Bedeutung fur die Zahnhildung," 

Archiv fur Mikrosk. Anatomie, 1887, p. 367. 



DESCRIPTION OF THE FIGURES IN THE ACCOMPANYING PLATE. 

Fig. 1. Teased portion of pulp of ox tooth. Shows long projecting axis cylinder processes ; on one a piece of 

the white sheath is seen separated from its nerve fibre. 
Fig. 2. Shows medullated and non-medullated nerve fibres. 

Fig. 3. Scraping from inner surface of dentine. Shows odontoblasts with their long central processes. 
Fig. 4. Surface of pulp. Distal processes of odontoblasts seen projecting from surface. Odontoblasts are 

seen pulled away from the surface though still attached to it by their central process. In one both 

distal and central processes are seen springing from each extremity. 
Fig. 5. Portion of surface of pulp teased in potassium anhydrochromate solution. Shows very long central 

process belonging to each odontoblast and entering substance of pulp. The odontoblast has 

fallen off in many cases, and leaves the central process projecting like a fine hair or nerve fibre. 
Fig. 6. Pallisade-like arrangement of distal processes of odontoblasts seen on surface of pulp. 
Fig. 7. Apparent direct continuation of root process of odontoblast with axis cylinder of nerve. 
Fig. 8. Section through upper part of incisor tooth of rabbit. Shows obliterated upper end of pulp cavity. 
Fig. 9. Shows the same more highly magnified. Osseous lamella?, small round cells, and capillaries seen. 
Fig. 10. To illustrate various stages in growth of a flask-shaped tooth, as the canine tooth of the cat. 
Fig. 11. Diagrammatic representation of the manner of growth of a persistently growing tooth, as a rabbit's 

incisor. Shows gradual widening out of the basal formative ring, with constant deposition of new 

dentine. 
Fig. 12. Diagrammatic representation of the manner of growth of a flask-shaped tooth ; showing gradual 

enlargement of formative ring to form the " crown-cone," and then its more gradual contraction to 

produce the " fang-cone "; shows also the diminution in size of the pulp cavity through deposit of 

new dentine. 
Fig. 13. To show fang-formation — the basal formative ring subdividing into two or three smaller rings 

according to the number of fangs to be produced. 
Fig. 14. Incisor and premolar teeth of young rabbit fed for two weeks on madder. The shading on the dentine 

represents the amount of that tissue formed during the period on which the animal had madder 

added to its food. 
Fig. 15. Same teeth in young rabbit fed for an equal period on madder, then for two weeks on ordinary food. 
Fig. 16. Same teeth in young rabbit fed for three weeks on ordinary food, after having been fed on madder for 

two weeks. 



VOL. XXXVI. PART II. (NO. 14). 3 F 



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( 335 ) 



XV. — The Development of the Carapace of the Clielonia. By John Berry Haycraft, 

M.D., D.Sc, F.R.S.E. (With Plate.) 

(Read 28th February 1890.) 

All observers are agreed that the bones of the plastron and some bones of the cara- 
pace are simple membranous bones, arising from centres formed in a pre-existing fibrous 
membrane. Considerable difference of opinion exists as to the development of the 
costal and neural plates of the carapace. 

Owen # speaks of the ossification " as extending from the ribs and neural spines into 
the substance of the neural and costal plates. The ribs and spines enter into the com- 
position of the carapace." 

GEGENBAURt questions whether the ribs of the Chelonia " are not in reality enormously 
developed transverse processes, and considers that the neural and costal plates have 
developed in the integument." 

ClausJ remarks that the spinous processes of eight of " the thoracic vertebrae (2nd to 
9th) appear in the middle line as horizontal plates (neural plates), the ribs of the same 
vertebrae are transformed into broad transverse plates (costal plates)." 

Huxley § says that the neural plates and the costal plates exist as expansions of the 
cartilages of the neural spines and ribs of the primitive vertebras, before ossification 
takes place. This being the case, the " neural and costal are vertebral and not dermal 
elements, however similar they may be to the nucleal, pygal, and marginal plates." 

It would be difficult to find an example of greater confliction of opinion than is 
contained in the above statements, and it is obvious that even the simple facts 
of the developmental process have not been made out. The most recent contributions 
to the subject are those of Dr C. K. Hoffmann. f| This observer has carefully 
described the main features of the development both of the costal and neural plates. 
He has shown that the primitive vertebras and ribs, composed of cartilaginous 
tissue, become encrusted with bone, but he erroneously describes the costal and neural 
plates as arising outside the vertebral and costal periosteum. In reality, as I shall show, 
there is no true periosteum at all. His view, undoubtedly incorrect, is that these plates 
arise outside the ribs and vertebras, and are not expansions of them ; they are mem- 
branous ossifications immediately surrounding the ribs and vertebras. He describes very 
fully the subsequent calcification and absorption of the costal and vertebral cartilages, 
and the obliteration of the primitive bony rib. 

* Gomp. Anat. and Phys. of Vertebrates, vol. i. p. 63. 

+ Elements of Comparative Anatomy, pp. 433, 440. 

% Text-Book of Zoology, p. 226. 

§ Tlxe Anatomy of Vertebrate Animals, p. 201. 

|| Dr H. G. Bronn's Klassen v. Ordnungen des Thier-Reichs., Sechster Band, iii. Abtheilung. 

VOL. XXXVI. PART II. (NO. 15). 3 G 



336 DR JOHN BERRY HAYCRAFT ON THE 

My own work on this subject is followed out very much on the same lines ; but I 
have endeavoured to fill in certain gaps left in his description. I am obliged to differ 
from him in what is to my mind his most important conclusion he has arrived at. I 
shall endeavour to show that there is no true periosteum (perichondrium) around either 
the primitive cartilaginous rib, or the primitive cartilaginous vertebrae, and that the 
costal and neural plates do not therefore arise outside the periosteum as he affirms. 
Whereas in the growing rib or vertebra, say of a crocodile, we find an investing perios- 
teum, the inner surface of which is alone osteogenetic, the periosteum of a turtle's rib 
consists only of a few fibres of the osteogenetic membrane, of which the carapace is com- 
posed, arranged loosely around the bone. In the case of the crocodile's rib, the deposition of 
bone, being on the inner surface of a cylindrical osteogenetic tube, leads to the formation 
of a cylindrical rib, whose girth is limited by the growth of the periosteal tube. In the 
case of the turtle there is no such limiting membrane, and the bone forming first on the 
surface of the cartilage spreads outwards in all directions, gradually involving the whole 
carapace. This is a short, and as I believe an accurate description of the formation 
of the neural and costal plates. I shall endeavour to amplify this statement in the fol- 
lowing pages. When the facts of the developmental process are thoroughly grasped, 
it will be possible to discuss with advantage the relation which the costal and neural 
plates bear to the ribs and vertebrse. 

Thanks to the embryo turtles kindly given me by Professor Moseley, I have been 
able to investigate the development in its earliest stages. The subsequent steps have 
been worked at from a very nearly complete series of fresh- water tortoises. The carapace 
was hardened either in alcohol or picric acid. A very convenient method when dealing 
with animals that have already begun to develop osseous tissue is to place the carapace 
in picric acid, to which a few drops of hydrochloric acid have been added, when the 
carapace will soften in a few days, and sections may at onoe be prepared. 

Study of a Series of Sections Transverse to the Length of the Carapace (Plate, 

figs, 7-10). 

The youngest embryo that I have been able to obtain was a green turtle, measuring 
about 1 centimetre in length. The vertebral cartilage in this embryo is entirely 
cartilaginous, and so are the ribs. The cartilage is in all situations surrounded by 
embryonic tissue, such as is found in the rest of the carapace. There is no special 
periosteum, for one can hardly speak of the tissue next the cartilage, which has some- 
what of a set around it, as a periosteum. Dorsal muscle plates are evident in this 
embryo. 

Each vertebra is composed of three pieces. The first encloses the notochord, forming a 
complete ring around it. The other two encircle the neural canal laterally and posteriorly. 
The cartilaginous ribs are attached to the vertebrae by fibrous tissue. 

In a somewhat more advanced embryo (fig. 7), the lateral pieces of cartilage have 



DEVELOPMENT OF THE CARAPACE OF THE CHELONIA. 337 

joined posteriorly over the neural canal. The rib is joined by fibro-cartilage both to the 
notochordal cartilage and to the lateral plate of its side. No trace of bone is as yet 
apparent. 

The further stages of development I have studied both in the green turtle and in the 
common fresh-water tortoise. As my specimens of the latter form a more complete series 
they will now be referred to, but if in any detail they differ from the green turtles, that 
difference will be indicated. 

A tortoise of 2*2 centimetres long (fig. 9) has the vertebrae composed of one piece of 
cartilage, complete fusion of the original pieces having taken place. The rib is now com- 
pletely joined to the vertebral column, but the line of juncture is indicated in this and in 
older specimens by a curved band of closely-packed cells. I think there can be no doubt 
that what has been termed the costal cartilage is indeed a true rib cartilage and not a 
developed transverse process as Gegenbaur affirms. The rib cartilage is from first to 
last quite distinct from the vertebral cartilages, whereas a transverse process arises as a 
prolongation of one of these. In the 2*2 centimetres tortoise ossification has already 
commenced both on the vertebral and on the rib cartilage. The shaft of the rib cartilage is 
covered by a thin layer of bone, which extends over part of the head of the rib cartilage. 
This layer of bone, neither in this nor in any of the tortoises of larger size, never extends 
quite up to, or blends with, the bone which is now found to encrust the vertebral cartilage. 
In addition to the crust of bone on the rib cartilages, bony spicules project dorsally over 
the muscle plate (C, fig. 9), and this growth is one of the first indications of the forma- 
tion of the costal plates. In the same specimen! bone has already formed within the 
neural canal, and the neural arch is covered posteriorly by a thin crust of bone which 
extends laterally towards, but never blends with,, the crust of bone on the rib cartilage. 
From the posterior part of the neural arch bony spicules are seen to have extended into 
the connective tissue found lying between the vertebrse and the superficial scutes, to form 
the neural plates. This connective tissue consists partly of those straight interlacing 
fibres (in connection with which are numerous connective tissue corpuscles) which are so 
characteristic of a membrane destined to be converted into bone. 

In a tortoise 2 6 and in another 3 centimetres long, the spongy bone developed 
behind the ribs and vertebrae had increased in amount, extending round and partly 
enclosing the muscle plate. 

In a specimen 4 centimetres long (fig. 10), the vertebrae are seen to have been covered 
and lined by bone,, which has extended backwards to form the neural plate. Much of the 
cartilage of the vertebrae has been removed and replaced by bone, and the same obtains 
in the rib cartilage. Of the latter the head alone remains intact, together with some 
scattered and often isolated cartilaginous remains of the main body of the primitive rib. 

The formation of the neural plate is now far advanced. It extends nearly up to the 
tortoise-shell, and laterally it has extended to meet the advancing costal plate. At this 
point the bony spicules of the two plates dove-tail very loosely into each other, forming 
what may be termed a primitive suture. The spicules of the neighbouring plates 



:l:N DR JOHN BERRY HAYCRAFT ON THE 

never, however, come actually into contact one with another. They are invariably 
ensheathed and separated from one another by osteogenetic fibrous tissue loaded with 
osteoblasts. As the plates grow in size, the suture still remains ; there is no bridging 
over of spicules from one plate to another. 

Larger tortoises simply show further stages of growth. The costal and neural plates 
grow in size, and the vertebral cartilage entirely disappears and is replaced by bone. 
The fibro-cartilaginous carapace is now replaced by bone, which, forming on the surface 
of the cartilage, gradually extends in all directions involving the cartilage itself, and the 
whole of the fibrous carapace except a thin layer under the chitinous carapace, which is 
converted into ordinary fibrous tissue. 

The development of the neural plate has now been fully described, except, indeed, 
the process by which the cartilage and the fibrous tissue change into bone. It will be 
convenient to study this when the development of the costal plate has been more fully 
described. The formation of the latter at its proximal extremity has been already 
studied ; it will be advisable to examine a series of sections transverse to the length of 
the tortoise, but passing through the rib cartilage and developing costal plate at its 
distal margin, and showing its relation with the marginal plates. 



Sections at the Costo-Marginal Junction (Plate, figs. 5 and 6). 

It will be sufficient to study two sections, one of the tortoise 2 '6 centimetres and the 
other of the tortoise 4'6 centimetres long. In the figure (fig. 5, A) the commencing 
marginal plate is shown as well as the external end of the costal plate. The latter 
contains the still cartilaginous rib, absorption of this tissue not having been completed. 
From the outer end of the rib cartilage (which is not represented in the figure) bony 
spicules (C, fig. 5) shoot out towards the marginal plate. The spicules have not nearly 
reached the marginal plate, and are still far away from the notch between the superficial 
scutes of the carapace. 

In the 4 "6 centimetres tortoise, the marginal plate has increased considerably in size. 
The rib cartilage is seen here and there within the costal plate. Most of the cartilage is 
indeed absorbed, but portions are still to be seen, and occasionally almost all the rib cartilage, 
is left. The rib cartilage is much larger, and it is thicker than the rib cartilage of the 2'G 
centimetres tortoise. It seems, then, that during the formation of the costal plate, even 
up to a comparatively late period, the cartilage continues to grow, and the absorption 
of large masses of the tissue does not seem to interfere with the growth of those portions 
which remain within the bony ring in which they are enclosed. Not only has the rib 
cartilage grown outwards towards the marginal plate (fig. 6), but the bony spicules have 
pushed outwards, and have passed beyond the notch on the superficial scutes. The 
marginal plates, which arise as little nodules in the connective tissue, are seen in the 4 '6 
centimetres tortoise to have increased considerably in size. Spicules have shot out into 



DEVELOPMENT OF THE CARAPACE OF THE CHELONIA. 339 

the fibrous carapace, some of them towards the advancing costal plate. The spicules of 
the two plates have loosely dove-tailed into each other to form a 'primitive suture. 

A Study of Sections Transverse to the Length of the Ribs (Plate, figs. 1-4). 

A section through the distal end of the rib of the green turtle of about 5 centimetres 
long (fig. 1) shows that the structure is entirely cartilaginous. It is embedded in the 
general osteogenetic tissue of the carapace, which has a "set " around it. It cannot 
be said to possess a perichondrium. 

Fig. 2 represents a section through the proximal end of the same rib. Here is 
found the first commencement of ossification, the mesoblastic cells next the cartilage 
having become converted into osteoblasts, and having formed a complete ring of bone 
around the cartilage. At the sides of the rib (see fig. 9), in the region of the intercostal 
spaces, the process is more active, and tiny spicules are seen already to project into the 
surrounding tissue. These broaden the rib, and are the first indications of the formation 
of the costal plates seen from this aspect. 

In the fresh-water tortoise, 2*2, 2*6, and 3 centimetres long (fig. 3), the further 
development of the costal plates may conveniently be traced. Spicules of bone penetrate 
in all directions, but especially into the intercostal connective tissue. In 4 and 4 '6 
centimetres tortoises (fig. 4) the process has so far advanced that neighbouring costal 
plates have met together, forming the primitive sutures already described, and all the 
tissue of the carapace except the sensitive layer under the scutes is converted into 
spongy bone. The rib cartilage is all absorbed, and so is the little tube of bone which 
first invested it (A, fig. 4). 

The Osteogenetic Tissue of the Carapace. 

The whole carapace of the embryo tortoise, as has previously been mentioned, 
consists of embryonic connective tissue, in which are embedded cartilaginous vertebras 
and ribs, the whole being covered with epidermic scutes. The tissue is rich in blood- 
vessels, and consists chiefly of interlacing collagenous fibres, many of which are 
straight and clasped by clasping cells. Many young corpuscles are seen evidently 
about to form fresh fibres, traces of which are often apparent. There is no sign 
of any segmentation of this osteogenetic tissue. It forms an unbroken sheet of tissue, 
in which, of course, the cartilaginous ribs and vertebras are embedded. In fig. 11 
the tissue is represented surrounding a rib cartilage. The connective tissue cells near 
the cartilage have become osteoblasts, and a thin layer of bone has been formed on the 
rib cartilage. At the same time, however, active changes take place in the surround- 
ing tissue, especially in that part which is intercostal. The tissue becomes very 
vascular near the rib cartilage, and there is a rapid formation of the straight fibres or 
spicules destined to be included in the forming bone as Sharpey's fibres. In the inter- 



340 DR JOHN BERRY HAY CRAFT ON THE 

costal region this change is most evident, and by the time some half dozen laminae of 
bone have been deposited on the rib cartilage, well-marked processes of spongy bone are 
seen to have already projected into the intercostal spaces. 

The processes are furnished at these points by little brushes of straight connective 
tissue fibres, between which osteoblasts are found in great numbers. Parts of these 
straight fibres are already lodged within the processes from which they project, and the 
further growth of these processes is, of course, due to the further inclusion of these 
and of other fibres. In this way, then, the whole of the membranous carapace becomes 
converted into spongy bone, which grows, and is subsequently divided into two, the 
outer and the inner, compact plates. These changes are brought about by that modelling 
process, seen in all osseous structures, and which seems to consist in a constant deposi- 
tion of fresh bone and removal by absorption of superfluous tissue. 

What is a Costal Plate ? 

Let us first consider the development of the costal plate, for the neural plate, 
developed in precisely the same way, may be included in any deductions we may draw 
concerning the homologies of the rib plate. 

In the first place, are these intra-cartilaginous or intra-membranous bones ? Hoff- 
mann and others maintain that they are intra-membranous like the other bony scutes, 
because they are developed in membrane, and because the rib cartilage around which 
this development takes place is rapidly absorbed. The fact that these plates have been 
developed in membranes around the cartilages of the rib, does not, however, make them 
membranous bones ; unless, indeed, one looks upon the femur or a human rib as mem- 
branous bones. I suppose that it would be safe to say that not one single ounce of bone 
in an adult human skeleton was ever in histeogenetic connection with cartilage at all. 
The latter tissue is, as far as long and short bones are concerned, a primitive tissue 
indicating their future positions, but in no way developing into them. The shaft of the 
femur and of a human rib are developed in the membranes which surround the primitive 
cartilage, which membrane is called the periosteum. The only way we can possibly look 
at the question in the light of modern histology is not whether or not bone is formed 
out of membrane, but whether or not its position was taken at an early period of 
development by hyaline cartilage. From this point of view the answer is simple. The 
costal plate differs entirely from a plastral plate, in that the latter was never in any way 
connected with cartilage, while the rib pla.te was, for it developed like the human or any 
other rib around a rib cartilage. It is true that the rib plate developes around the rib 
cartilage in a different manner from that in which the human rib developes, but this does 
not alter the morphological homologies of these structures. The supposed hard and fast 
lines in animal morphology do not exist in fact, and cell structures and cell processes 
pass one into another through innumerable transition forms. At one time one or two 
typical osseous developments had been described, but it is now known that these types 



DEVELOPMENT OF THE CARAPACE OF THE CHELONIA. 341 

are bridged between by many intermediate processes. Thus the terminal phalanx of 
the finger is an intra-cartilaginous bone, and developes in all respects like the middle 
phalanx, except that its distal end shoots out towards the tip of the finger just like the 
end. of the costal plate of the tortoise shoots out towards the marginal plate. We cannot, 
however, consider the costal plates simply as ribs, for most would agree that the term 
rib indicates a long cylindrical bone enclosed in a periosteum. We may, however, with 
propriety consider the costal plate as a rib expansion. 

If, finally, we contrast the carapace of the Chelonia with the body- wall of a crocodile, 
the following differences are apparent. In the crocodile we have segmentation into 
alternate muscle plates and rib cartilages enclosed in periosteum, the outer layers of 
which have differentiated already into fibrous tissue. These structures grow, the muscle 
plates forming intercostal muscles, the periosteum being only osteogenetic on its inner 
surface secreting a cylindrical rib. In the tortoise the carapace is segmented, but only 
to the extent of having cartilaginous ribs within an otherwise undifferentiated body-wall. 
The ribs are not ensheathed by any specially differentiated periosteal membrane, and so 
the bone where it developes around the cartilages gradually comes to involve the whole 
of the intercostal spaces. In the turtles, parts of the ribs, viz., those which join the 
marginal plates, preserve their rib-like character. They have not expanded to form 
true costal plates, because they are invested by a restraining periosteum, in which true 
adult fibrous tissue has already formed. 

The study of Chelonia, in which the ossification of the carapace is incomplete, is very 
instructive in this relationship. Owing to the lack of material I have not been able to 
devote as much attention to this as I should have desired, but such observations as I 
have been able to make are worth recording. 

If a young Horopas areolatus be dissected, one can remove the scutes and the 
membranous carapace, leaving behind true bony vertebrse and ribs. I have made care- 
ful sections of a Horopas, and find that the bony vertebrse and fully-formed bony ribs 
show the merest indications of osseous extension into the surrounding carapace. I am 
told that my specimen corresponded in point of general development with one of the 
larger fresh-water tortoises I have figured, yet the condition of the carapace was very 
different. The ribs were cylindrical bony tubes, with here and there indications of a 
lateral expansion. They were embedded in a tissue which was no longer embryonic, it 
was fairly differentiated fibrous tissue. The ribs were not enclosed in a tube of perios- 
teum, hence the attempts at lateral expansion. They were surrounded, however, by 
tissue which had already differentiated, and had therefore not the same tendency to be 
involved in any osteogenetic changes. 

One may conclude with the following general statement. The chest-wall of a typical 
vertebrate segments into rib cartilages, surrounded by perichondrial tubes, osteogenetic 
on their inner surfaces alone, and muscle plates embedded in connective tissue. The 
cylindrical ribs form on the inner surface of the growing perichondrium (periosteum), and 
the muscle plates form the intercostal muscles. 



:U*2 DEVELOPMENT OF THE CARAPACE OF THE CHELONIA. 

Iu the Chelonia there are no muscle plates, and the perichondrium is absent from the 
rib cartilage, except in such situations where ribs are actually seen, as at the outer part 
of the carapace of turtles. 

In those Chelonia where the carapace forms a complete bony box, the body wall 
segments into rib cartilages embedded in embryonic connective tissue. Ossification 
commences on the surface of the rib as in the typical vertebrate, but as there is no 
periosteum, it spreads outwards and involves the whole body- wall, the tissue of which 
becomes osteogenetic at first near the rib cartilage, and finally throughout its entirety. 

In those Chelonia in which the carapace is incomplete, the rib expansions involving 
only a part of the body-wall, the following changes occur. The body-wall segments as 
before into rib cartilages without true periosteal sheaths, embedded in embryonic con- 
nective tissue. Bone forms on the outer surface of the ribs and expands more or less 
into the surrounding connective tissue. This does not occur with great rapidity how- 
ever, and the intercostal embryonic connective tissue differentiates into white fibrous 
tissue. 

The neural plates are developed in a manner which is in every way essentially similar 
to the development of the costal plates. 



DESCRIPTION OF PLATE. 



Figs. 1, 2, 3, and 4. — Transverse sections through the ribs and costal plates in developing tortoise. A, rib- 
cartilage ; B, scutes ; C, young bone ; D, suture between approaching costal plates. 
Figs. 5 and 6. — Transverse sections through the carapace of developing tortoise at the costo-marginal junction. 

A, marginal plate ; B, scutes ; C, costal plate. 

Figs. 7, 8, 9, and 10. — Transverse sections through the vertebrge of developing tortoise. A, costal cartilage; 

B, vertebral cartilage ; C, costal bone ; D, vertebral bone ; M is placed on the dorsal muscle. 

Fig. 11. — Part of a transverse section through a rib of an embryo turtle. A, rib cartilage ; B, a few laminae of 
bone ; C, a lateral projection of bone ; D, osteogenetic tissue around rib, there being no fully-formed 
periosteum ; H is placed in a blood capillary ; K, osteoblast. 



ans. Roy. Soc. Edin. 



DR. J. BERRY HAYCRAFT ON THE CARAPACE OF THE CHELONIA. 



Fig. 1 



Vol. XXXVI. 



Fig. 2 



,B 



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A- C 



T ^ u:iI ^^^l'JDUir m r z 



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Fig. 8 



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Fig. 



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( 343 ) 



CONTENTS. 




PAGE 






PAGE 






D. Action on Heart and Blood-vessels, 


388 


343 




E. Action on Lymph Hearts, 


453 


a, 361 




F. Action on Respiration, 


454 


379 


E. 


cplanation of Plates VIII. -XXIII., . 


455 



XVI. — Strophantus hispidus : its Natural History, Chemistry, and Pharmacology. 
By Thomas R. Fraser, M.D., F.R.S., F.R.S.E., F.R.C.P.E., Professor of Materia 
Medica in the University of Edinburgh. 

Part II.— Pharmacology. (Plates VIIL-XXITI.) 

(Read 3rd June 1889). 



G. Pharmacological Action — 

A. General Action, .... 

B. Action on Cerebro-Spinal Nervous System, 

C. Action on Skeletal Muscles, . 



C— PHARMACOLOGICAL ACTION. 
A. General Action. 

In former papers on the pharmacological action of Strophanthus, dating from 1869, I 
selected for description, from the considerable number of experiments that had been 
made, merely those experiments which sufficed to illustrate the general features of the 
action, and especially such effects as seemed likely to form a basis for the application of 
Strophanthus to the treatment of disease. 

I had intended to have followed, at no distant date, these preliminary and somewhat 
fragmentary notices by a more complete description of the pharmacological action, for 
which, indeed, nearly all the required experimental data had several years ago been 
obtained ; but unavoidable circumstances prevented this intention from being fulfilled. 
In this part of the present paper the fuller description will be given ; and if any excuse 
were required for doing so, it may perhaps be found in the circumstance that the anti- 
cipation of the therapeutic value of Strophanthus has been amply confirmed by the 
important position now occupied by it as a therapeutic agent. 

It has been shown in Part I. that while many of the constituent portions of the 
Strophanthus plant contain the active principle, strophanthin, this principle is most 
abundantly present in the seeds. It occurs in the seeds along with substances that are 
of little pharmacological interest, such as albumen and mucilage, and also with other 
substances that frequently possess active properties, such as resin and fixed oil. The 
resin has not as yet been examined. 

VOL. XXXVI. PART II. (NO. 16). 3 H 



*H4 DR THOMAS R. FRASER ON STROPHANTHUS HISPIDTJS. 

Fixed Oil. 

The fixed oil, representing so much as 34 per cent, of the weight of the seeds, has 
been administered to animals, after it had been repeatedly washed with water in order to 
remove from it any adhering or dissolved strophanthin. When this precaution was 
adopted, the oil was found to be inert when administered even in considerable quantities 
to frogs and rabbits. 

Experiments I. and II. — Thus, O'l grain of oil, partly dissolved and partly emulsified in 
weak alcohol, was injected under the skin of a frog* weighing 480 grains, and 0*2 grain 
was similarly administered to a frog weighing 463 grains, but no observable effect was 
produced. In a pithed frog [Experiment III.) the heart was exposed, and 0*01 grain of 
oil was placed upon it, but the action of the heart was not thereby affected. And, 
finally (Experiment IV.), a small young rabbit, weighing only 1 lb. 3 oz., received by 
subcutaneous injection on one occasion O'l grain, and on another occasion 0*3 grain, of 
pure oil, and neither dose produced any effect. 

Alcohol Extract containing Oil. 

The extract obtained by acting on the seeds by rectified spirit, and therefore con- 
taining oil as well as strophanthin, on the other hand, is very active. Its general action 
is illustrated in the following experiments. 

Experiment V. — 0'05 grain was mixed with a few minims of distilled water, and 
injected under the skin at the left flank of a frog, weighing 284 grains. In 12 min., 
the movements became impaired, and the thoracic extremities were unduly extended. 
In 30 min., voluntary movements were sluggish, the pupils were contracted, the skin 
was paler than before the administration,